This folder contains more than poems in Hindi that are displayed in Hindi script using Unicode. The majority are ghazals. For more about ghazals, please. kaz-news.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online The ghazal (Arabic/Pashto/Malay/Persian/Urdu: ;Hindi: Marathi. While it has close analogies in Arabic poetry, the ghazal is of Persian origin. expression of the 'Indian style' (sabk-e hindi) with its marked rhetorical and.

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Title: Hindi Gazal ke vividh aayam. Researcher Hindi VividhAayam. University: Shivaji University. Completed Date: Appears in Departments: Department of Hindi 01_title kaz-news.info, Attached File, kB, Adobe PDF, View/Open. The best collection of Ghazals in both Hindi and Hinglish available in one app. App Features: Completely Free to download. ✓ Swipe left / right to see the. While you might also like to read about Apne Ko Samjhe 3 Hindi Book PDF. These are just the few lines from his ghazal Kaise Karen Yakin, which are quite.

Music was an integral part of Parsi Theatre.

Ghazal was an important genre in the repertoire of music of these companies. The popularity of Parsi Theatre contributed directly to the popularity of ghazal as a genre of music. The success of the drama companies lead to the development of theatre in regional languages notably modern Gujarati theatre, Marathi theatre and Hindi theatre, and later to the development of Hindi cinema. Over the years, ghazal found a home in both in Indian theatre and cinema. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was the tenth and last nawab of Awadh, "the garden, granary, and queen-province of India.

His ghazals were immensely popular in Awadh and in certain parts of India. Shah had a great interest in kathak dance. The kathak of early nineteenth century was a simple dance form. It had not yet been transformed into an elaborate school of dance by Bindadin and Kalka Prasad Maharaj. The dance was aesthetically pleasing and elegant but not intricate and complex. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah helped develop the dance form by introducing ghazal to kathak. He had court dancers perform kathak to ghazals he had written.

Court musicians Sanad Piya and Qadir Piya, who were known for composing hundreds of bandish ki thumris, composed ghazals for kathak. The courts of Lucknow, therefore, became the breeding ground for ghazal that was sung for the accompaniment of dance.

Courtesans had always held an important — and, often, a respected — position in Mughal India. A Beswas was primarily a sex worker who got into long-term contracts and muta temporary marriages with her clients. A devdasi was a woman who devoted her entire life to the worship and service of an idol, deity or temple.

She was not allowed to marry and was almost always subjected to sexual abuse. A domni made her living by singing for both men and women, and belonged to a family of singers that had been in the profession for several generations.

A kanjari was a lower class courtesan with little, or no, education and no formal training in the arts. The Kanchni was a sex worker whose services could be engaged on hourly and daily bases.

The kasbi was a prostitute who belonged to family of sex workers. Nochi was the name given to a young girl who was under the training of an experienced courtesan. She was expected to be a virgin. Paturiya was a woman who entertained men to make a living. The randi was a prostitute who did not belong to a family of sex workers. She was considered to be of lower class than a kasbi. The tawaif was a high class courtesan.

She was a master in several arts - singing, dancing, acting, poetry, literature, and cooking, and was known to be erudite, well-read, often multi-lingual, and an authority on decorum and etiquette. The tawaifs were divided into two 2 categories: the gharanedar tawaif and the regular tawaif.

The gharanedar tawaif belonged to a family of the highest class of courtesans.

She catered, almost exclusively, to nobility, senior officers of the Raj, and the elite. A regular tawaif did not come from a family of respected tawaifs and, therefore, did not command the respect accorded to gharanedar courtesans.

Her clients were the nouveaux riche and men from castes that include sheikhs tradesman , gujjars herdsmen , jats landowners and qazis officers and bureaucrats.

Christian missionaries started arriving in India after the opening of the Suez Canal in They quickly appointed themselves as guardians of Indian morality and opposed the courtesans and their trade with a vicious, venomous hatred. All classes of courtesans were treated with the same loathing and disdain, by the missionaries. They labeled the trade of the courtesans as anti-Christian, immoral and repugnant.

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Officers of the British Raj, who had, heretofore, been patrons of the courtesans were asked to not attend nautch performances and engage the services of courtesans. The tawaifs were forced to add a veneer of respectability to their services, by taking up new activities. These included writing, composing and singing ghazals. The advent of the gramophone a sound machine that uses a flat spinning disk and the phonograph a sound machine that uses a spinning cylinder , at the turn of the nineteenth century, brought music into the homes of people.

