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Practice in turn must be based upon proven principles.
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This section is concerned with examining the principles of survey, describing their interrelationship and showing how they may be applied in practice. Most of the principles below have an application at all stages of a survey and it is an unwise and unprofessional surveyor who does not take them into consideration when planning, executing, computing and presenting the results of the survey work.
The principles described here have application across the whole spectrum of survey activity, from field work to photogrammetry, mining surveying to metrology, hydrography to cartography, and cadastral to construction surveying. The stations are the reference monuments, to which other survey work of a lesser quality is related. By its nature, a control survey needs to be precise, complete and reliable and it must be possible to show that these qualities have been achieved.
This is done by using equipment of proven precision, with methods that satisfy the principles and data processing that not only computes the correct values but gives numerical measures of their precision and reliability. Since care needs to be taken over the provision of control, then it must be planned to ensure that it achieves the numerically stated objectives of precision and reliability. It must also be complete as it will be needed for all related and dependent survey work.
Other survey works that may use the control will usually be less precise but of greater quantity.
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Examples are setting out for earthworks on a construction site, detail surveys of a greenfield site or of an as-built development and monitoring many points on a structure suspected of undergoing deformation.
If it becomes necessary to work outside the control framework then it must be extended to cover the increased area of operations.
Failure to do so will degrade the accuracy of later survey work even if the quality of survey observations is maintained.
For operations other than setting out, it is not strictly necessary to observe the control before other survey work.
The observations may be concurrent or even consecutive. However, the control survey must be fully computed before any other work is made to depend upon it.
In spite of modern equipment, automated systems, and statistical data processing the business of survey is still a manpower intensive one and needs to be kept to an economic minimum. Once the requirement for a survey or some setting out exists, then part of the specification for the work must include a statement of the relative and absolute accuracies to be achieved. From this, a specification for the control survey may be derived and once this specification has been achieved, there is no requirement for further work.
The specification for the control may be derived from estimation based upon experience using knowledge of survey methods to be applied, the instruments to be used and the capabilities of the personnel involved. Such a specification defines the expected quality of the output by defining the quality of the work that goes into the survey. Alternatively a statistical analysis of the proposed control network may be used and this is the preferable approach.
In practice a good specification will involve a combination of both methods, statistics tempered by experience.
The accuracy Basic concepts of surveying 3 of any survey work will never be better than the control upon which it is based. You cannot set out steelwork to 5 mm if the control is only good to 2 cm. The same may apply in survey, especially with control.
For example, say the majority of control on a construction site is established to a certain designed precision. Later one or two further control points are less well established, but all the control is assumed to be of the same quality. When holding-down bolts for a steelwork fabrication are set out from the erroneous control it may require a good nudge from a JCB to make the later stages of the steelwork fit.
Such is the traditional view of consistency. Modern methods of survey network adjustment allow for some flexibility in the application of the principle and it is not always necessary for all of a particular stage of a survey to be of the same quality.
If error statistics for the computed control are not to be made available, then quality can only be assured by consistency in observational technique and method. Such a quality assurance is therefore only second hand. With positional error statistics the quality of the control may be assessed point by point. Only least squares adjustments can ensure consistency and then only if reliability is also assured. Consistency and economy of accuracy usually go hand in hand in the production of control.
It is a means of guarding against a blunder or gross error and the principle must be applied at all stages of a survey. If observations are made with optical or mechanical instruments, then the observations will need to be written down. A standard format should be used, with sufficient arithmetic checks upon the booking sheet to ensure that there are no computational errors.
The observations should be repeated, or better, made in a different manner to ensure that they are in sympathy with each other. For example, if a rectangular building is to be set out, then once the four corners have been set out, opposite sides should be the same length and so should the diagonals. Such checks and many others will be familiar to the practising surveyor.
Checks should be applied to ensure that stations have been properly occupied and the observations between them properly made. This may be achieved by taking extra and different measurements beyond the strict minimum required to solve the survey problem. An adjustment of these observations, especially by least squares, leads to misclosure or error statistics, which in themselves are a manifestation of the independent check.
Data abstraction, preliminary computations, data preparation and data entry are all areas where transcription errors are likely to lead to apparent blunders. Ideally all these activities should be carried out by more than one person so as to duplicate the work and with frequent cross-reference to detect errors. In short, wherever there is a human interaction with data or data collection there is scope for error.
Every human activity needs to be duplicated if it is not self-checking. Wherever there is an opportunity for an error there must be a system for checking that no error exists. If an error exists, there must be a means of finding it. Safeguarding is concerned with the protection of work. Observations which are 4 Engineering Surveying written down in the field must be in a permanent, legible, unambiguous and easily understood form so that others may make good sense of the work.
Observations and other data should be duplicated at the earliest possible stage, so that if something happens to the original work the information is not lost.
This may be by photocopying field sheets, or making backup copies of computer files. Whenever the data is in a unique form or where all forms of the data are held in the same place, then that data is vulnerable to accidental destruction.
In the case of a control survey, the protection of survey monuments is most important since the precise coordinates of a point which no longer exists or cannot be found are useless. The physical surface of the Earth, on which the actual survey measurements are carried out, is not mathematically definable.
It cannot therefore be used as a reference datum on which to compute position. Alternatively, consider a level surface at all points normal to the direction of gravity.
Such a surface would be closed and could be formed to fit the mean position of the oceans, assuming them to be free from all external forces, such as tides, currents, winds, etc. This surface is called the geoid and is defined as the equipotential surface that most closely approximates to mean sea level in the open oceans. An equipotential surface is one from which it would require the same amount of work to move a given mass to infinity no matter from which point on the surface one started.
Equipotential surfaces are surfaces of equal potential; they are not surfaces of equal gravity. The most significant aspect of an equipotential surface going through an observer is that survey instruments are set up relative to it.
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The subject of survey control is now treated in much greater depth. This blog is very useful sir …thank u sir.