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Creative C thinkingg is assimilaation, which h is the interraction betw ween imagin nation and ennvironmentt. During the proocess of accommoda a ation, the creative product p is manifestedd by this mental experimmentation.
The T relation nship betweeen assimilaation and accommodatiion is not linear but intertwiined Aymaan-Nolley, Their maajor findings lend supp port to empiirical links between b play annd divergennt thinking. However, the potential effects of play in adults in terms t of promotiing creativitty are underrestimated. As a result,, the purposse of this stuudy is to inv vestigate the posssible beneffits of play behavior iin adult claassrooms in n order to ffacilitate crreativity.
Further, it is possibble to provid de some insiights into th he concept of o play for aadult pedago ogy.
The aim of current study was to investigate i 1 the relaationship beetween acaddemic perfo ormance GPA and diverggent thinkin ng fluencyy and originality and d 2 the prrediction th hat play intervenntion wouldd tend to increase diivergent thiinking as measuredm bby the num mbers of responsses producedd fluency and uniquee responses originality. The Reelationship between Play and Divvergent Th hinking vergent thinnking is closely married to creativvity Gardneer, ; In psychhological liiterature, div Guilford, ; Toorrance, 88; Williamms, In ndeed, diverrgent thinkinng is vieweed as one major eelement of the cognitiv ve process in creativitty Dirkes, ; Guilfford, ;; Runco, Theorretically, pretendd play and creativity c arre interconnnected undeer the structture of cognnitive and affective a processses Russ, , To some eextent, play y and creativvity may shhare the samme prime configuuration Sarracho, 2.
Vygotskky delineated a developmental vview of ad dolescent creativiity that undderlines the interaction s between imagination i n and reason oning which h lead to more mmature and productive p forms f of crreative think king in adullthood Aym man-Nolley y, The traansition froom imaginaation and ffantasy of childhood to adolesceence, accorrding to Vygotskky, is channged into co ontent and nnature.
Witth the increease of sociial experien nces and maturattion of both emotion an nd intellect, adults enjooy creativity y with depthh and compllexity.
From m the affectiive perspecttive, her study exxhibits the utilization of fantasy aand imaginaation in earrly pretend pplay, which h in turn developps a broad repertoire of free flow w of associations. Guilford , initially proposed usiing a psych hometric approacch for the measurement m t of creativitty with the focus on divvergent thinnking abilityy. Itt measures four dimennsions of divergentd thinkingg: fluency tthe number of ideas , fllexibility thhe number of o ideas in di different cateegories , originallity the nuumber of inffrequent ideeas , and ellaboration the numberr of detaileed ideas Davis, ; Kim m, ; Mu ueller, Although h TTCT enjjoys its welll-known reputation for creaativity reseaarch, the majjor deficienncy is grounnded in the lack of validdity.
In the CA AT, participaants are askeed to create poems, colllages, or stories and those products p will w be indeppendently evaluated e by b experts w with the crriteria of noveltyy and approppriateness. Experts E judgge artifacts based b on theeir own percception of crreativity.
Generallly, interrateer reliabilitiies among jjudges are quite q satisfaactory, rangging from. Method d Becausee of the avaailability of the t participaants, the qu uasi-experim ment Cresw well, was w used for this study.
Further, the connvenient sam mpling was used and paarticipants w were recruitted from a south Texas privaate universiity. Particip pants Two inntact classess of adult education e P Program Deevelopmentt and Colleege Teachin ng were assigned at random m, Program Developmen D nt as an exp perimental group g 11 stuudents and College 69 www.
A total of 18 adult stuudents 6 m male and 12 female particippated in thiss study.
Interveention Based oon play literature, the major m interveention of plaay sessions is either usiing puppets or some kind off toys for chhildren to ex xplore e. Researcch has show wn the effeectiveness oof collage on creativiity in adultts Amabilee, ; Simpsoon, Therefore, T for f the purp rpose of thiis study, thhe interventtion was a creative collage--making acttivity for addult learnerss.
