BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICALS PDF

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PRACTICAL WORK BOOK. Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering. BE Name: Enrollment No: Branch: Semester: Batch: Institute: Department of. Experiments in Basic Electrical Engineering PDF - Free download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS. BASIC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. 1. To verify KCL and KVL. 2. To study the V-I characteristics of an incandescent lamp. 3.


Basic Electrical Engineering Practicals Pdf

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Download PDF of Basic Electrical Engineering Practical offline reading, offline notes, free download in App, Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes. PRACTICAL WORK BOOK For The Course EE Basic Electrical Engineering For First Year (Electrical & Electronics Engineering) Name of Student. Students will able to handle basic electrical and electronics equipment's. ✓ Students will I LIST OF EXPERIMENTS FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB. 1.

This starter consists of two electrodes hermetically sealed in a glass bulb fixed with a mixture of helium and hydrogen. One electrode is fixed and other is a U-shaped bimetallic strip made of two metals having different temperature coefficients of expansion. The contacts are normally open. Thus the circuit between two electrodes is completed and a relatively large current flows through them. The electrodes are heated to incandescence by this circulating current and the gas through their immediate vicinity is ionized.

After a second or two, due to the absence of glow discharge, which ceases after the closing of the contacts of the starting switch, the bimetallic strip cools sufficiently. This causes it to break contacts and the sudden reduction of current induces an e. This voltage is sufficient to strike an arc between the two electrodes due to ionization of argon.

The heat generated vaporizes the mercury and the potential difference across the tube falls to about V.

This potential difference is not sufficient to restart the glow in starter. For a thermal type starter, the circuit arrangement is as shown in figure. This switch S is either open type or enclosed in a hydrogen filled gas bulb. It has a bimetallic strip close to a heater element R. The two elements of starter are normally closed. Consequently, when lamp is switched on, the circuit being complete through the thermal switch, a relatively large current flows through the two filaments of the tube.

This circulating current heats the filaments to the incandescence and the gas in their immediate vicinity is ionized. Since the same current is also passing through the heater element R , it causes the bimetallic strip to break contact and the inductive voltage surge due to the choke starts the discharge in the tube. The starter contacts then remain open till the lamp is in operation due to the heat generated in the heater element. Compact fluorescent lamps CFL are the energy efficient lamp and used as alternative to incandescent lamps.

The increasing varieties in shape, colour and size have made them more versatile and acceptable than the traditional fluorescent lamps. It contains a low pressure mix of argon gas, mercury and is a coated on the inside with three different phosphors. The electrode provides a stream of electrons to the lamp and ballast control the current and voltage. Ballast may be attached directly to the lamp or may be remotely connected. The main parts of any CFL is the ballast.

The ballast provide the high initial voltage required to create the starting arc and then limits current to prevent the lamp from self destructing OPERATION: The visible light from CF lamp is produced by a mixture of three phosphors on the inside of the lamp. They give a off light when exposed to ultraviolet radiation released by mercury atoms as they are bombarded by electrons.

The flow of electron is produced by an arc between two electrodes at the ends of the tube. The high-pressure lamps are used either for street lighting or for industrial purposes.

At the ends of the tube, two electrodes made of specially coated wires are provided. Near the upper electrode, there is one more auxiliary starting electrode, which is connected to the bottom electrode through a high resistance. To improve the power factor, a condenser is connected across the mains as shown. Due to the high resistance, the discharge shifts between two main electrodes. The discharge later takes up the shape of intense arc. After about 5 minutes the lamp starts giving full brightness.

The choke stabilizes the discharge i. Hence, gives more light output per input Watt. The glass of this tube is also special since sodium vapour blackens the ordinary glass.

The lamp is quite sensitive to temperature so to keep the temperature of the lamp within working range, it is enclosed in a double walled flask.

In addition to sodium small quantity of inert neon gas is also inserted. Such voltages are obtained from a transformer. The transformer used has a very poor regulation i. Thus when the discharge starts the output voltage of transformer falls. They are also sometimes used for advertisement purpose. Longer life. Long tubes are required for sufficient light output.

Requires 10 to 20 minutes for giving full output. Consequently the lamp is to be used preferably in a horizontal position. B Introduction to energy conservation and simple techniques to achieve it. A Safety Precautions: It is necessary to take some safety precautions while using the electricity to avoid serious problems like shocks and fire hazards. Some of the safety precautions are listed below: 1. Insulation of the conductors must be proper and in good condition.

