HOW TO READ BETTER AND FASTER NORMAN LEWIS PDF

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markable results—not because this book pretends in any way to be remarkable, but because sound training in the techniques of efficient reading is a remarkable . Do simple Google search and add pdf to the search string. You will be able to find out. I would suggest to download a hard copy instead. The book has lots of exercises. HOW TO READ BETTER AND FASTER BY THE AUTHOR 30 Days To a More Powerful Vocabulary (In collaboration with Wilfred Funk HOW TO.


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Jul 06, Shiven Rastogi rated it really liked it. Norman Lewis through his subtle way of conveying ideas sets a structure for the reader to inhibit certain practices that restrict an individual from becoming an efficient reader. The book initially describes who an efficient reader is, and then goes ahead to highlight key points for someone to become into one.

This book is for someone who wants to learn the art of reading at speeds of words per minute. View 2 comments. Jun 05, Mohit Virmani rated it it was amazing.

It's a workbook.

Norman Lewis (grammarian)

Must read for anyone looking to improve the reading habits. Would recommend that book is read daily along with doing exercises and is completed within a set timeframe.

Happy reading and get ready to feel a change in your bad reading habits. May 31, Dale Alan Bryant rated it it was amazing. If you think you know how to read - read this book. Apr 24, Lori rated it liked it.

Well, I actually sped read this one. Not very detailed, I ordered another book on the topic today. I am very interested in the topic.

I hope I can learn to do it! Apr 02, Kunal Gupta added it. Its a workbook Felt like i am back in school while reading it. May 21, Vivek Krishna rated it really liked it. Though most of the message is redundant, exercises are very useful and help you build a more active rather than passive attitude towards reading.

Feb 23, Prince Chauhan rated it it was amazing. One of the best books available in market on speed reading,the exercises and assessments given in each chapters are very good to enhance your reading speed to a very good level,concepts given are based on psychological researches and the best part is that even the passages given for practices are the extracts from either great lectures or from some very good books which are also helpful for enhancing knowledge.

A must read for anyone who reads a lot and want to increase his speed to cover more bo One of the best books available in market on speed reading,the exercises and assessments given in each chapters are very good to enhance your reading speed to a very good level,concepts given are based on psychological researches and the best part is that even the passages given for practices are the extracts from either great lectures or from some very good books which are also helpful for enhancing knowledge.

A must read for anyone who reads a lot and want to increase his speed to cover more books than he is covering at the moment. View all 3 comments. Jul 29, Yeyenism rated it it was amazing. I came upon another gem. I would definitely employ all the rules and steps to a better reading habit.

Normal Lewis is one of my all-time favorite authors! Jan 15, Daniel Panasenko rated it it was amazing Shelves: I am so thankful that I picked it up at the thrift store. I can not recommend it enough. This book has helped me rediscover how satisfying and pleasurable reading is. Mar 05, Bhagwan Devkar rated it it was ok. May 03, Sangam Agarwal rated it it was amazing. Nov 06, Adithya rated it really liked it.

Techniques are extremely helpful. Rigorous practise helps the reader to read fastly and quickly.

Especially the book helps us in understanding the good and bad ways of reading. Aug 13, Paras Jain rated it it was amazing. If you are serious about increasing your reading speed, at the same time maintaining good comprehension of the written words, then this book is for you. It has many practical tips and advice on increasing your reading speed and improving comprehension.

The virtue of reading fast cannot be overstated. It helps immensely in your education and career. Highly recommended. Recommended book to improve reading skill. It explains as well as exercises for various methods of reading such as "reading is an adaptive approach; it means, depending on context math, science, newspaper, blog, novel, etc. Jul 06, Laurie Siblock marked it as to-read.

This looks like a lot of work and I've tried and lost interest in other speed reading books because it felt hard and like it took the pleasure out of reading. But this author claims that once you do the hard work of getting your speed up you will actually comprehend more and you will read as comfortably as you did at your slower speed. It's worth the old college try! I'll keep you posted. Nov 11, Avinav Pashine rated it it was amazing. Jun 26, Sumedha Sharma rated it really liked it. I need to reads this.