The maximum recording time of early records — about three minutes — was more suitable for ghazal than for other classical forms of music. The ghazal, therefore, benefited from the introduction of the gramophone and the phonograph.

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The first commercial recordings of Indian music were made by Frederick William Gaisberg, in London, on seven-inch single side discs, in and Frederick William Gaisberg came to India in and, along with George Dillnutt, recorded two hundred and sixteen seven-inch wax matrices and three hundred and thirty-six ten-inch wax matrices in Calcutta.

A large number of the recordings consisted of ghazals. Guahar Jaan recorded raag Jogiya on November 02, and became the first singer to be recorded in India. Her records gained great popularity in India, and in many other countries, very quickly. His use of colloquial language in his ghazals and nazms not only caught the attention of film makers, but also managed to make his work extremely popular, and rightfully so.

Ahmad Faraz Faraz's works gained immense popularity, to the point that he was considered to be second only to Faiz Ahmed Faiz. The reason is simple - his works express the anguish, joy and simplicity of love in a way few other poets have been able to. Wasim Barelvi Jagjit Singh has lent his soulful voice to many works by Wasim Barelvi, making his creations timeless. His works will always make you sit up, take notice and reflect.


His poems make for a delightful read indeed. Jaun Elia Having seen the horror of partition first hand, Jaun Elia expressed his pain and anguish through his revolutionary poetry. Perhaps, this is why even the love that he talks about is always unrequited.

His ghazals, especially on the destructive power of love, are hauntingly beautiful. Mir Taqi Mir Mir is the 18th century poet who is often credited with giving shape and structure to Urdu language itself.

Often remembered as the 'God of Poetry', he was a pioneer of the Urdu poetry form of ghazal. Aqbar Allahabadi Akbar Allahabadi managed to convey satire through his Urdu verses, and that's where his true excellence lies. Thus, his verses expressing love stand apart from the rest of his contemporaries, even when the subject remains the same.

Muhammad Iqbal He did coin the iconic poem 'saare jahan se acha', but there was much more to his work than a patriotic creation. His views on human emotions, expressed in his ghazals and nazms, have managed to travel through time.

Kaifi Azmi Fondly remembered as the Urdu poet who brought Urdu literature to Indian motion pictures, Kaifi Azmi managed to carve a name for himself at the time when Indian cinema saw some of the finest lyricists, like Ludhianvi and Sultanpuri.

Ibn-e-Insha Admirers of Insha have often regarded his works as reminiscent of Amir Khusro, and yet his poetry has influenced a lot of young poets. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of Dari poetry and Urdu poetry, today it is found in the poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent. Ghazals were written by the Persian mystics and poets Rumi 13th century and Hafiz 14th century , the Azeri poet Fuzl 16th century , as well as Mirza Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal , both of whom wrote ghazals in Persian and Urdu, and the Bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam Through the influence of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , the ghazal became very popular in Germany during the 19th century; the form was used extensively by Friedrich Rckert and August von Platen The Indian American poet Agha Shahid Ali was a proponent of the form, both in English and in other languages; he edited a volume of "real ghazals in English".

It is common in ghazals for the poet's name to be featured in the last verse a convention known as takhallus.

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Contents [hide] 1 Pronunciation 2 Themes 2. The Arabic word azal is pronounced [azal], roughly like the English word guzzle, but with the pronounced without a complete closure between the tongue and the soft palate.

In India, the name sounds exotic, as the voiced velar fricative sound is not found in native Indo-Aryan words. Illicit unattainable love [edit] The ghazal not only has a specific form, but traditionally deals with just one subject: Ghazals from the Indian sub-continent have an influence of Islamic Mysticism and the subject of love can usually be interpreted for a higher being or for a mortal beloved.

The love is always viewed as something that will complete a human being, and if attained will lift him or her into the ranks of the wise, or will bring satisfaction to the soul of the poet. Traditional ghazal love may or may not have an explicit element of sexual desire in it, and the love may be spiritual. The love may be directed to either a man or a woman. Most often either the beloved does not return the poet's love or returns it without sincerity, or else the societal circumstances do not allow it.

The lover is aware and resigned to this fate but continues loving nonetheless; the lyrical impetus of the poem derives from this tension. Representations of the lover's powerlessness to resist his feelings often include lyrically exaggerated violence. The beloved's power to captivate the speaker may be represented in extended metaphors about the "arrows of his eyes", or by referring to the beloved as an assassin or a killer.