Megger tests should be carried out for checking insulation resistance with respect to earth, between two conductors etc. Earth resistance shall be checked with the help of Earth Tester. Other tests such as continuity test, polarity test for single pole switches shall be performed using a Multimeter or Continuity Tester on the new wiring before energizing it for use. Earth connection should always be maintained in proper condition. Supply from mains must be switched off and the fuses must be removed before starting repair or maintenance work on any installation.

Fuses must have correct ratings. Rubber or plastic-soled shoes or chappals must be used while working on an electrical installation. Using a wooden support under the feet is advisable as it avoids the contact with the earth. Rubber gloves of appropriate voltage rating should be used while touching the terminals or while removing insulation layer from a conductor.

More appropriate method is to use a test lamp. Insulated Tools like screwdrivers, pliers, line testers etc. The plug should never be removed by pulling the wires connected to it.

The sockets should be fixed at a height beyond the reach of the children. Necessity of earthing: Earthing is very important from safety point of view. The connection of metallic parts of electrical apparatus to general mass of earth, with a wire made of material having high value of conductivity is called as earthing or grounding.

The earth is assumed to be at zero electric potential. Usually earthing is connected at two different points to any equipment as shown in the figure.

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Earth pits are also looped together to have a sound earth connection. Maximum permissible limit of earth resistance is 5 ohms. Thus saving the human being from disability or death from shock in case the human body comes into the contact with the frame of any electrical machinery, appliance or component, which is electrically charged due to leakage current or fault current.

Earthing: Conventional method of earthing is as shown in the figure. A pit of about 10 ft is made depending on the quality of the earth. Earth plate of conductive material like copper is placed at the bottom connected with a flat strip of same material.

A pipe is placed for pouring water. This pit is filled with layers of charcoal, common salt, again charcoal and finally it is completed by soil. A hole of suitable size is drilled in the ground and SEE is inserted in it. Earth wire is connected and water is poured around it. A small earth pit is also constructed at the ground level.

Thus earthing becomes ready. B Energy Conservation Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used. It may be achieved through efficient energy use, in which case energy use is decreased while achieving similar outcome, or by reduced consumption of energy service.

Energy conservation may result in increase of financial capital, environmental value, national security, personal security and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy may want to conserve energy in order to reduce energy cost and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users may want to increase efficiency and thus maximise profit. Energy conservation is an important element of energy policy.

Energy conservation reduces the energy consumption and energy demand per capital, and thus offsets the growth in energy supply needed to keep up with population growth. This reduces the rise in energy cost and can reduce the need for new power plants and energy imports. The reduced energy demand can provide more flexibility in choosing the most preferred method of energy production.

By reducing emission, energy conservation is an important part of lessening climate change. Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable sources with renewable energy sources. Energy conservation is often the most economical solution to energy shortage and is a more environmentally benign alternative to increased energy production Simple techniques to achieve energy conservation. To save energy is the need of the hour.

Based on cost of implementation and the payback period the energy conservation methods may be classified as; 1 Zero cost method — The payback period is immediate and there is no cost involved for implementing energy conservation by this method.

Study of capacitor distribution for uniform power factor. In some plants, there are over sized motor during design process to take care of any deviation that may defer from the calculation. Once the plant has commissioned; the over sized motor cause lower efficiency.

It is also not practicable to fix all motors to the rated design for high efficiency. The higher rated motor can be replaced by smaller capacity motor to achieve saving by increasing the percentage load on the motor and its efficiency.

The efficiency can also be improved by tuning the load parameters to the optimum instead of replacing the motor. It mainly deals with uniform distribution of capacitors by connecting across motor and re location of capacitor banks for achieving reduction in transmission and distribution losses. In this method the cost incurred for the energy conservation will have a pay back period less than a year.

To streamline all above methods of energy conservation, energy audit is an effective tool. The energy audit serves to identify all the energy streams in a facility, qualify energy usage with its discrete functions in an attempt to balance the total energy input with its use. Energy audit is thus the key to a systematic approach for decision making in the area of Energy Management.

As a result, energy audit study becomes effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensive energy management goals. Conclusion : There is a good potential for reducing power consumption by optimizing the utilization of electrical energy by tuning the load parameters to suit the requirement. Every unit saved is a unit generated. Looking to the substantial capital involved in the generation and transmission of energy, it is necessary to reduce losses of every kind to the best possible extent by making Energy Audit a routine rather than a one time expensive.

Energy conservation is a sacred objective since it results in achieving increased long lasting resources of energy apart from the reduction in production cost. Minimizing the wastage is a continuous process, in which cumulative efforts are involved for bringing down specific power consumption levels lower and lower.

Apparatus: 1. Re-arranging eq. From eq. For decrease in temperature of conductor, resistance also decreases.

Conductor: Silver is the best conductor but its cost limits its use to special circuits only. Copper and Alluminium are most commonly used conductors.

The principle of operation is to measure the resistance of a platinum element which exhibits almost a linear relationship with temperature over a small temperature range. Place water in the vessel such that the specimen coil and PT are sufficiently immersed in the water. Measure resistance of the specimen coil using multimeter. Switch ON the panel supply and note down the initial temperature. Start heating by switching ON the supply to heating coil through temperature relay.

Increase in temperature will start. Take 7 to 8 readings and switch OFF the heating coil supply. Switch OFF temperature relay supply and panel supply. Calculate temperature co-efficient of coil at all recorded temperatures. Plot the graph of Resistance verses Temperature. Extrapolate it to cut Y axis and find out Ro. Safety Precautions: 1. Do not touch to the hot apparatus.

Hence the specimen coil has a positive temperature coefficient of resistance. Experimental kit.

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Dual power supply V D. Procedure: 1. Construct the circuit as per diagram using the values R1, R2 and R3. Adjust the source voltage between 0 to 30 Volts and note down the currents I1, I2 and I3. Earth plate of conductive material like copper is placed at the bottom connected with a flat strip of same material. A pipe is placed for pouring water.

This pit is filled with layers of charcoal, common salt, again charcoal and finally it is completed by soil. A hole of suitable size is drilled in the ground and SEE is inserted in it. Earth wire is connected and water is poured around it. A small earth pit is also constructed at the ground level. Thus earthing becomes ready.

B Energy Conservation Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used. It may be achieved through efficient energy use, in which case energy use is decreased while achieving similar outcome, or by reduced consumption of energy service. Energy conservation may result in increase of financial capital, environmental value, national security, personal security and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy may want to conserve energy in order to reduce energy cost and promote economic security.

Industrial and commercial users may want to increase efficiency and thus maximise profit. Energy conservation is an important element of energy policy. Energy conservation reduces the energy consumption and energy demand per capital, and thus offsets the growth in energy supply needed to keep up with population growth.

This reduces the rise in energy cost and can reduce the need for new power plants and energy imports. The reduced energy demand can provide more flexibility in choosing the most preferred method of energy production.

By reducing emission, energy conservation is an important part of lessening climate change. Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable sources with renewable energy sources.

Energy conservation is often the most economical solution to energy shortage and is a more environmentally benign alternative to increased energy production Simple techniques to achieve energy conservation.

To save energy is the need of the hour. Based on cost of implementation and the payback period the energy conservation methods may be classified as; 1 Zero cost method — The payback period is immediate and there is no cost involved for implementing energy conservation by this method.

Study of capacitor distribution for uniform power factor.

In some plants, there are over sized motor during design process to take care of any deviation that may defer from the calculation. Once the plant has commissioned; the over sized motor cause lower efficiency.

It is also not practicable to fix all motors to the rated design for high efficiency. The higher rated motor can be replaced by smaller capacity motor to achieve saving by increasing the percentage load on the motor and its efficiency. The efficiency can also be improved by tuning the load parameters to the optimum instead of replacing the motor.

It mainly deals with uniform distribution of capacitors by connecting across motor and re location of capacitor banks for achieving reduction in transmission and distribution losses. In this method the cost incurred for the energy conservation will have a pay back period less than a year.

To streamline all above methods of energy conservation, energy audit is an effective tool. The energy audit serves to identify all the energy streams in a facility, qualify energy usage with its discrete functions in an attempt to balance the total energy input with its use.

Energy audit is thus the key to a systematic approach for decision making in the area of Energy Management. As a result, energy audit study becomes effective tool in defining and pursuing comprehensive energy management goals. There is a good potential for reducing power consumption by optimizing the utilization of electrical energy by tuning the load parameters to suit the requirement. Every unit saved is a unit generated.

Looking to the substantial capital involved in the generation and transmission of energy, it is necessary to reduce losses of every kind to the best possible extent by making Energy Audit a routine rather than a one time expensive.

Energy conservation is a sacred objective since it results in achieving increased long lasting resources of energy apart from the reduction in production cost. Minimizing the wastage is a continuous process, in which cumulative efforts are involved for bringing down specific power consumption levels lower and lower.

To study the effect of rise in temperature on the resistance of a conducting material. Re-arranging eq. From eq. For decrease in temperature of conductor, resistance also decreases. Silver is the best conductor but its cost limits its use to special circuits only.

Copper and Alluminium are most commonly used conductors. RTD PT The principle of operation is to measure the resistance of a platinum element which exhibits almost a linear relationship with temperature over a small temperature range. Place water in the vessel such that the specimen coil and PT are sufficiently immersed in the water. Measure resistance of the specimen coil using multimeter.

Switch ON the panel supply and note down the initial temperature. Start heating by switching ON the supply to heating coil through temperature relay.

Increase in temperature will start. Take 7 to 8 readings and switch OFF the heating coil supply. Switch OFF temperature relay supply and panel supply. Calculate temperature co-efficient of coil at all recorded temperatures. Plot the graph of Resistance verses Temperature. Extrapolate it to cut Y axis and find out Ro. Safety Precautions: Do not touch to the hot apparatus.

As temperature of coil increases, its resistance goes on increasing. Hence the specimen coil has a positive temperature coefficient of resistance. Experimental kit. Dual power supply V D. The algebraic sum of currents meeting at a junction or node in an electric circuit is zero.

Construct the circuit as per diagram using the values R1, R2 and R3. Adjust the source voltage between 0 to 30 Volts and note down the currents I1, I2 and I3. Calculate I1, I2, I3 and compare calculated values with the observed values. Both calculated and observed values should be nearly equal. Calculate sum of observed values and this should be near to zero. The algebraic sum of all the voltage in any closed electric circuit or mesh or loop is zero.

If we start from any point in a closed circuit and go back to that point, after going round the circuit, there is no increase or decrease in potential at that point. This means the sum of emfs and sum of voltage drops or rises meeting on the way is zero.

Construct the circuit as per diagram using the values R1 and R2. Adjust the source voltage between 0 to 30 Volts and note down the current I and voltage across R1 and R2 i. Calculate V1 and V2 and compare calculated values with the observed values.

Both calculated and observed values of voltages should be nearly equal. Calculate sum of observed voltages plus source voltage and this should be near to zero. To Verify Superposition Theorem Experimental kit. In a linear network containing more than one independent source, the resultant current in any element is the algebraic sum of the currents that would be produced by each independent source acting alone, all the other independent sources being represented meanwhile by their respective internal resistances.

The independent voltage sources are represented by their internal resistances if given or simply with zero resistances i. The independent current sources are represented by infinite resistances i. A linear network is one whose parameters are constant i. Construct the circuit as per the circuit diagram in fig.

Adjust the source voltages between 0 to 30 Volts and note down the current I3 through R3. Select 2 to 3 different sets of source voltages and record the current I3 at respective sets of source voltages.

Replace voltage source V2 by its internal resistance i. Replace voltage source V1 by its internal resistance i. Compare calculated values with the observed values of current I3. Both calculated and observed values of currents should be nearly equal. Since calculated and observed values are almost matching and sum of independent sources acting alone also almost equals the current produced with both sources connected in the circuit, hence Superposition Theorem is verified.

The differences may be due to: Voltmeters V 4 A. C Ammeters A 1 No. A transformer is a static device which transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another without change in frequency. While doing this, it can change voltage and current levels in the two circuits which is decided by the number of turns of the two windings. Apply a very small voltage on primary side such that certain current e. Note down corresponding secondary current I2. In both the tests, keep dimmerstat to its zero position initially.

To determine efficiency and regulation by direct loading. Single PhaseTransformer 2. Voltmeter 3. Ammeter 4. Dimmer stat 5. Single Phase Lamp bank Resistive load 6.

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Transformer transforms electrical energy from one circuit to another. By keeping primary side voltage constant if load on secondary side is increased, then terminal voltage V2 across the load changes. For a resistive or inductive type of load this change is on negative side, i. With the further increase in load it drops further because the load current increases and hence the voltage drops in resistance and leakage reactance of the secondary winding also increases.

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Voltage Regulation: The change in secondary voltage from no load to full load expressed as the fraction of no load secondary voltage is defined as the voltage regulation of transformer.