Apr 07, Surya Chandru rated it it was amazing. A compact workshop on speed reading May 26, Ramesh added it. Sep 23, Hemant is currently reading it. May 15, Mangesh Kanogia rated it really liked it Shelves: Jun 08, AKhil added it. Aug 20, Gaurav More added it. Sep 06, Kevin rated it it was amazing. Great book on reading. Develop a sense of urgency and push yourself. Actively seeking what the author is trying to tell you by looking at the title, headings, etc and skim the rest.

Balaguru Mk rated it really liked it Feb 26, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. Those students who read the first selection at words per minute get through the second piece in the neighborhood of words per minute—an immediate improvement of per cent. The few faster readers also show marked improvement; to use the words of one of these students some years back, it is as if "we had suddenly dropped our shackles.

And the one or two very slow readers have also caught fire—they have stopped reading words and have begun to look for ideas, and the change is clearly reflected in their increased rate. My students are now convinced that they have the ability to perform faster. All they need to do from that point on is practice reading in such a way that the ability to perform becomes habitual performance. You, too, have the ability to read much faster if you fall as you probably do in the vast average group of word-per-minute readers or in the smaller, more select, group of word-per- minute readers.

The next few pages will convince you. Directly below you will find another article by J. Donald Adams, a piece similar in style, difficulty, and length to the one on which you have determined your present reading speed.

While the material will be similar, your attitude must be very different as you read. Aim to understand the ideas more quickly by mobilizing yourself for quick reading.

Get the thoughts fast, do not get bogged down in details; just follow the main thread. If occasionally a word eludes you, or a thought is somewhat fuzzy, keep plowing right through nonetheless. Read under slight speed pressure and with a purpose—the purpose of getting the main thought quickly. Get in, get the thought, and get out.

Do not read words; rather, absorb thoughts, ideas. Move along rapidly, but of course do not lose comprehension, for your primary purpose in all reading is understanding, not speed. But you will be attempting to 15 Again, time yourself in minutes and seconds.

A Test of Your Potential Reading Speed Read the following selection through rapidly, aiming at a quick understanding of the central theme. We have to look sharp these days to make sure whether it is a brassiere or a book we are being urged to download.

I, for one, grow quite bewildered whenever I turn an eye—or is it an ear? Here is a copy- writer who signals for my attention by asking: Do you often have to drag yourself through your day's work? Or, finding myself confronted by a line of large and bold-faced type reading "What a woman! On the cover of Publishers' Weekly was a picture of a highly photogenic young woman, and under it the words, "Her novel is the book the entire trade has been waiting for.

My realization that I was standing on my head came when I turned the page. There, on the double-spread ad- vertising Miss Kathleen Winsor's new novel, the picture was repeated in smaller size, and under it were these significant words: The recurrent theme of all advertising would not be what Miss Winsor's novel was about, or even merely that this was the new work by the author of "Forever Amber.

Surely the handwriting on the wall is plain. The sober prophets who have been proclaiming that we were about to enter a new liter- ary era were speaking more truly than they knew—but for very dif- ferent reasons than those which they had offered.

Here was in the making the literary revolution to end all literary revolutions. The whole basis of literary appreciation for the reader, all the sage advice that has been spoken or written about literary apprenticeship — these are being swept relentlessly into the discard. Henceforth the bedeviled publisher need ask but one question of the aspiring author: This impending upheaval must necessarily deal a deathblow to the schools of creative writing which have been springing up all 17 over the country.

There are, it seems to me, quite unexplored avenues along which this new development may take us. If you insist on being logical about the significance of this revolution in book advertising, you must take the position, I suppose, that the use of the author's picture as a recur- rent theme is merely a means of halting the wayward reader and causing him to read the accompa- nying text. Well, then, isn't there more than one way of skinning this particular cat? What's wrong with a publisher discovering an author with a face that would stop a clock, and using that as a recurrent theme?