Take for example the following couplets from Amir Khusro's Persian ghazal Nami danam chi manzil buud shab: I wonder what was the place where I was last night, All around me were half-slaughtered victims of love, tossing about in agony. There was a nymph-like beloved with cypress-like form and tulip-like face, Ruthlessly playing havoc with the hearts of the lovers.

In the context of Sufism [edit] It is not possible to get a full understanding of ghazal poetry without at least being familiar with some concepts of Sufism. Most ghazals can be viewed in a spiritual context, with the Beloved being a metaphor for God, or the poet's spiritual master.

It is the intense Divine Love of sufism that serves as a model for all the forms of love found in ghazal poetry. Most ghazal scholars today recognize that some ghazal couplets are exclusively about Divine Love ishq-e-haqiqi , others are about "earthly love" ishq-e-majazi , but many of them can be interpreted in either context.

Traditionally invoking melancholy, love, longing, and metaphysical questions, ghazals are often sung by Iranian, Afghan, Pakistani, and Indian musicians. The form has roots in seventh-century Arabia, and gained prominence in the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century thanks to such Persian poets as Rumi and Hafiz and later due to Indian poets such as Mirza Ghalib.

In the eighteenth-century, the ghazal was used by poets writing in Urdu, a mix of the medieval languages of Northern India, including Persian.

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Among these poets, Ghalib is the recognized master. In Urdu, some important and respected ghazal poets are: Enormous collections of ghazal have been created by hundreds of well-known poets over the past thousand years in Persian, Turkish, and Urdu, as well as in the Central Asian Turkic languages. Ghazal "Gayaki", the art of singing or performing the ghazal in Indian classical tradition, is very old.

Singers like Ustad Barkat Ali and many other singers in the past used to practice it, but due to the lack of historical records, many names are anonymous. It was with Begum Akhtar, and later on Ustad Mehdi Hassan, that classical rendering of ghazals became popular amongst the masses.

The categorization of ghazal singing as a form of "light classical" music is a misconception.

Classical ghazals are difficult to render because of the varying moods of the "shers" or couplets in the ghazal. Understanding the complex lyrics of ghazals required education typically available only to the upper classes. The traditional classical rgas in which the lyrics were rendered were also difficult to understand. The ghazal has undergone some simplification in terms of words and phrasings, which helps it to reach a larger audience around the world. Most of the ghazals are now sung in styles that are not limited to khayl, thumri, rga, tla and other classical and light classical genres.

However, these forms of the ghazal are looked down on by purists of the Ahmed Rushdi Indian Classical tradition. Singers like Jagjit Singh who first used a guitar in ghazals , Ahmed and Mohammed Hussain, Hariharan, Adithya Srinivasan, Mohammad Rafi, Pankaj Udhas and many others have been able to give a new shape to the ghazal by incorporating elements of Western music. Some of the notable ghazals of these prominent writers have been sung by Bollywood playback singer Manhar Udhas the elder brother of noted Ghazal singer Pankaj Udhas.

Renowned ghazal singer, and pioneer of Telugu ghazals, Dr Ghazal Srinivas popularized the ghazal in Telugu language. Srinivas also introduced ghazal singing in Kannada language, and ghazals in Kannada language were written by Markandapuram Srinivas.

First true-to-form Bangla Bengali ghazal are published in "gajaler aayanaay" by Bratish Dashgupta. The Canadian classical ghazal singer Cassius Khan has the unusual talent of singing in the recitational style whilst accompanying himself on the tabla.

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This came about largely as a result of serious, true-to-form examples being published by noted American poets John Hollander, W. Merwin and Elise Paschen, as well as by Kashmiri-American poet Agha Shahid Ali, who had been teaching and spreading word of the ghazal at American universities over the previous two decades.

In , Ali compiled and edited the world's first anthology of English-language ghazals, published by Wesleyan University Press in as Ravishing DisUnities: Real Ghazals in English. Fewer than one in ten of the ghazals collected in Real Ghazals in English observe the constraints of the form. A ghazal is composed of couplets, five or more.Will I? God's vintage loneliness has turned to vinegar— All the archangels— their wings frozen— fell tonight.

Poetry Foundation. While pursuing a law degree in England and a PhD in Germany, Iqbal had the opportunity of interacting with intellectuals from around the world, including the many Muslim countries under Western colonial rule. Hidden categories: