[email protected] Research areas: Zappa/PDF/kaz-news.info Publications on SPAD Zappa/PDF/kaz-news.info SPAD website. Elettronica, Informazione and Bioengineering. Place of Meeting Franco ZAPPA phone: +39 02 how to reach kaz-news.info Notes to. Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, PDF [ KB, uploaded 3 November ] Sanzaro, M.; Signorelli, F.; Gattari, P.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F. µm–BCD Silicon Photomultipliers with Sharp Timing.

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Elettronica e Informazione - Politecnico di Milano Fraunhofer Institute for Italy Finkentraße 61, D Duisburg, Germany [email protected] Werner. Full Article · Figures & data · References · Citations; Metrics; Reprints & Permissions · PDF. Abstract. Many demanding applications require single-photon . PDF | We present a silicon monolithic array of 60 photon counters Franco Zappa, Angelo Gulinatti, Piera Maccagnani, Simone Tisa, and Sergio . di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Milan I, Italy.

The main feature of the equipment is the rejection of Instrum. Zappa, A. Tosi, and S. In this way, the laser power can pp. Bethune, R. Devoe, C. Kurtsiefer, C. Retterner, and W. Patent , Apr.

We Tomita and K. We obtained an extremely wide dynamic [21] L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, range of in a This result represents a reduction of [22] P. Taroni, A.

Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, F.

Principles and features of single-photon avalanche diode arrays

Arpaia, G. Danesini, three orders of magnitude in the measurement time needed to and R. Turner, G. Zacharakis, A. Soubret, J. Ripoll, and V. Tisa, F. Guerrieri, A.

Tosi, and F. Solid-State Device Res. Yodh and B.

Today, vol. He graduated summa cum [2] Y. Hoshi and M. He has been working Neurosci. Weissleder and U. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Del Bianco, F. Martelli, and G.

He graduated summa cum laude in electron- [7] J. Selb, J. Stott, M. Franceschini, A. Sorensen, and D. Boas, ics engineering and received the Ph. Analytical model and experimental val- Politecnico di Milan, in and , respectively. Since , he has been an Assistant Professor Hielscher, H. Liu, B.

Chance, F. Tittel, and S. Watson Research Center, no. Yorktown Heights, NY, where he was engaged in the [9] A. Torricelli et al. His current research interests include visible and [10] W. New York: He Italy, in He is also sor in His through highly scattering media with applications to optical tissue characteri- current research interests include the design and applications of avalanche pho- zation, optical mammography, and tissue oximetry.

He is the coauthor of three international patents in the field of integrated electronics and devices for single-photon detection. He is also the author or coauthor of about 80 technical papers.

Lorenzo Spinelli received the M. He was engaged in the research of structures developing in the section of broad area radiation beams. His current research litecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, in Since , he has been a full-time Professor interest includes the study of photon migration in turbid media for optical biopsy and imaging.

During , he along with other colleagues established the university spin-off company Micro Photon Devices S. L, Bolzano. He has been en- gaged in the research and development of detectors Alessandro Torricelli was born in Modena, Italy, in for optical and ionizing radiations, of microelectronic In this frame, he carried out also interdisciplinary work in collab- Italy, in , and the Ph. He invented the where he was engaged on flow cytometry and cell active-quenching circuit that opened the way to the application of SPADs and kinetics.

Since , he has been with the Diparti- developed it up to monolithic integrated form. Franco Zappa: Libri ; Fondamenti di elettronica. Fondamenti di Elettronica FnF.

Formulario di elettronica.

Alcuni di essi Area di E' autore di libri di testo ed eserciziari su "Fondamenti di Elettronica", "Complementi di Zappa, F. Capitolo Stefano Pastore 1 Fondamenti Di Elettronica. Semiconduttori, Diodi Anno Publicazioe: RobinBook nasce con l'intenzione di condividere gratuitamente libri e testi universitari in generale, in formato PDF.

Fondamenti di Elettronica - diegm. Ha progettato e realizzato circuiti VLSI in tecnologia BiCMOS a minima dissipazione di potenza per applicazioni scientifiche particolari missioni spaziali ed esperimenti in fisica delle alte energie.

Fondamenti di Elettronica, Esculapio Paolo Tenti Jaeger, T. Appunti dalle lezioni; Guerrieri, S. Tisa, and F. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F.

Guerrieri, A. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Introduction Nowadays imaging acquisition systems for 3D scene reconstruction are required in an increasing number of applications, for example indoor and outdoor safety and security monitoring, long-distance LIDAR ranging, safety in automotive environments, robotics and architecture [1—7].

Systems based on active illumination of the scene usually employ a light source, which emits photons towards the scene, and a single solid-state imager, which detects the back-reflected light.

By measuring the Time-of-Flight TOF between light emission and reflected signal detection, it is possible to compute the distance between an object and the camera, through the speed of light. In order to acquire a 3D depth-resolved image of the scene, it is possible to measure the TOF information pixel-by-pixel by means of an array of smart pixels. Instead the latter ones reconstruct the time delay hence the distance from the measurement of the phase delay of the reflected signal compared to the periodic emitted light excitation.

The dTOF approach requires specific smart pixels and array sensors able to measure the time elapsed from the emission of a very sharp in the picosecond range optical pulse to its detection. Usually that method is used for long kilometers distances and for very high precision millimeter or even shorter distance measurements [2,13] not to mention LIDAR applications [3]. Instead iTOF ranging can be implemented modifying standard 2D imaging sensors with the addition of a demodulation stage, and is mainly aimed at short to medium distances tens of meters and with depth resolutions of some centimeters [14].

In a first iTOF technique, known as continuous-wave iTOF cw-iTOF , a sinusoid modulated light shines the scene and the return signal is sampled few times during the modulation period, in order to compute the phase delay, hence the camera-object distance [14]. In a second iTOF technique, based on square pulses of light and called pulsed-light iTOF p-iTOF , the return signal is integrated within a well-defined time slot, within the period of the signal.

Instead, the digital approach requires a much lower peak power excitation and is definitely insensitive to electronics noise of any kind, being able to provide a pulse every time a single photon is detected, but it requires the integration of many excitation pulses, in order to ascertain that such a photon comes from the excitation and not from the background, hence improving precision.

The first approach is depicted in Fig. In order to assess the distance of the object, a second integration time-window W1 Fig. In this way the corresponding sample Q1 Fig.

Since the amount of back reflected light depends on the distance of the object in the scene, but also on its reflectivity, it is compulsory to normalize the signal Q1 over the signal Q0.

However, during W0 and W1 the sensor acquires also a background signal from the scene e.

Therefore a third integration window Wb is required to accumulate just the background intensity Qb , with no light signal therein. If the detection were analog, the quantities Q0, Q1 and Qb could be either charge, current or voltage levels.

Hence one single pulse excitation could be enough to compute the distance, if electronic noise and background fluctuations were negligible. Therefore for accumulating enough photons to improve statistics, the number of frames, i. An example of the repetitive excitation and acquisition is shown in Fig.

Lumpy Gravy

As another example Fig. The computed distance d is sensitive to the statistical fluctuations of variables Q0, Q1 and Qb. Therefore the variance of the distance measurements d Q0, Q1, Qb due to the photon statistics, i. Long-shutter p-iTOF measurement principle, with light excitation pulses, integration time windows synchronized to the excitation pulse and with durations twice the maximum round trip and reflected light with the delayed reflected pulsed signal and flat background.

Long shutter iTOF measurement scheme, where the photon signal is counted in three different time-slots, Q0, Q1 and Qb. Note that the single photon detector can signal the detection of one and just the first one photon detected during the corresponding integration window. In a first phase, only W0 windows are enabled, then only W1 windows and finally only Wb windows.

A different way to compute the distance relies on the acquisition of the reflected pulse not in just one time window Q0 but in two different time windows Q2 and Q3 that slice the overall reflected signal. The whole reflected pulse equivalent to Q0 Fig. Eventually, the background alone is acquired in a third integration window Wb. W0, then W1, then Wb and then again W0, and so on. In this way, both Q2 and Q3 provide useful information about the distance, as compared to the sample Q0 of the previous approach, which provided just information on the total detected signal intensity and none on the distance.

Since the new Q3 sample provides the same information as the previous Q1 and Eq. The measurement precision can be computed again starting from Eq.

The difference between the two methods lies on a form of correlation in the time- windows integrations. In the LST case the total amount of photons of the whole reflected pulse is contained within the sample Q0 while the useful distance information is provided only by Q1; hence the sample Q0 is completely uncorrelated by the sample Q1.

Instead, the distance information with the DST method is contained within Q3 which is equivalent to Q1 while the total pulse is contained in the sum of Q2 and Q3. Hence, in this way, the correlation of the whole pulse integration with the sliced integration leads to a better precision for DST with respect to LST.

Simulations In order to validate the analytical model derived in Section 2 for both LST and DST, we performed Monte-Carlo simulations, modeling the Poisson statistics for both background and reflected signal, in order to assess and compare performances at different operating conditions. In actual measurements, the intensity of the reflected signal that eventually reaches the detector depends not only on the distance of the object but also on geometrical characteristics of the objects in the scene reflectivity of objects, quality of the surfaces, slope of the sides and of the optics field of view, performances of lens.

In order to remove these dependences and perform a fair comparison of the two methods, our simulations were parameterized at the detector side, i. We divided the entire depth range D into 1, steps and we simulated the corresponding 1, real distances, with both methods. For every single distance d, we performed trials. Then for each trial we computed the distance according to Eq.

The simulation results shown in Fig. The plots at the top of the figure show trials of the computed distance d vs.New York: In this way the same light levels both background and signal are maintained for all distances.

In SPAD devices where the maximum electric field E is well below a critical value, these effects are estimated to be negligible see Fig. Aim of the series is to discuss in depth the design and fabrication of our SPAD-A array system for two-dimensional single-photon imaging, able to count and time-tag single photons by means of a monolithic array sensor. Torricelli et al. Formulario di elettronica. Giudice, S.

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Henderson, L. This problem is well known in the literature, especially for InGaAs SPADs, which require gated-mode operation because of the high-dark count rate and afterpulsing, and some approaches have been proposed. In order to acquire a 3D depth-resolved image of the scene, it is possible to measure the TOF information pixel-by-pixel by means of an array of smart pixels.