The instru uction was given g to parrticipants ass follows You aree invited to create a colllage. We w will provide a set of pree-cut construuction papeer shapes with alll kinds of coolors, a botttle of glue, and a blankk white A3 paper. Raather, you will w need to use your haands to tear down the ccolor papers and use the gluee to complette the collag ge. The reasson is that we w want you to play with th material and a have fun.
You will w have minutes to t create your unnique collagge. Before yo ou start, pleease compleete the backgground infoormation as follows. Hope yoou enjoy this activity! Measurres The divvergent thiinking taskk was used tto measure the t fluency and originaality of partiicipants. Particippants were asked a to usee their imaggination to liist possible responses iin the answer sheet. The queestion was as a follows: Image a college in what willw happenn in this settiing?
What changes c do yyou foreseee? Please use youur imaginatiion to list po ossible charracteristics of a collegee in R Remember thet more responsses the betteer! You willl have 10 m minutes to finnish this task. Good Luuck! The evaaluation of responses r to o the creativvity task for fluency andd originalityy was calculated in a mannerr similar to that used by b Torrancee Flluency is th he number oof responsees to the problemm.
The highher the numb ber of respoonses, the more m the sco ores an indivividual will receive.
Proced dure An infoormed conseent form waas distributeed to particiipants to explain the puurpose of thhe study. Studentts from the experiment e al group haad 20 minutees for the pllay session creating a collage and theen 10 minuutes for the divergent thinking taask. This tesst session laasted 10 70 www.
The instruuctor encou uraged parti cipants to think outside the box too list more possible answerss. The conntrol group was given a divergent nt thinking test t withoutt any treatmment. The innstructor encouraaged participants to usee their imaggination and d to create as a many ideeas as possible.
The test sesssion lasted 10 minutes.. Resultss Table 1 shows the intercorrelations amonng age, GPA student grade-pointt average , fluency, and origginality.
In addiition, age annd originalitty were mod derate negattively correelated. In contrastt, a moderatte positive correlation c w was found between b GP PA and origginality.
Table 1. An indeependent-saample t test wasw calculaated comparring the meaan scores off GPA, fluen ncy, and originallity. The re sults showeed GPA did d not predicct either flu uency or originallity. Howevver, the reg gression moodel was caalculated prredicting orriginality based b on fluencyy. The more ideas they produce, th he more unique ideas will be b generated d.
Table 3. Discusssion The resuults of the present p stud dy lend somee support fo or the effects of play onn divergent thinking t in adultts. Concernning age, th he results sshowed a weak w negative relationnship betweeen age, fluencyy, and originnality.
Nevvertheless, tthis relation nship is nott significannt. Consequuently, it seems pplausible thaat age is nott an issue foor creativity y, especially y in terms off idea generration. In respect to ideaas generatio on, the resuults did nott show a significant s ddifference between b experimment and conntrol groups. It seems tthat the play y activity did not have a marked effect e on the flueency of ideaas. The resu ults of findiings are nott in line with other stuudies e.
How wever, it should be recognizzed that thee nature of tthose studiees is differeent from thee current stu udy. For example, the particcipants from m those studiies were chiildren. Furth hermore, thee stimulus materials m were toyys or puppeets, specificaally for this group. To date, d no proper stimuluus materials in terms of play activities area suitable for adults.
To some extent this poses p a reseearch gap fo or future researchh to discoveer other useeful materiaals. Presumably, severaal reasons m might explaain these unexpeccted findinggs. Second, perhaaps the task k itself doees not servve as a prop per play strategyy to arouse strong affe fective emottions and in i turn lead d to producce many responses.
Finally,, it is also poossible the scenario s proovided in thee divergent test is not suufficiently creative. With reegard to origginality, thee current stuudy however showed a significant difference between b the twoo groups. Thhe participants perceiveed play inteervention ass producingg more unique ideas than thee control grroup.
Speciifically, thiss effect waas significan nt and sugggested that the play activityy could tempporarily inccrease produucing uniqu ue ideas. In addition, thhe regression model indicateed that the fluency f of iddea generatiion could predict uniqu ue ideas parrticipants prroduced. In general, variation of electron density in the aryl ring of the oxindole and on the acetylene was well tolerated.
