An Atlas of Animal Anatomy for Artists, first published in by Dover. Publications, Inc., is a new English translation by Helene Weinbaum of. Handbuch der. There has hitherto beenno general work on the Anatomy of Animals from the Art .. considered quite satisfactory being,—the artist can draw the human form. Anatomy, Artistic. 2. Animals in art. I. Title. NCG65 dc21 Designed and typeset by Scott and Emily Santoro, Worksight. All drawings.
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TUTORIALS |Animal anatomy tips. | 3D the anatomy of an animal, conveyed in a single or even multiple drawings, so the modeller. The Art of Animal Drawing - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. An Atlas of Animal Anatomy for Artists. Uploaded by. hobartfloyt. Anatomy . atlas animal anatomy for kaz-news.info Anatomy For Artists, Animal Anatomy, Animation . Baxter ” Horse Drawings, Cool Drawings, Animal Drawings, Animation.
Facial muscles are generally more visible on the surface facial muscles or into the skin. When they contract, they move the fea- in the horse and the ox than in the dog and feline. The facial muscles, tures of the face eyes, nose, mouth, ears. As they pull the facial fea- as they move the eyes, nose, mouth, and ears, generate whatever facial tures, they often gather the skin into folds and wrinkles that lie perpen- expressions animals are capable of producing.
A short ligament at the inner corner of the eye, whose corner of the eye, similar to the dog. There is no levator anguli oculi inner end attaches to the skull. Eyelid portion: Outer portion: Side of the head to the rear of the eye. Outer rear corner of the eye region. Pulls the region of the outer corner of the eye rearward. The retractor anguli oculi lateralis is a short muscle. It is begins and ends from a ligament at the inner corner of the eye, passing not found in the horse or the ox. This ligament in turn attaches to the skull, which is the only bony attachment of the muscle.
Upper, inner, and lower edges of both nostrils Levator anguli oculi medialis Corrugator supercilii from cartilage. Upper surface of the skull, above the eye horse , or to the rear of the upper jaw, and from a tendinous band on the midline; Insertion: Inner edge of the nostril. The top of the eye region, merging into the orbicularis oculi. Dilates the nostrils. In the horse, the dilator naris apicalis is a single, rectangular rearward, and slightly inward, creating wrinkles in the skin.
This narrow muscle is an important muscle of "facial expres- it consists of a muscle on each side of the body that fuses on the midline. It is not found in the dog or the feline. Surface of skull in front of the eye. Midline of snout feline, the muscle divides into a wide front portion directed downward region, beginning at the level of the eye.
Dog and feline: Snout region, and forward and a narrower rear portion directed downward and rear- just off the midline, beginning at the level of the eye. Also from in ward in the dog and downward and forward in the feline. Horse and ox: Small area of the skull deep in the back of the eye socket.
Lower edge of the upper eyelid. Lifts the upper eyelid. Lifts the upper lip and dilates the nostril. The levator palpebrae superioris is a flat muscle that origi- and feline: Lifts the upper lip, exposing the canines, and wrinkles the nates deep in the eye socket. It gets wider and thinner as it passes over skin of the snout.
In the horse, the nasolabialis divides into forward and rear passes among the fibers of the orbicularis oculi on its way to the edge of portions. The caninus passes between them, first passing under the nar- the lid. Lifting the upper eyelid beyond the normal open position has a row rear portion and then over the wider front portion. The muscle is dramatic effect on facial expression. However, the rear edge of the deep layer is exposed.
The zygomaticus is a long, narrow straplike muscle. Corner of the mouth. Into the lips as it surrounds the mouth. Also into the also just before it attaches to the corner of the mouth. It is larger in the nasal cartilage on the side of the nose. Closes the mouth by pressing and tightening the lips. Lower edge of the upper jaw between the canine tooth nostril opening. The orbicularis oris surrounds the mouth, lying in the upper edge of the lower jaw between the canine tooth and the molars and an and lower lips.
It is continuous with the muscle of the other side in both area to the rear of the last molar. Edges of the tooth sockets of the the upper and lower lips in the horse; absent in the front of the upper upper and lower jaws.
Cheek portion: The uppermost fibers reach the nose in the dog. Corner of the mouth, merging with fibers of the orbicularis sists of two parts—a wide portion surrounding the lips, and a narrow oris. Also into the upper and lower lips lip portion.
Flattens compresses the cheek, pushing food against the movements in the horse. The orbicularis oris is well developed in the molars for chewing.
Also pulls the corner of the mouth rearward. In the horse, the buccinator consists of deep and superficial mobile in the dog and feline. Surface of the masseter muscle at the bony facial ridge, forms, lying between the corner of the mouth and the masseter muscle. In below the eye. Zygomatic arch and surface of the masseter muscle. Cartilaginous plate scutiform cartilage lying on the sur- fibers, and a deep portion, the fibers of which are directed forward; it can face of the temporalis muscle, located near the rear end of the upper be seen as a bulging form on the surface.
In the dog, the buccinator con- surface of the head. Corner of the mouth slightly toward the upper lip , merging fuse together at the corner of the mouth, and a lip portion that passes for- with the fibers of the orbicularis oris. Pulls the corner of the mouth upward and rearward. Bones of the side of the face in front of the eye in the horse; end of the facial crest in the ox; just above the large molar in the dog lower, at the end of the facial crest in the ox; above the large molar and feline.
Skin on the front of the upper lip, by common in the dog and feline. In the horse and ox, the caninus pulls the side wall of the nos- upper lip and the side of the nostril. Muscles of both sides: Lift the front of the upper retracts the front of the upper lip, exposing the "canine" tooth. In the horse, the caninus is a thin, flat, triangular muscle. It side only: Lifts and pulls the upper lip slightly to that side.
Lifts begins with a thick tendon, and widens as it inserts into the edge of the the upper lip and widens the nostril opening. In the horse, the levator labii maxillaris is a long, teardrop- first passing under the rear portion then over the front portion. Its lower shaped muscle. It begins wide and thin, then narrows and thickens, fibers blend with the orbicularis oris; the lower edge of the muscle may be develops a round tendon, meets the tendon of the same muscle of the visible on the surface.
In the ox, the caninus does not diverge as much as other side, expands into a wide tendinous sheet, and finally inserts into in the horse, but rather develops two or three tendons that attach to the the skin of the upper lip on the front of the snout. The belly and the ten- side of the nostril. In the dog, it lies just below, and parallel to, the levator don can be seen on the surface and are directed upward, inward, and labii maxillaris; they both pass under the levator nasolabialis.
In the ox, it is a flattened muscle that passes between the two Depressor labii maxillaris superioris divisions of the levator nasolabialis and develops several tendons. Side of the upper jaw, at the end of the facial crest, above expanding into the wide central tendon and inserting.
In the dog, the the molars. Front end of the upper lip and the lower portion of the nostril. Pulls the front end of the upper lip and the lower end of the lying parallel and above the caninus, or as the rear portion of the nostril rearward.
The muscle splits into two bundles before inserting. It is not present in the horse, dog, or feline. Front portion: The bone in front of the eye.
Rear portion: Rear end of the edge of the tooth sockets of the molars of surface of the masseter muscle. Lower lip. Both sides of the head: One side only: Lifts the skin of the cheek. The depressor labii mandibularis is an elongated muscle the lower eyelid downward, opening the eye.
The two portions pull in that lies on the side of the lower jaw and runs along the lower edge of opposite directions. In the ox, the malaris is a wide, thin muscle that fans out on buccinator. In the horse, its rounded belly ends in a tendon visible on the side of the face below and to the front of the eye. It passes under the the surface that widens as it inserts into the lower lip.
In the ox, zygomaticus. The muscle has two portions—a front portion levator it consists of a muscular band with no tendon and is inconspicuous.
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Midline on the bottom of the lower jaw. Higher, Zygomaticus minor, Lachrymalis from the surface of the muscles of the upper lip region near the corner of the mouth. Fascia on the bone below and in front of the eye. Pulls the lower eyelid downward, opening the eye. In the lower eyelid. The malaris depressor palpebrae inferioris is a small of the bottom of the jaw, and extending upward to the lower eyelid. It remnant of the usually more extensive malaris found in the passes over the zygomaticus, masseter, and buccinator.
The muscle is other species. Side of the front end of the lower jaw near the lower OX canine tooth in the dog and feline. Top of the skull, between the horns, and at the base of the horn. Skin of the front of the chin. Pulls the chin upward, which in turn pushes the front of the into the orbicularis oculi. Lifts the region above the eye the "eyebrow" region.
The frontalis, present only in the ox, is a wide, thin muscle prominence of the chin in the horse and ox. It passes downward from that lies on the forehead. The fibers that insert into the upper inner its bony origin to its skin insertion. The muscle fibers of both sides unite corner of the eye pull this region upward and rearward, resembling the and intermingle with fat and connective tissue. In the dog and feline, function of the levator anguli oculi medialis which is present in the the muscle fans out as it descends.
In the horse, dog, and feline, the muscle comparable to the frontalis is the fronto-scutularis. It inserts into, and pulls, the scutiform cartilage, which is in turn attached to the ear by other muscle. It is there- fore considered one of the muscles of the ear, and not a muscle that moves the eyebrow region, as in the ox. Assists in dilating the nostril. Upper part: From the nasal bone, along the upper edge of the horse.
It inserts directly into parts of the edges of the nostril, rather than large notch at the front end of the bones of the snout to the rear of the into the outer wall of the nasal cavity. Lower part: Both parts insert into the surface of the outer wall of the a thin muscular sheet that covers various parts of the body see page nasal cavity.
Dilates the nasal cavity by pulling the soft, outer wall of the inserts into the corner of the mouth, fusing with the orbicularis oris. It nasal cavity outward and rearward, and assists in dilating the actual pulls the corner of the mouth rearward and has a strong effect on the nostril opening.
It does not dilate or expand the "false nostril" nasal shape of the mouth. It is least developed in the horse. It pulls the corner of the lies above the true nasal cavity. The lateralis nasi surrounds the bony notch of the snout and designated the depressor anguli oris. Some fibers of the cutaneous converges on the surface of the outer wall of the nasal cavity. It consists muscle of the head transversely cross over the snout and insert into the of upper and lower parts.
The upper part passes under the tendon of the upper part of the lateralis nasi. They assist in dilating the nostril. This muscle is not present in the dog or feline. The platysma of the dog is quite wide; it begins on the midline OX on the back of the upper neck and inserts into the corner of the mouth. From the edge of the top of the cartilage of the The platysma of the feline is the widest and most developed of the snout in the front of the nasal bone and just behind the nostril.
Lower species described here. It remains wide at its inserting end on the part: Along the edge of the forwardmost projecting bone of the upper side of the face where it attaches to several facial muscles, yet, as in jaw incisivus bone and the adjacent cartilage. Upper part of the inner wing of the nostril. Lower the mouth.
Outer wing of the nostril. They also rotate the ear Because the ear muscles are so numerous, do not create from a forward-facing position to a rear-facing position, directing its con- surface form, and lie in layers, they are depicted here as linear axes, with cave, sound-gathering "cup" outwardly as it rotates.
The muscles insert an arrow indicating their direction of pull. The ear of the extends to be directly onto the ear, or insert onto the movable scutiform cartilage, directed horizontally, rather than upright, as in the horse, dog, and feline. Upper rear part of the skull, on the rounded braincase and the horse, a conspicuous hollow can be seen on the surface of the muscle surrounding bony ridges.
It is called the "salt cellar. Top of the upward projection of the lower jaw continuing In the horse and feline, the muscles of both sides meet at the mid- down the front edge of the jaw in the horse, dog, and feline. Closes the mouth, for biting and chewing, by lifting the lower not meet at the midline, depending on the breed. In the dog and feline, jaw up and pulling it back. The muscle fibers begin from a wide origin and converge the muscles of both sides. In the dog and feline, a small band of muscle deeply onto the upper tip of the lower jaw.
Except for the ox, the round- fibers arises from the rear end of the zygomatic arch and curves upward, ed form of the muscle fills out the upper back portion of the head, espe- forward, and then downward to the lower jaw, deep to the zygomatic cially in the dog and feline, where the muscle is well developed.
In the arch, where it fuses with the rest of the muscle. Lower edge of the zygomatic arch continuing forward along a upper articular surface, some gliding can occur here. The dog and feline bony ridge of the side of the face in the horse and ox.
Side of the broad, upright portion of the lower jaw—up to ing, with limited side motion. The masseter is a strong, flattened muscle in the horse and lower and rear edges of the lower jaw and onto the surface of the deep ox, bulging in the dog and feline.
In the horse and ox, it stops at the pterygoid muscle beyond the rear end of the lower jaw in the dog edge of the lower jaw. In the dog and feline, it projects substantially and feline. Closes the mouth, for biting and chewing, by lifting the lower layers, only a small portion of the deep layer of the masseter comes to jaw.
In the horse and ox, it also pulls the lower jaw sideways outward the surface in the horse, just in front of the jaw joint. Bony projection on the bottom of the rear part of the skull. Rear edge of the lower jaw.
Lower lower jaw in this region. In the feline, the muscle inserts farther forward edge of the rear end of the lower jaw.
Pulls the rear end of the lower jaw backward pivoting the lower visible on the surface in the ox. The parotid gland lies on the side of the jaw at the jaw joint , which opens the mouth. In the horse, the digastric consists of a deep portion not digastric muscle. HORSE DOG Salivary glands The mandibular gland is a separate, elongated gland that lies The parotid gland is a soft, sponge-like form sitting in the hollow along the rear edge of the parotid gland in the ox.
In the dog and between the back of the lower jaw and the side of the neck wing of feline, the mandibular gland is an ovoid body, approximately half the the atlas. It extends up to, and surrounds except in the ox , the base size of the parotid gland, and is located below the parotid gland.
It is of the ear. The gland spreads over the rear edge of the lower jaw and in contact with the lower end of the parotid. The mandibular gland of softens the definition of the anatomy in this region. When the head is the horse is mostly concealed by the parotid gland. The parotid gland is elongated in the horse and ox, and shorter Sternothyroid. Front surface of the wing of the first neck vertebra atlas.
Rear part of the skull. Both sides together extend the head. This is a short muscle which fill the space between the skull atlas the first neck vertebra and the vertical projection of the axis the and the first neck vertebra. It is directed forward, upward, and inward. Upper edge of the upright spine of the second neck vertebra. Rear end of the skull near the midline.
Extends the head. This narrow muscle lies just to the side of, and partly under, first neck vertebra atlas. Rotates the first neck vertebra which pivots on the second neck feline, it lies against its fellow of the other side on the midline; the vertebra to the side, thereby turning the head to the side. Largest of the group, this thick muscle is directed forward and outward. Its rear portion is buried in muscle, but as it advances, it approaches the surface.
By tendinous fibers from the region of the sides of the first and with the splenius and the omotransversarius. Longissimus capitis: Longissimus atlantis: Muscles of both sides of the body: The longissimus capitis and longissimus atlantis are two muscle of the brachiocephalicus and the wide, thin tendon of the elongated, parallel muscles, part of the longissimus system of the verte- splenius, both of which attach to the rear end of the skull.
The key to bral column. They lie deep to the splenius. The upper rear muscle, the understanding this region is to isolate each visible form and follow longissimus capitis, inserts into the skull by a flat tendon, in common it toward its origin and insertion.
This tendon may occasionally be seen on the surface passing over the wing of the atlas, as well as on its way to the skull. Rear end of the cord of the nuchal ligament, and the tips of the three to the sides of neck vertebrae three, four, and five directly by upright spines of the third, fourth, and fifth thoracic vertebrae. By five separate and distinct insertions into i a line on the neck portion of the serratus ventralis, whose elongated segments are rear end of the skull from the midline above down to the mastoid oriented in a direction very similar to the segments of the splenius.
However, and fifth neck vertebrae not the second. Both sides of the body together: Extend the head and lift the volume of the neck. It is thicker in the dog and the feline than in the ox. Pulls the head and neck to that side. The splenius is a large, flat, triangular muscle located between the head, the top of the shoulder, and the neck vertebrae. It comes to the surface in an irregular rectangular window bordered by the brachiocephalicus in front, the trapezius and a small portion of the rhomboid behind, and the neck portion of the serratus ventralis cervicis below.
Side of the first neck vertebra. The sides of the first four neck vertebrae. Fascia on the surface of the shoulder region and outside of and the fascia of the shoulder. Pulls the neck to the side when the limb is fixed; pulls the limb at its upper end, located on the side of the neck. It extends from the forward when the neck is fixed. The omotransversarius is thick and muscular on the side of portion is covered by the brachiocephalicus, which crosses it on a strong the neck.
It widens as it descends, then it thins as it passes over the diagonal line. This leaves an elongated triangular portion of the lower shoulder, where it fuses with the fascia on the surface of the shoulder end of the omotransversarius exposed at the shoulder. Lower end of the side of the first neck vertebra.
Also from the base of the skull. Lower end excluding the tip of the spine of the shoulder blade, and the surface of the deltoid. The origin and insertion are often reversed in the dog and the feline when the shoulder is considered the more fixed point of attachment.
The brachiocephalicus lies in front of the The brachiocephalicus "arm-to-head" muscle is a long, wide, straplike omotransversarius, which used to be considered part of the brachio- muscle that passes from the head and neck down to the front of the elbow cephalicus, and was called the cleidocervicalis. The longer, upper portion, the cleidocephalicus, nuchal ligament on the midline of the neck. Base of "clavicle-to-head" is further divided in some species into two parts—the the skull, just behind the ear hole.
Diagonal line on the lower part of the front of the humerus, "clavicle-to-neck" or cleido-occipitalis "clavicle-to-occipital bone". The upper portion of the brachiocephalicus is divisible The clavicle is absent in the horse and the ox and is represented into the cleido-occipitalis and the cleidomastoid.
The two portions are by a tendinous line present in the ox, variable in the horse. In the dog distinctly separate, with their upper ends separated by a narrow interval. A small, vestigial bony clavicle, lying deep to the brachio- of the neck.
The muscle as a whole narrows at the shoulder and passes in cephalicus, is fused to the inner half of this tendinous line. The clavicle front of the shoulder joint.
Continuous line on the rear of the skull, beginning on the mid- a short distance from the midline. Base of the skull line, passing downward and forward, and ending behind and below the behind the ear hole.
Line on the humerus that begins halfway down the outside humerus. Inner surface of the upper end of the ulna, just below of the bone and passes downward and inward on the front of the lower the elbow joint, in common with the brachialis. Pulls the entire forelimb forward and extends the shoulder superficial part, the cleidocervicalis cleidotrapezius in the feline , and a joint when the head and neck are fixed.
Both sides of the body: Pulls deep part, the cleidomastoid. The cleidocervicalis begins wide and thin the head and neck downward. Pulls the head and on the back of the front half of the neck and covers a considerable portion neck to that side. The brachiocephalicus is a simple, long, straplike muscle and the sternocephalicus.
The overall muscle narrows as it descends, passing from the head to the arm.
Its upper end develops a thin, wide crossing in front of the shoulder joint. Because of its insertion past the tendon that attaches to the skull and allows deeper structures to show elbow joint onto the ulna in the feline, the form of the brachiocephalicus through.
It descends in front of the shoulder joint. The lower end of the is directed lower on the limb than in the other species. Deep surface of the supraspinatus and the subclavius muscles, muscles that lie on the front of the neck and converge at the upper end just above the level of the shoulder joint.
Hyoid bone, in common with the sternohyoid. The omohyoid begins deep to the shoulder and only comes The hyoid bone is composed of a number of thin bones that are to the surface on the side of the throat. It emerges from under the bra- suspended from the rear end of the base of the skull. The sternohyoid, chiocephalicus, crosses the trachea on a diagonal line, and inserts onto omohyoid, and mylohyoid attach to a roughly "U" shaped portion of the the hyoid bone. This muscle is not superficial in the other species.
The hyoid bone is hidden from view behind the lower jaw in the horse and the ox, Mylohyoid but it is seen in the dog and the feline in the side view. Inside surface of the lower jaw, just below the tooth sockets. Into the same muscle of the other side, along the midline, and then into the hyoid bone.
Cartilage at the front end of the sternum. Hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage. Both sides together form a sling under the lower jaw. Pulls the hyoid bone, and the tongue which is connected to it, drops down below the level of the lower jaw and therefore forms part of downward and rearward. The Sternothyrohyoid passes from the throat to the sternum, and consists of the combined sternothyroid and sternohyoid.
It remains in The mylohyoid of the ox may drop slightly below the lower edge of the contact with its fellow of the other side of the body, on the front of the jaw, whereas in the horse is does not, and therefore does not participate neck, throughout their lengths.
The lower end of the muscle at the ster- in creating the profile. Near the throat, it splits and sends a narrow side branch to the thyroid cartilage the sternothyroid.
The larger inner branch the sternohyoid inserts onto the bottom of the hyoid bone in common with the omohyoid. Deep surface of the front end of the sternum and the front edge of the cartilage of the first rib. Hyoid bone. Only the sternohyoid comes to the surface; the sternothy- roid is deep.
The bulge of the thyroid cartilage may be seen through the muscle at the upper end of the neck, when not obscured by loose skin folds. Base The Sternocephalicus "sternum-to-head" muscle is the general name for of the skull in the region behind the ear hole.
See above. Also opens the mouth by pulling the lower jaw and ends on various parts of the skull. When it inserts onto the lower jaw, downward. The Sternocephalicus consists of two separate muscles— process on the base of the skull, the sternomastoid; and onto the occipi- the sternomandibularis, which attaches to the lower jaw, and the ster- tal bone on the upper rear edge of the skull, the sterno-occipitalis.
For most of the neck, the two muscles parallel each other; the sternomastoid lies to HORSE Sternomandibularis the inside of, and is partly overlapped by, the sternomandibularis. Halfway down the rear edge of the lower jaw. Both sides together: Pull the head and neck downward.
One and deeper insertion on the base of the skull. The sternomastoid side only: The sternomandibularis is a long narrow muscle that passes third of the front of the neck, where they come to the surface. Here up the neck from the midline on the front of the chest to the rear edge of they lie between the sternomandibularis muscles, which are not in the lower jaw. The muscles on each side of the body are initially in contact contact with each other. Front end of the sternum, in common with the muscle of the the muscle narrows and then disappears under the parotid gland, which other side of the body.
Upper edge of the rear end of the skull. At a level Sternomastoid: Base of the skull behind the ear hole mastoid process. Most of the Sternocephalicus, from its origin upward, is a forward, which lies on the upper end of the Sternocephalicus.
This venous single belly. Near the head, it separates into the wider, thinner sterno- branch can appear as a furrow on the surface.
Front end of the sternum and the cartilage of the first rib. Lower edge of the lower jaw and the of both sides of the body are in contact with each other for a short distance above the sternum before they diverge. The side of the lower two thirds of the nuchal ligament and the tips of the upward projections of the thoracic vertebrae and intervening tips of the upward projections of the thoracic vertebrae and intervening ligament to the fifth thoracic vertebra.
The rhomboid is completely covered by the trapezius. Inner surface of the cartilage of the shoulder blade. Pulls the upper end of the shoulder blade upward, forward, and under cover of the trapezius. The rhomboid is an irregular four-sided muscle with an the second neck vertebra to the sixth thoracic vertebra; base of the skull.
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Upper edge of the shoulder blade. The rhomboid is also covered completely by the trapezius. The portion on the neck is long and narrow. Its tip is superficial—the It is thicker in the dog and the feline than in the horse and the ox. The rhom- boid is not seen under the trapezius as a distinct form, but rather adds a muscular fullness to the back of the neck in front of the shoulder.
Inner deep surface of the wing ilium of the pelvis and its muscle consists of numerous overlapping bundles that continuously orig- crest, and the upper bony projections spinous processes of the inate and insert along the spine.
They lie on either side of the upper sur- lumbar vertebrae. Sides of all the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae, the upper powerful muscle group consists of four units: The iliocostalis, forms a very thick, columnar muscle mass in the lumbar longissimus, iliocostalis and spinalis comprise the erector spinae region. In the feline, the lumbar portion of the longissimus is not sacrospinalis. The longissimus capitis to the head and longissimus covered by the iliocostalis, which begins from a more forward position.
They primarily extend the vertebral column. Inner surface of the wing of the pelvis and its crest, the sides will also fix the spine into a rigid column. A muscle contracting on one of the lumbar vertebrae, and the upper ends of the ribs. Upper ends of the ribs, and the side of the last seventh ribs rearward, which assists in breathing. Deep surface of the front of the pelvis from its inner to its outer not at the pelvis. Surface of the longissimus dorsi toward the rear of the rib cage of all the ribs except the first, and the sides and tops of the last four from the level of the seventh to the eleventh thoracic vertebrae.
The longissimus is the longest and largest muscle in the body. The thick lumbar portion is called the "common mass. Not directly seen on the medius muscle. This depression in the ox is smaller and doesn't advance surface, it adds a muscular fullness to the back before diving under the as far forward as in the horse.
At the middle of the trunk, the longissimus shoulder blade. Various places on the sides of the vertebrae, from the third tho- inserts into their upper spines, and the lower portion, a continuation of racic vertebra to the first tail vertebra. Spinous processes of the seventh neck vertebra to the sixth usually slighter in the ox, especially the cow, allowing the bony projec- lumbar vertebra.
Fascia covering the longissimus, beginning deep at the level of the lumbar region, where it is thickest. It is made up of numerous small the fourth lumbar vertebra, and the upper ends of the last fifteen ribs. Also from the crest of the pelvis and the sides of the lumbar vertebrae. Upper ends of all the ribs, and the side of the last seventh neck vertebra.
This narrow, flattened, thin muscle lies on the surface of the upper portion of the rib cage. Emerging from under the longissimus between the last rib and the pelvis, it passes forward along the outer edge of the longissimus. The multifidus, extending along the entire spine as a continuous series of small overlapping bundles, lies on the sides of the upwardly projecting spines of the vertebrae. It does not come to the surface as it is covered by the longissimus. This muscle is irregular in shape rather than triangular.
Inner surface of the cartilage of the last four or five ribs, and Muscle fibers descending downward and forward from the point of the by its wide tendon, into the midline on the bottom of the abdomen linea hip form a raised relief, called the "cord of the flank.
Compresses the abdomen and supports its contents; assists in lumbar spinal muscles border the top of the hollow, and the last rib bending the spine to one side. The internal abdominal oblique is a triangular, fan-shaped absent in the horse, but they can be quite prominent in the ox, with the muscle that develops a large, wide tendon.
The muscular portion is cord separating into two or three separate forms radiating from the point located on the upper portion of the side of the abdomen. The muscle of the hip. Muscle fibers of both the internal and external abdominal and tendon of both sides of the body form a continuous sling that pass- obliques are present in the hollow, filling the space between the rib cage es under the abdomen and passively supports the abdominal contents and the pelvis.
This distance is greater in the ox than in the horse. Side of the spinal muscle in the lumbar region; lower end of the contributing to the linea alba. The linea alba is a tendinous thickening crest of the ilium at the front of the pelvis.
Lower end of the last rib and the midline of the abdomen via sternum to the front of the bottom of the pelvis pubic bone. It is the wide tendon. The internal abdominal oblique lies inconspicuously on the external abdominal oblique.
Also from the surface of the lumbar spinal muscle longissimus. Rear edge of the outer surface of the last fourteen ribs, the fas- abdominis muscle to reach the midline of the abdomen.
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The front por- cia between the ribs, and the side of the surface of the spinal muscles in tion of the muscular portion of the external abdominal oblique overlaps the lumbar region. The position of the origin gets progressively lower on the flat belly of the rectus abdominis.
Rear edge of the outer surface of the last eight ribs and the fas- the front end of the bottom of the pelvis pubic bone , and the outer cia between the ribs. Compresses the abdomen; flexes the trunk primarily at the below the level of the point of the hip, but its wide tendon reaches up to lumbar vertebrae ; one side only bends the trunk toward that side. Last nine or ten ribs, the fascia between the ribs, and the side extensive tendon. It embraces part of the side of the rib cage and the of the surface of the spinal muscles in the lumbar region.
The midline of the abdomen linea alba , from the sternum to toward the point of the hip. The front of the muscular portion forms four the front end of the bottom of the pelvis pubic bone , and from a short units whose ends alternate interdigitate with the forms of the serratus ligament passing upward and forward from the pubic bone. There is no insertion into the upper front end of the pelvis.
The remainder intersects with the forms of the ribs, In the dog, the tips of the originating fibers of the front portion of the where they meet at a wide angle.
The location of the insertion of the muscle on the side of the rib cage are covered by the latissimus dorsi muscular fibers into its wide tendon on the side of the abdomen may be muscle. In the feline, the entire origin from all the ribs is covered. Cartilage of the fourth to the ninth ribs and the adjacent area cartilage continuing rearward.
Front end of the bottom of the pelvis pubic bone. First rib and its cartilage, and the sternum. Flexes the trunk, primarily in the lumbar region; compresses Cartilage of the first and second ribs, and the sternum. The rectus abdominis is a long, straplike muscle, lying on the dog than in the feline.
Widest at its middle, it passes from the Serratus dorsalis caudalis bottom of the rib cage to the bottom of the pelvis. Surface of the spinal muscle in the region of the middle of bands are embedded across the belly, functionally separating it into a the back.
Upper ends of the last few ribs, ranging from the last four bellies of both sides of the body are separated by a narrow, fibrous to nine ribs, depending on the species. Pulls the ribs rearward, assisting in exhaling.
The muscle is insignificant in its effect on the surface. It is the rectus abdominis. Neck portion: Sides of the third or fourth to the seventh neck latissimus, to the rear of the triceps muscle.
The pointed tips of the last vertebrae. Chest portion: Sides of the lower ends of the first eight or four segments alternate interdigitate with the originating ends of the nine ribs. Deep surface of the upper half of the bony shoulder blade, the serratus a saw-like "serrated" edge.
The neck portion is covered by a layer of muscle. The chest ward; lifts the neck; bends the neck to one side. Pulls the portion projects beyond the lower edge of the latissimus dorsi. The upper end of the shoulder blade backward and downward, which can pectoralis ascendens covers the lower ends of the forward segments of rotate the shoulder blade, advancing the shoulder joint. The chest por- the chest portion.
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The entire serratus ventralis is covered by other muscles. The serratus ventralis is divided into distinct neck and chest ness on the side of the rib cage to the rear of the shoulder blade. It also portions. The neck portion serratus ventralis cervicis , divisible into conceals the forms of the underlying individual ribs. Those ribs covered several converging bundles, comes to the surface on the side of the only by the latissimus may often be seen on the surface.
The attach- neck between the trapezius and the brachiocephalicus. It is homologous ments are very similar to those of the horse. The chest portion serratus ventralis thoracis, serratus magnus is a fan-shaped muscle connecting the upper end of the shoulder blade to the side of the rib cage. Single, continuous line of origin on the midline of the back of OX the neck and chest for the entire muscle.
The trapezius is thicker in the ox, and begins on the neck ligament from the level of the second neck vertebra to the top of the closer to the base of the skull than in the horse. The two portions are shoulder. Thoracic portion: Along the tips of the thoracic vertebrae and also less distinct. The upper part of the front edge is in contact with the intervening ligament from the shoulder to the middle of the chest.
Entire elongated raised ridge spine of the allows deeper neck muscles to come to the surface. Entire muscle pulls the shoulder blade upward; it can also hold front portion of the thorax, from the third neck vertebra to the ninth tho- the shoulder blade against the body. The neck portion pulls it upward racic vertebra in the dog, and from the second neck vertebra to the and forward; the thoracic portion pulls it upward and rearward.
Upper three-fourths of the spine of the shoul- further divided into two smaller triangles by an intervening narrow tendi- der blade. Upper one third of the spine; Feline: The front triangle defines the neck portion and the rear trian- Bony expansion one third of the way down the spine. The trapezius is thicker in the dog and the feline than in the muscle begins as a tendinous band before becoming a muscular sheet.
The thoracic portion is thicker than the The thoracic portion becomes tendinous again before inserting into the neck portion. The larger neck portion inserts lower down on the spine of the shoulder blade than the thoracic portion. Also from the sides of ribs nine through twelve. The latissimus covers a larger surface area than in the horse.
Dog only: Also from the last two or three ribs. Inner surface of the humerus, approximately one third of the down the bone, in common with the teres major. Flexes the shoulder joint, pulling the humerus upward and nous arch that begins at the previous insertion, arches over the biceps, back; pulls the body forward when the front limb is advanced and set and expands to attach to the inner front corner of the upper half of the firmly on the ground.
The latissimus dorsi is a large, thin, triangular muscle that halfway down the humerus further down in the feline , the lower edge lies on the side of the chest. Because it is relatively thin, it allows the of the latissimus, which can be visible on the surface, is seen to be mass of the serratus ventralis and the forms of the individual ribs to be directed much lower on the humerus than the bony insertion one third of seen underneath.
The diagonal lower edge of the muscle is often quite the way down the humerus. The inserting end front end of the muscle is wider than in of the serratus ventralis thoracis. The latissimus begins as a wide ten- the horse it tapers less , which brings the lower edge of the latissimus don fused to the fascia of the spinal muscles.
The front free edge of the closer to the bottom of the chest before it passes under the triceps. The latissimus narrows and thickens on its way to its insertion, and then dis- appears as it dives deep to the tensor fasciae antebrachii and triceps. In the horse, the pectoralis descendens forms a thick, The pectoralis muscle group consists basically of two major layers of conspicuous, oval form on the front of the chest between the sternum muscle—the superficial pectorals pectoralis descendens and pec- and the lower end of the upper arm.
It passes over the biceps to insert toralis transversus in the horse, the ox, and the dog, plus the pectoan- between the biceps and the brachialis.
The bulging muscles of both tibrachialis in the feline and the deep pectorals subclavius and sides of the body create a furrow on the midline of the chest at the pectoralis ascendens in the horse and the ox; pectoralis profundus in bottom of which lies the sternum. The rear edge of the muscle overlaps the dog, and pectoralis profundus and xiphihumeralis in the feline. In the ox, this muscle is thin and closely The superficial pectorals are homologous to the pectoralis major in attached to the pectoralis transversus, which it overlaps.
Front end of the sternum.
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Also from a tendinous line on pectoralis major and minor. In the horse and the ox, the superficial the midline of the base of the neck in front of the tip of the sternum. Short vertical line on the middle of the front of the humerus. The pectoralis descendens lies diagonally on top of the pectoralis transversus. Line on the front edge of the cartilage at the front end of the ster- In the feline, there is an additional superficial muscle, the num except the front tip , continuing back to the level of the second rib.
Diagonal line, inclined downward and inward, on the front pectorals. This narrow muscle originates on the sternum a short distance of the lower half of the humerus, and the adjacent outer surface of back from its tip and eventually tapers into a flat, thin tendon that pass- the muscles of the limb. Pulls the front limb toward the centerline of the body; inserting into the ulna a short distance below the tip of the elbow.
It lies advances the front limb. Lower edge of the sternum, from the second to the sixth rib, in the ox. Front portion of the sternum, to the level of the fourth rib. Line running down most of the front of the humerus. The pectoralis transversus is a flat, rectangular muscle that inserts directly into the front of the lower end of the humerus. Pulls the front limb toward the centerline of the body.
The pectoralis transversus is a rectangular muscular sheet passes over the biceps and under the brachiocephalicus to insert on the sitting on the bottom of the chest, passing from the sternum to the humerus between the biceps and the brachialis. Cartilages of the first four ribs and the adjacent sternum of the shoulder muscles, which can be quite visible on the side of the exclusive of the front edge of the sternum and its front tip. Upper front surface of the supraspinatus muscle, toward its OX inner side; there is no bony insertion.