After all, pretty faces are a dime a dozen these days, and they have been displayed to the point of surfeit both on the screen and in the ads. Why not strike a fresh and startling note? Rightly or wrongly, the craving for novelty is generally held to be one of the touchstones for the un- derstanding of American character. I am willing to wager a complete set of the Elsie Dinsmore books against a single copy of "Star Money" to prove that a face which is the ultimate in ugliness, if used as a recurrent theme, will halt more readers in their tracks than will the repetition of fare, however Whether that suggestion is adopted or not, it should be apparent to the least con- cerned reader that a new day is at hand, and that what it will bring us no man knows.

Test Your Comprehension Check the main idea: An ugly face would attract more attention to an ad than a beautiful one. Book publishers are experimenting with new and startling de- velopments in advertising—and Mr. Adams isn't very enthusiastic about them.

An author's picture is more important than the title of his or her book. If an author does not photograph well, his or her book will not be successful. Subtract four from six to deteirnine the number of the correct answer. TIME 3 min. Record this statistic on the chart and graph on page You have probably proved to yourself, as a result of these tests, that you can read faster—at least 20 to 50 per cent faster.

how-to-read-better-and-faster-norman-lewis.pdf

But, you may be thinking, "It was far from comfortable, and I was not quite as sure of my comprehension as I usually am. An average, slow reader cannot become a rapid, efficient reader overnight—even 18 Your training and practice, from this point on, will aim to make a much faster rate just as comfortable as a slow rate, will aim to make your compre- hension far more assured, far more efficient than it is today.

To achieve this goal, you will, throughout this book, be constantly and repeatedly asked, encouraged, urged, and expected to follow —you will be prodded, cajoled, and at times even shamed into following—these important rules for improving your reading: Read more. You will have to read much, much more than you are now in the habit of reading.

If you're a slow reader, you very likely do little more than go through the daily papers and a few fight magazines. You read whenever you happen to have a few spare minutes, you read merely to pass time. Or perhaps you hardly ever read at all unless you absolutely have to.

From now on, you must make time for reading. My students al- ways allocated, during their training, at least three evenings every week, and at least two full, continuous hours during those evenings, to the reading of books. Speed can be developed into a permanent habit only if you do what naturally fast and skillful readers have always done, from childhood on: That means at least a full book every week; that means several evenings of concentrated reading every week.

Unless you develop the habit of reading for two hours or more at a stretch, several stretches every week, do not expect ever to become an efficient or a rapid reader. But as reading becomes gradually more rewarding and more meaningful and less like a chore, this requirement will turn out to be a lot easier and considerably less taxing than it may sound to you at this moment. Learn to read for main ideas. Stop wasting time and effort on details.

When you read an article, push through efficiently for a quick recognition of the main idea 19 When you read a volume of nonfiction, be intent on getting the theme, the broad ideas, the framework on which the author has built his book.

Don't let an occasionally perplexing paragraph, page, or chapter slow you up. Keep speeding through. As the complete picture is filled in by rapid over-all reading, the few puzzling details will either turn out to have been inconsequential or will be cleared up as you move along.

When you read a short story or novel, follow the thread of the plot, consciously look for and find the "conflict," skim whenever you feel impelled to—don't meander in poky fashion from word to word and sentence to sentence. Challenge your comprehension. Fast readers are good readers. They're fast because they have learned to understand print quickly, and they understand quickly because they give themselves constant practice in understanding.

To this end, they read challenging material; and you must do the same. Does a novel sound deep; does a book of nonfiction seem difficult; does an article in a magazine look as if it will require more thinking than you feel prepared to do? Then that's the type of reading that will give you the most valuable training. You will never become a better reader by limiting yourself to easy reading—you cannot grow intellectually by pampering yourself.

Ask yourself: Do I know more about myself and the rest of the world, as a result of my reading, than I did five years ago?

how-to-read-better-and-faster-norman-lewis.pdf

If your honest answer is no, then you'd better get started, today, on a more challenging type of reading than you've been accustomed to. Budget your time. Say to yourself: I have this book and I want to finish it by tomorrow night. And then get into it. If you know that you must finish half the book tonight and the other half by tomorrow, you'll speed up, because you'll have to. You'll develop tricks of getting ahead, of skimming parts that are less essential, of looking for main ideas, of reading at your top potential rate.

The good reader always has a feeling of going fast, but he's never uncomfortable, for he has developed fast habits. Indeed, after a while, an adult 20 Or say to yourself: I am going to finish this magazine, complete, getting what I want out of it, in two hours. And, such is the adaptability of the human mind under pressure, you will finish it in two hours. It is amazing what people can do if they really try.

Why not put yourself to the test? While you are training with this book, give yourself a time limit on whatever you read—and live up to that time limit. In this way you will mobilize yourself for reading as an intellectual pursuit, and only in this way will you train yourself to understand at your highest potential rate.

Pace yourself. When you start a new book, read for quick understanding for fifteen minutes. Count the number of pages you've finished in that time, multiply by four, and you have your potential speed for that book in pages per hour. Of course, some books are slower reading than others—it takes more time to cover fifty pages in a Kinsey report than in Forever Amber, though they deal with somewhat the same subject The more solidly packed the ideas are on a page, the more time it will take to cover that page.

But throughout a given book, all the material will likely be on the same level. Keep to the rate you've set for yourself in pages per hour. By this means, you will learn to devise personal tricks that will speed you up and that will, at the same time, sharpen your com- prehension skill.

But you must practice every day, or nearly every day, if you wish to make high speed comfortable and automatic, if you wish to become efficient in quicker understanding. Develop habits of immediate concentration. Nothing makes concentration so easy, so immediate, as the technique of sweeping through material purposefully looking for main ideas and broad concepts.

Every person of normal intelligence can concentrate when he reads, but slow readers put themselves at a disadvantage. If, through laziness, you read at a slower rate than the rate at which you are able to comprehend, there is great temptation for your mind to wander. The brightest child in a class is not always the best student. If the work is too easy for him, he becomes bored and 21 This is a perfect analogy to explain why a slow reader picks up a book or magazine, goes through a few pages, and, finding his attention wandering, puts it down and turns to something else.

By reading always at your top comprehension speed, you constantly challenge your understanding, you stimulate your mind, you get involved in the author's thoughts without half trying. And, as an added dividend, you soon find that the increased concentration you get from speedy reading sharpens your under- standing and enjoyment, for every distracting thought is pushed out of your mind.

But reading about the principles of efficient and rapid reading is not going to make you a faster or better reader. Only putting those principles into practice, over a period of time, can do that for you. How long will it take? That depends on what sort of person you are and how assiduously you apply yourself.

Under prime conditions, habits of speed and aggressive comprehension can become automatic after a few months of daily, or almost daily, practice.

This is not theory—students in adult and college reading clinics prove it a fact term after term. And when, as a result of your training, you find yourself not only doing much more reading than ever before, but also getting much more out of your reading, you will agree that it was time and effort well spent.

The important thing is that you now know, from actual self- testing, that you have the ability to read faster than you generally do. The training that lies ahead will show you how to capitalize on this ability, will help you make habitual and comfortable the rapid rate, and the quick and self-assured grasp of main ideas, that characterize the efficient reader.

Exercise by exercise, drill by drill, selection after selection, you will learn to eliminate the faulty habits and inefficient techniques that interfere with total con- centration, that slow up your comprehension, that keep your rate of reading down to a much lower level than you are potentially capable of achieving. Now your training moves into high gear, and in this chapter you will learn: In Chapter 2 you practice intensively on four selections, trying to apply aggressive techniques that will speed up your com- prehension.

The distinction between an efficient and an inefficient reader is so definite and clear-cut that we can graphically chart the differences in two contrasting columns. Think of your own reading habits and techniques as you examine the following chart. In which column do you most frequently see yourself mirrored? Take a pencil and check off your characteristics as you meet them.

Check here if you think this ap- plies to you. Reads all material, of whatever type or difficulty, at an unvarying rate. Reads word by word or, in extreme cases, syllable by syllable. Q Makes many "regressions"—that is, rereads syllables, words, or phrases to assure himself that he has seen and understood them correctly. Varies his rate according to the type of material—goes faster on easier material, on narrative stretches, on paragraphs of supporting details, etc.