Figure 2: A collection of diverse small molecules obtained via LDS appraoch. Full size image Mechanistic insights into gold-catalysed transformations By analogy to previous observations for related gold-catalysed cyclorearrangements 44 , 45 , 46 , we assume that formation of scaffolds 2—4 plausibly occurs via a common spirooxindole gold carbene 6 formed by 6-endo-dig cyclization of enynes 1 Fig.
Of the three catalysts yielding the products with different scaffolds with highest yields, gold complex V is most electrophilic. In the presence of this catalyst, cyclopropane ring migration may be favoured to yield rearrangement product 7 or the more stable benzylic carbocation 8 that ultimately will lead to the spirooxindole 2 magenta arrows, Fig.
We furthermore assume that in the presence of the very bulky gold complex III, intermediate 6 tends to relieve the strain of the spiro-ring by means of a pinacol type acyl migration thereby forming oxonium—quinolone gold intermediate 9. Subsequent deauration leads to the formation of tetracyclic quinolone 3 blue arrows, Fig.
In the presence of the relatively less bulky but more electrophilic gold complex II, intermediate 6 will be relatively more stabilized to favour nucleophilic addition with cyclopropane ring opening 10 followed by protonation to yield anti-gold carbene intermediate 11 see also 18 in Fig. Intramolecular nucleophilic attack by the spiroether will lead to highly strained and reactive tetracyclic oxonium ion 12 that by deauration and concomitant ring opening will give rise to df-oxindole 4 turquoise arrows, Fig.
Figure 3: Proposed mechanistic pathways of divergent gold I catalysis to afford different scaffolds.
The most electrophilic gold I catalyst V induces a sequential cyclopropane migration and deauration to generate spirooxindole 2 magenta arrows. Very bulky gold complex III promotes the pinacol type acyl migration followed by deauration to afford quinolone 3 blue arrows. In the presence of MeOH, the less bulky but relatively more electrophilic gold complex II allows the 1,4-nucleophilic addition of methanol to open up the cyclopropane ring Subsequent protonation, spiroether insertion and deauration in 10 generate the df-oxindole 4 turquoise arrows.
Full size image Figure 4: Scope of the gold catalysed rearrangement of O-prenylated substrate 13 to df-oxindoles Reaction condition: 1,6-enynes 13 0.
Full size image Figure 5: Mechanistic proposal for the formation of df-oxindole MeOH-d4, deuterated methanol. Full size image In all rearrangements of 1,6-enynes 1 Fig. Thus, we reasoned that increasing the stability of the intermediary carbocation might open paths to different rearrangements and scaffolds.
To explore this notion, dimethyl substituted enynes 13 were exposed to different gold complexes, and gratifyingly treatment with highly electrophilic gold complex II in DCM selectively yielded structurally different df-oxindoles Solvent variation Supplementary Table 2 revealed that in tetrahydrofuran product 14a was formed in almost quantitative yield as a single diastereoisomer Fig.
Synthesis of df-oxindoles from O-prenylated substrates Formation of df-oxindoles 14 occurs by an analogous initial 6-endo-dig cyclization of the olefin to the acetylene activated by gold complex II to form cyclopropane gold carbene 15 see Fig. However the gem-dimethyl substitution facilitates cyclopropane ring opening via relatively stable carbocation 16 and proton loss to yield intermediate Protonation yields anti-gold carbene intermediate 18 that sets the stage for the formation of analogous oxiranium ion 19 and final rearrangement to unsaturated df-oxindoles 14 Fig.
This mechanistic proposal is supported by deuterium incorporation and formation of the corresponding deutero-methyl ether in the presence of CD3OD Fig. The structure of df-oxindole 14a was unambiguously ascertained by X-ray crystal structure analysis Supplementary Table 6. The rearrangement tolerates different substituents on the indole and the acetylenic moiety, including thiophene as representative heterocycle 14g and affords products 14 as single anti-diastereoisomers Fig. By analogy variation of the substituents on the aryl part of the oxindole and of the N-protecting group yielded the corresponding df-oxindoles 14j—p and 14q—u , respectively, in good to excellent yields as single diastereoisomers.