Cartilage and lower end of the first rib. Deep surface of the brachiocephalicus, in the region of the shoulder blade, and therefore the limb, backward. When the limb is front of the upper end of the humerus.
The subclavius is a small, deep muscle not seen on the body forward. The subclavius is a thick, powerful muscle that begins in the horse.
It passes upward, forward, and outward, then curves backward, ending on the The subclavius is not present in the dog or the feline. Surface of the sternum, beginning at the level of the second rib; num; the surface of the front end of the abdomen.
Inner and outer front corners of the upper end of the the front end of the abdomen. Most of the sternum except its front tip and from the surface the body forward during walking or running. Upper inner surface of the humerus, and onto a vertical line ment on the lower portion of the rib cage and the abdomen and con- on the upper third to upper half of the front of the humerus. The pectoralis profundus is seen on the side of the lower onto the inner front corner of the upper end of the humerus.
Tendinous portion of the chest, its upper edge directed toward the shoulder joint. The In the feline, the portion at the outer edge of the muscle forms a sepa- pectoralis ascendens is roughly triangular, beginning as a thin and wide rate division called the xiphihumeralis.
Its inserting end passes deep to muscle that lies on the chest, and thickening as it ascends. The muscle the remainder of the muscle see diagram in "Pectoralis transversus," is seen on the lower portion of the side of the chest, to the rear of the page 61 and ultimately inserts onto the upper portion of the humerus. The inner surface of the midsection of the pelvis above the the body—that pass longitudinally and get thinner as they pass along its level of the hip socket in the ox, the dog, and the feline; also from the length.
On one side of the body, they can be divided into three groups. Pull the base of the tail down- which flex the tail downward, the sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis and ward. Pulls the tail to that side. The coccygeus is a small, flat muscle connecting the pelvis cles of the back.
The two lateral flexors, which begin on the sacrum and to the base of the tail. Basically triangular, it originates narrow at the the tail vertebrae, taper as they pass along the side of the tail. In the pelvis and fans out as it approaches the tail. It lies deep to the sacrotu- dog, the upper lateral flexor intertransversarii dorsalis caudae is espe- beral ligament.
Although inconspicuous, it may create a curved transi- cially thick where it begins at the sacrum and ends shortly on the side of tion between the top of the rear portion of the pelvis and the base of the the tail.
But this book is a great place to start for drawing common animals like dogs, horses, cows, and lions. This is much more valuable to an artist who can extrapolate the information across a broad range of animals for example, rhinos and hippos. Artists should do their own research and keep themselves educated on the nuances of animal anatomy. But there is no wrong way to study and everyone needs a jumping off point.
I trust his teaching style and definitely recommend all of his books to serious artists. Animal Drawing: Anatomy and Action for Artists Learning to draw animals the right way helps a lot whether you want to become an illustrator, painter, sculptor, animator, or any other type of artist.
The book Animal Drawing: Anatomy and Action for Artists teaches less about detailed anatomy and more about drawing.
You get a wide variety of animals to study including most zoo animals like gorillas and giraffes. Birds are another topic of discussion since their feathers are often difficult to render for beginners. This is less of a detailed anatomy book and more of a guide to actually drawing animals realistically. The Weatherly Guide to Drawing Animals relies on this strategy by teaching artists how to break down animals into their simpler forms. Anyone can pick up this book from any skill level and learn a lot from the exercises.
Weatherly shares lots of diagrams and drawings in the book so you can see how he approaches animal drawing. But you should only use these as suggestions to help you find your own style of drawing animal creatures from life.
The author Doug Lindstrand has over 30 years experience observing animals in the wild and studying how they move. He teaches in a step-by-step approach using lessons and guided exercises to help you achieve a realistic end result.
I love this book for its simplicity and practicality. Definitely a nice book for beginners who want to learn the constructionist approach to drawing from life. This is exceptionally difficult but can be learned with lots of practice.
I recently covered some creature design books that deal with imaginary drawing. Most of those books would be helpful study resources along with Animals Real and Imagined. This book teaches you how to render ancient creatures like dinosaurs without actually looking at one. The book is filled with notes and anatomy sketches for these imaginary creatures so you can see how they might be imagined in the mind of a professional artist. These diagram sketches include the bones and muscles so you can even understand the movement patterns of these creatures.
Anyone looking to start with life drawing should skip this book. However once you get into creating professional concept art you can glean a lot from the examples and suggestions in this title. This book flips the idea of drawing on its head by studying the concepts first. Designing a creature from scratch can be broken down into a straightforward process. But it is possible to learn and even master. She shares her years of experience in this book which can be invaluable to young artists.The gland spreads over the rear edge of the lower jaw and in contact with the lower end of the parotid.
The cat, however, can supinate and pronate its forearm, accessory carpal bone pisiform bone , part of the upper row of carpals, like primates, allowing its palm to face forward or backward. Human and Animal rar,kindle, download torrent, for mac, ebook pdf, free ebook, download ebook, paperback, download book, epub download, facebook, iPhone, download pdf, for PC, iOS, iPad, mobi, rarzip, pocket, Read online,.
The neck portion is covered by a layer of muscle. The book focuses on the forms created by muscles and bones, giving artists a crucial three-dimensional understanding of the final, complex outer surface of the animal.
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