Suits his speed to what he wants to get out of material. Q Reads for ideas, is rarely conscious of individual words. Skims or skips unimportant words, paragraphs, sections, or even whole chapters. Has few, if any, regressions—his perception is accurate, fast, de- pendable, and so nearly uncon- scious that he can concentrate on meaning rather than on separate words. May "vocalize," i. Often gets bogged down in details and subordinate elements at the sacrifice of a clear awareness of sa- lient concepts and important over- all ideas.

Reads passively, sentence after sen- tence, without any understanding of either the material as a whole or of the relationship of the parts. Concentrates imperfectly. Because he is not deeply and actively in- volved in what he is reading, he is easily distracted by irrelevant thoughts, by external noises, or by the happenings around him.

As a result, his retention and recall are poor. Fatigues easily, because reading is —for him—a slow, unrewarding, even a tedious, process. Spends only as much time with books as is abso- lutely necessary. Reads silently in the literal sense of the word—his lips, tongue, and vo- cal cords are motionless, and he is far more aware of meaning than of sound. Pushes briskly through details to grasp main ideas.

Is more inter- ested in the basic thinking that shapes an author's writing than in minor points or background infor- mation. Reads with aggressive comprehen- sion, thinking along with the au- thor, interpreting the purpose and function of the broad sections of material, and searching always for the final and total meaning of any piece of writing.

Concentrates immediately and per- fectly—becomes so involved with the ideas on a page that he tempo- rarily loses contact with the out- side world. Has, in consequence, ex- cellent retention and recall.

Q Reads for hours at a time without becoming tired.

How To Read Better And Faster Third Edition

Can—and usually does—complete an entire novel or magazine in a single sitting. D 25 What has brought the inefficient reader to his sorry state? How account for the effortless skill of the efficient reader? Part but only part of the answer to these questions can be given in the phrase "perception speed.

But perception is, keep in mind, only part of the answer. An equally important part of the answer can be given in the phrase "intellectual habits. He methodically reads every word in a selection, giving equal weight and time to all words, to every single word, no matter how relatively unimportant, instead of using words as a means of grasping the author's ideas. The inefficient reader doesn't quite trust the adequacy of his comprehension.

He reads meticulously, digesting and redigesting every sentence, every paragraph. Paradoxically enough, not only his speed suffers as a result of such extreme care, but his com- prehension also, for he gets so involved in details and relatively unimportant minor points that he often misses the main theme of the writing.

He is an excellent example of the man who can't see the forest because of the thickness of the trees. If he is reading a book, he may struggle mightily to master every page, down to the last comma and semicolon, and may nevertheless fail to under- stand the over-all ideas and implications of the chapter.

In short, the inefficient reader strives too hard to be perfect in his grasp of every word, every phrase, every detail, instead of pushing through swiftly to follow the basic concepts. Therefore, he often regresses. Having no confidence in his comprehension, he goes back to check on figures, minor points, statistics, bits of description whose only purpose is to lend at- mosphere—and the regressions cut his train of thought, make him overconscious of words, ruin his concentration, break the smooth- ness of his absorption of ideas, and, of course, wreck his speed.

He has never trained himself to plow straight ahead as fast as his understanding makes potentially possible. He has simply never learned to develop the habit of moving along rapidly. In addition, there are certain other factors.

The efficient reader has so large a vocabulary that the words he meets are quick conveyors of thought. The vocabulary of the inefficient reader, on the other hand, is so limited that many of the words he encounters represent a mystery to be puzzled out before ideas can be fully grasped and appreciated.

The efficient reader has already read so much that he can con- stantly compare and contrast his present reading with his previous literary experiences; he has a background on which to build.

The inefficient reader too often has to approach every little bit of reading as a new and unrelated experience. The efficient reader has developed a strong intellectual curiosity; and all the reading he does helps in some measure to satisfy that curiosity. The inefficient reader's intellectual curiosity has gradually grown weaker because reading has never been a sufficiently com- fortable or rapid process to make the satisfaction of his curiosity worth the effort.

If you suspect that you are not normally as efficient, as rapid, or as responsive a reader as you would like to be, let me tell you this—without qualification. The good habits needed for fast and skillful reading can be developed in a comparatively short time. You can train the speed and accuracy of your visual perception; you can learn to attack material with the kind of aggressiveness that will sharpen your concentration and increase your rate of comprehension; you can learn to eliminate regressions, to by-pass your vocal apparatus, to decrease your dependency on inner speech, and to avoid poky attention to minor details—you can, with the proper practice and guidance, learn to plow ahead, speedily ab- sorbing the main ideas, getting the over-all picture.

You can start building your vocabulary and stimulating your intellectual curi- osity. And as a result, you will, in all likelihood, make tremendous gains in speed. Not the kind of forced gain you discovered from your work in the previous chapter, but a permanent, comfortable, habitual gain that will come from radically improved habits and techniques of reading.

You can do all this if you actively will it instead of merely wishing for it. What is the difference between willing and wishing in learning? As Dr. James L. Lippincott Co. The wish to learn is diffuse and general. The will to learn is con- centrated and specific. The wish to learn means that we repeat a thing again and again hoping for something to happen.

The will to learn means that we dig down and analyze, that we try to find out exactly what is wrong and exactly how to put it right. Let us take an analogy. A man may have a wish for tetter physical health and strength.

His wish for health becomes a will to health only when he finds out what he must do to become more healthy, and then does it. So the will to learn means an intelligent and persistent search for the conditions of improvement and an intelligent and persistent con- centration upon them. Canny words, those, and important words—words that should condition your entire attitude toward increasing your reading efficiency.

And every page in this book aims to help you "dig down and analyze"; aims to help you "find out exactly what is wrong and exactly how to put it right"; aims to show you how you can succeed in your "intelligent and persistent search for the conditions of improvement" of which Dr.

Mursell speaks. I offer you now four practice selections, and I ask you to read each one a little faster than is completely comfortable. Read with one dominating purpose—to find the main idea and to find it quickly. Push through briskly in a single-minded pursuit of the gist of the author's communication—do not waste time on individual words, on details, or on other subordinate elements. This is a big order, and you may or may not be immediately suc- cessful, but a conscious and sincere attempt to move along at a rapid clip, concentrating on main ideas, is more important at this point than success or failure.

As in the two selections of chapter 1, keep a strict time check on your performance. I suggest the following procedure as a means of insuring accuracy: First read the title, author, and source note of each selection these are not included in the word-count 2.

Then note the time in writing in the margin of the page, if 28 If it is, for example, almost 8: Wait until the second-hand of your watch shows five seconds before 8: You may have to adjust the hands so that the second hand reaches zero at approximately the same moment that the minute hand reaches a full number. When the second hand shows that it is five seconds short of 8: Lose all consciousness of your watch, concentrating only on the reading and on a speedy grasp of main ideas.

When you come to the terminating arrow, note the new time, subtract, and record, in the blank provided for that purpose, the number of minutes and seconds that your reading required. The five seconds are allowed for transfer from watch to page and back again. Take the comprehension test 8. Then determine your rate from the table that follows the test, and record this statistic on the chart and graph on page Next study carefully the discussion of each selection, and com- pare your reactions and comprehension with those that a trained and skillful reader would have.

You will thus discover where your technique was good and where it was faulty; selection by selection, you will learn what errors you make, why you make them, and how to avoid making them in the future; you will "find out exactly what is wrong and exactly how to put it right.

Ready for your first try? Remember the instructions: When an atomic bomb of either the old A type or the most recent H type explodes, the upward rush of air, visible as the now familiar mushroom-shaped cloud, carries with it an enormous amount of dust which is radioactive.

By exploding their H bomb high in the air the Russians left most of the dust on the ground where it belongs. It may be that the Soviet pro- cedure will be adopted when next we touch off an atomic bomb. If so, some of the danger from fall-out that geneticists fear will be reduced but not entirely removed.

But what of the possibility that bigger explo- sions of hydrogen bombs may set off a thermonuclear reaction on land or in the ocean and so destroy the earth? The physicists have pooh- poohed the possibility time and time again but without giving rea- sons.

Now comes Prof. Pryce of the University of Bristol with an article in the British scien- tific magazine Discovery in which he explains why the earth is quite safe. The alarmist who has received most attention of late is Sir Robert Robertson, president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

At the meeting held re- cently by the association at Bristol, England, he asked: Professor Pryce retorts that se- crecy has nothing to do with the case presented. The argument of many who think as Sir Robert does is based on the fact that it is the transmutation of hydrogen into helium that makes the sun and the stars shine.

This being so, why should not the same transmutation on earth cause similar results? The answer is that it takes millions of years to fuse hydrogen into helium in the sun by a roundabout process, whereas fusion in a hydrogen bomb occurs in a minute fraction of a second. The explosive materials are care- fully selected, and the design of the bomb bears no resemblance to that of a star. Of the materials selected tritium occurs only in traces on the earth.

Kaempffert, until his death early in , was science editor of the Times. Both tritium and deu- terium must be made at great ex- pense in enormous plants. There is plenty of hydrogen in the ocean but the conditions are not right for the maintenance of tem- peratures of millions of degrees and pressures of millions of pounds to the square inch.

Without the tem- peratures and the pressures no self- sustaining thermonuclear reaction is possible. Check your choice without referring to the text 1. Russian scientists have learned more about hydrogen bombs than have scientists in this country or in England. There is quite a controversy going on in the press as to whether or not the hydrogen bomb can destroy the earth.

Conditions do not exist on land or in water to make a self- sustaining thermonuclear reaction possible—hence the earth cannot be destroyed by the hydrogen bomb.

By exploding the H-bomb high in the air, some of the danger from fall-out will be reduced, but not completely eliminated. The H-bomb cannot destroy the earth because all its effects are eventually neutralized. Discussion of the Selection The selection you have just read is full of words—almost of them. It is full of phrases, sentences, and paragraphs, full of thoughts and ideas. But what are the key words, what are the im- portant paragraphs, what is the central theme around which the article is built, and how do you find it—and, especially, how do you recognize it when you do find it?

One of the basic techniques that your training will aim to develop in you is that of distinguishing, quickly and successfully, between the central theme of a selection and the material that introduces, develops, clarifies, explains, illustrates, or supports that theme.

Kaempffert speaks of many things in his piece—of hydrogen bombs and atom bombs; of mushroom-shaped clouds, radioactivity, fall- out danger, and thermonuclear reactions; of science professors and their disputes; of tritium and deuterium and the temperatures and pressures of the ocean. Kaempffert is speaking of, but what is he really saying?

How does he combine and sort out and present this apparent jumble so that it has a single meaning, an over-all effect, a central theme? How does he organize it to drive home a final point? Let's look at the piece together. The first paragraph is clearly introductory. The author starts with a recent and newsworthy announcement about the Russians and develops that for some dozen or more lines, leading into paragraph 2, in which he first touches on the genetic danger that fall-out presents.

He has used about words, or over a fifth of his total material, to catch the reader's attention and lead into his main idea, which he now presents as a question in these words from the second paragraph: An author usually raises a question as a springboard toward an answer—and Mr.

Kaempffert devotes all the rest of his article, right down to the end, to developing and explaining his answer. Through the middle of paragraph 4 he fills in the background of the answer; and from there through the last two paragraphs he explains that the earth will not be destroyed by the hydrogen bomb because conditions do not exist on land or in water to make a self-sustaining thermonuclear reaction possible—this is the main idea of the whole selection, the gist of what the author is saying.

Correct choice on the comprehension test is statement 3. I want to state again, even at the risk of being tediously repeti- tious, that your dominating aim in reading these selections is to cut rapidly through the words, sentences, and details to find and follow the authors main idea. This is not as hard as it may at first sound—it is not a bit hard if you will make an honest attempt to alter some of the comfortable and probably inefficient reading patterns you have grown too used to, that you have become too fond of, that it may be un- pleasant, even painful, to give up.

Perhaps you have got into the habit of sauntering leisurely, too leisurely, when it's just as easy to run. Perhaps you get bogged down in details instead of concentrating purposefully on finding and understanding the main idea. Perhaps you think that every word has to be chewed and digested before you can go on to the next one, that every sentence has to be mulled over, that every thought has to be studied before you can really understand it; believe me, this is not so.