There are two types of losses in transformer 1. Copper losses or Winding losses They are variable. Iron losses or Core losses They are constant Due to various losses, the power output of the transformer is always less than the corresponding power input. So for same input, higher the value of power output i. Efficiency of the transformer is defined as the ratio of output power to the input power. Switch on the supply and by varying the dimmerstat, apply rated voltage to primary.

Note down the readings of currents, voltages and power. The secondary voltmeter reading is obviously the no load secondary voltage V2 0. Primary Voltage V1 Volt. Primary Current I1 Amp. As the load on the transformer increases the efficiency of the transformer goes on increasing until about full load and starts decreasing thereafter.

The voltage regulation goes on increasing almost linearly with increase in load.

Multimeter Connecting wires Theory: This idea can be used to find current in any circuit element or to find voltage across any circuit element say, a resistor. Let us find the current in a certain resistor in the given circuit. First, we assume that this resistor is removed from its place. The remaining circuit will be a two-port circuit as shown to left hand side in above diagram. Then we measure the voltage between the two ports and also the effective resistance of the entire circuit across the same two ports with suitable methods.

Apply certain voltages from the two voltage sources V1 and V2. This reading is required to compare the results i. Now, remove the load resistor RL through which the current is to be determined.

Measure the voltage between the two terminals from where the load resistance has been removed. Now, short-circuit the voltage sources assuming the voltage sources to be ideal. Measure the resistance of the whole network between the same two terminals with the help of multimeter. Repeat the procedure for a different set of source voltages and record all the observations as before.

To study R-L-C series circuit. Let a sinusoidal alternating voltage v be applied across the circuit. Power factor: It is the factor, which decides the conversion of input power or energy into useful output. It is expressed as the ratio of resistance to impedance of the circuit.

With the help of dimmerstat, vary the voltage V in circuit. Procedure for plotting Phasor Diagram: VR OA should be drawn in phase with current. Sum of power consumed by individual components i. Voltmeter 3 A. Ammeter 3 x W 0 — V 0 — 2 A Theory: A three phase balanced load is that in which the loads connected across three phases are identical in nature and magnitude. In this type of interconnection, one of the ends of each load impedances are joined together to form a common point called as star or neutral point.

We have, as phasor relations: Page 44 BEE Lab Manual In this type of interconnection, the end of first load impedance is connected to start of second load impedance, the end of second load impedance is connected to start of third load impedance and end of third is connected to start of first. In this way a closed loop of three impedances is formed. Three-phase supply is given to the three junctions in the closed loop of the impedances.

Current flowing through any line is called line current i. Measure the line and phase voltages as well as line and phase currents 2 Repeat the same procedure by connecting the load in DELTA. Observation table: State different types of wires.

What are the different types of switches and where they are used? What are the different types of fuses and how they are rated? What are the different types of sockets? What are the different types of plugs? What are the different types of lamp holders and where they are used? What are the different types of cables? Explain different parts of cable. What are the different types of lamps?

What are the different types of fluorescent lamp? What is use of electromagnetic ballast in fluorescent lamp?

What is use of capacitor in fluorescent tube? Enlist different parts of fluorescent tube and CFL. State applications of fluorescent lamp 7.

State applications of compact fluorescent lamp 8. State applications of mercury vapour lamp 9. State general safety precautions taken while working with electricity? Venkat Chadalavada. Yoga Arya Setyadi.

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Enamul Haque. Ebook Download. Fly Ku. Popular in Physical Quantities. Sadbar Khattak. Laercio Ribeiro Filho. Neneng Kuna. KamalKiran Tata. Abhi Shek.Explain different parts of cable. For decrease in temperature of conductor, resistance also decreases. By keeping primary side voltage constant if load on secondary side is increased, then terminal voltage V2 across the load changes. Experiment 1: Basic Electric ComponentsMeasurements. It mainly deals with uniform distribution of capacitors by connecting across motor and re location of capacitor banks for achieving reduction in transmission and distribution losses.

Only make changes to the experimental setup when the circuit power is turned off and all power sources read zero voltage and zero current, as applicable. Secondly, various insulations can withstand different temperatures and depending upon the type of insulation, wires are specified. Rubber gloves of appropriate voltage rating should be used while touching the terminals or while removing insulation layer from a conductor.

Requires 10 to 20 minutes for giving full output.