Discovery of small molecules with orthogonal biological activities To explore if the scaffold diversity in the compound collection translates into selective biological activity, the synthesized compound collection was exposed to cellular assays monitoring different biological phenomena. Much to our delight we identified individual compounds that are structurally novel selective inhibitors of the Hh and Wnt signalling pathways, autophagy and of cellular proliferation and displayed largely orthogonal biological activity.
The Hh pathway is an evolutionarily conserved developmental signalling pathway that governs vital processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, body patterning, tissue repair and regeneration In the absence of ligand, the membrane receptor Patched represses the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened Smo. The Hh pathway is activated on binding of the Hh ligand to Patched-1, thereby relieving the inhibition of Smo.
Through a series of events that occur in the primary cilium, Smo promotes activation of Gli transcription factors that drives the transcription of Hh target genes.
Aberrations in Hh signalling are associated with birth defects and cancer, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma Therefore, development of small-molecule modulators of Hh pathway is of utmost importance in cancer research. Several oxindoles inhibited osteogenesis with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations IC50 in the low micromolar range, as detected by reduced activity of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. Figure 6: 14q and 14r inhibit Hh signalling.
Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence I
Cells were treated with 1. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed using a four parameter fit. Full size image To further confirm and characterize Hh pathway inhibition, we monitored the expression of the Hh target genes Ptch1 and Gli1 on compound treatment Ptch1 is a negative regulator and Gli1, a positive regulator of Hh signalling, and both control the feedback regulation of the pathway.
Several small molecules like vismodegib and cyclopamine that modulate Hh signalling target the seven-transmembrane receptor Smo The analysis of the performance of a TL.
Appreciating Organization Development: A Comparative Essay on Divergent Perspectives
The best used parameter to evaluate the sound silencer with one dimensional plane wave approach is radiation characteristics of muffler is transmission loss very effective, although it is suitable for only below cut- TL. This is the one of the most frequently used criteria off frequency. For example, an chambers are helpful. In this paper examine the acoustically treated entry way between a noisy and a performance of convergent and divergent cylindrical quiet area in a building or factory might be considered as duct of reactive mufflers by using Wave 1-D.
Modeling Here firstly validate the transmission loss measurement Figure 1 : Schematic Layout of Test Rig with experimentally and validate with the FEA result by using acoustical simulation tool which proves the compatibility of software. For evaluation of transmission loss of muffler the volume of Expansion chamber is keeping constant for cylindrical central inlet and outlet, Convergent duct and Divergent duct.
Then simulation is performed for all this cases to achieve the transmission loss performance of muffler. Following design conditions are applied to analyzing the transmission loss of the simple expansion chamber: 1.
Volume of the Expansion chamber is kept constant Figure 2: Muffler Transmission loss measurement setup for all the modeling and designing work. Modeling of circular expansion chamber by keeping the length of expansion chamber as constant i.
The readings are taken in two slots with two 3. The same volume. For the case of pure cylindrical duct locations are used for measuring pressure in the diameter of expansion chamber as constant i. Modeling of circular expansion chamber by keeping Hz.The authors would also like to thank the clinical staff within the Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine and Center for Clinical and Translational Medicine in the Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease at the Drexel University College of Medicine who are involved in the recruitment, enrollment, obtaining consent, obtaining clinical histories, venipuncture, and delivery of peripheral blood to the research laboratories in the Center for Molecular Virology and Translational Neuroscience in the Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease.
These changes were attributed to stimulation of members of Lachnospiraceae in the colons of these subjects. OD and CM share some common features. It views organization change as ongoing, unpredictable, and influenced as much by daily evolving work events as by rational planning.
This conclusion is compounded by the fact that service sector organisations are among the biggest investors in IT, typically investing twice as much per employee as organisations in the manufacturing sector. This essentially means that the findings presented in this study could be wrong if productivity gains from ES spending in the organisations studied were not aligned with expectations based on the IT productivity paradox. It can also be concluded based on Table 3 that respondents from manufacturing sector organisations placed a higher emphasis than respondents from service sector organisations on reassignment rights 6.