All the words, all the sentences, all the thoughts in any selection add up to a final point, a final effect, a dominant and central idea. Get into the next selection, get that central idea, and get out. If you have any success in putting these instructions into practice, both your over-all understanding and your increase in rate will surprise you.

I came into your classroom more timid than the rest. My first thoughts were: When would I be called upon to recite? How would you react to my hesitance in speech? Would my classmates ridi- cule me? I hoped you could help me. As the long days passed without my being called on, my anxiety in- tensified. My back ached, because I was constantly sittting on the edge of my chair. At last you asked me a simple question. Do you remember how I blushed, how everybody in class turned to gaze?

The silence of the room, the im- patient look on your face, and the stares of my classmates brought on the. My facial contortion brought an uproarious laugh from the class and a puzzled look to your face.

Do you remember what you did then? You reprimanded the class and moved me to a side seat—to be forgotten for the rest of the year. You did not know that my stut- tering was not caused by a physical defect, but by a personality impedi- ment.

You did not understand my problem, and your reaction only aggravated my condition.

Because of your attitude of tak- ing my stuttering as a serious and troublesome problem, I became more selfconscious. Had you taken a lighter attitude, encouraged me to speak, and accepted me as one of the class, you would have helped instead of hurt me. I was never encouraged to enter social activities. How I craved for companionship; how I needed self- expression! Except for my stutter- ing I was like any other pupil, but you made me feel different.

How frequently I wanted to speak to you informally, as the others did. Did you perhaps feel that I didn't care to chat?

30 Days To a More Powerful Vocabulary

How wrong you were! The teacher who accepts the stutterer and who un- derstands his make-up, can make it easier for him to develop a proper attitude about his problem.

I never stuttered when I sang, so singing gave me an opportunity to feel on equal terms with others. Yet even when you discovered I had a good voice, you did not choose me to sing a song in the class Reprinted by permission from the National Education Journal. Shaw has taught high school classes in Mayer, Arizona, and Owyhee, Nevada. If only you had capitalized on my simple musical talent! Do you remember one particu- lar instance when I requested a pass?

I threw in a block, a spasm, which bewildered you as usual. You looked away, believing I would find it easier to speak. This only made things worse, for I felt that you were not paying attention or that you couldn't "take" the speech block. For days after this experi- ence I was depressed, my speech difficulty worse than ever.

By the way, is Mrs. Ray still around? I wish she had been my teacher throughout the years. Her way of asking questions was so un- usual that even I was able to speak up. She frequently asked for volun- teers, and never cared if anyone answered without recognition. By not having to be the center of attraction, and by not thinking of speech, I frequently answered with no regard to my impediment Talking to Mrs. Ray after class was easy, too.

When I did have a block, she just said, "Slow, easy. If only you had sensed, as Mrs. Ray did, that the aim in guiding the personality development of the stutterer should be the same as the aim for any other child: When I got to high school, my stuttering grew worse than ever, and I became more withdrawn. The confidence given me by Mrs. Ray could not withstand the treat- ment I received from others who had no understanding of my prob- lem.

Then another teacher came into my life who was interested in me and helped me. He advised me to improve myself by seeking outlets through school activities.

After one or two trial efforts at other things, I took up handball. At last I had something other than myself to think about. I was accepted as one of the group, and my speech was of little concern.

I let the ball do all of the talking, and how it did roar!Paragraph 4 reiterates, with further explanation, the main idea first presented in the second paragraph "the subject deserves greater attention. Neverthe- less. It is amazing what people can do if they really try. The answer is given in somewhat cryptic form so that you will not inadvertently discover the correct response before making your own choice. Jun 26, Sumedha Sharma rated it really liked it.

Of much more practical concern from heart. The vocabulary of the inefficient reader.

Ray still I took up handball. Record this figure on the chart on page Age may play somepart in slowing down the rate of improvement after the middle years—are reached, but is apparently no bar to healthy gains notice thatthe adults well beyond their prime came within 2 per cent of theachievement made by the Purdue freshmen.