HUMAN BODY PDF

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Introduction to the Human Body. Essential reading for those who have not done ANHB and / or ANHB In this chapter: • “The Anatomical position”. Discovery Pictures and the Brit ish Broadcast i ng Corporat ion have partnered to bring you The Human Body, a rema rkable la rge - format film that bri ngs a. THE HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS. System. Function. Diagram. Major Organs. Interactions-. Working with Other. Systems. Digestive. 1. take in food. (ingestion).


Human Body Pdf

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human body. You can also begin to see the interconnections between the different parts of the body in order to understand how the body functions. We should. This PDF learning package is designed to be viewed in Acrobat. If you are using the . There are four types of tissues in the human body: • muscle tissue. 2. identify and describe characteristics of the human body. 3. using a body diagram: a. explain how the heart pumps blood throughout the body b. describe the.

The other end, the cervix, opens into the vagina. It is within the uterus that the egg is fertilized, and the fetus is developed. Important Facts About Vagina It is the opening of the female genital tract.

It allows for sexual intercourse, childbirth and channels menstrual flow. Important Facts About Vulva This is the external genital organ of the woman. Important Facts About Clitoris It is a female sex organ. Important Facts About Placenta Aka afterbirth. The organ that connects developing fetus to the uterine wall.

Reproductive organs — Male reproductive system Important Facts About Testes They are the male gonads producing sperms. They are also endocrine glands producing androgens, primarily testosterone. Typically there are two.

It is an exocrine gland in males. Important Facts About Penis It is the external male sexual organ. It also serves as the urinal duct. Important Facts About Scrotum It is the male reproductive organ. It consists of a pair of suspended sacs. It is an endocrine gland, the size of a pea. It is found at the base of the brain. It secretes hormones that regulate growth, blood pressure, certain functions of sex organs, thyroid glands, temperature regulation, pain relief, metabolism, and some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth nursing etc.

Important Facts About Pineal gland Aka conarium or epiphysis cerebri. Small endocrine gland found near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres.

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It resembles a tiny pine cone. It consists of two connected lobes. It is found in the neck.

They help regulate growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. T3 and T4 are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine. It also produces calcitonin which plays a role in calcium homeostasis. The hormonal output is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH. Important Facts About Parathyroid glands Small endocrine glands in the neck. It produces parathyroid hormone. Important Facts About Adrenal glands Aka suprarenal glands.

Endocrine glands that produce many hormones. These include adrenaline and the steroids cortisol and aldosterone. They are found above the kidneys. Functions and anatomy of Human Body — Circulatory system: Cardiovascular system Important Facts About Heart The muscular organ that pumps blood through blood vessels to the entire body.

Divided into 4 chambers — Left atrium top , right atrium top , left ventricle bottom , right ventricle bottom. In a healthy heart, blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. Enclosed by a protective sac called pericardium. Wall of heart made up of — epicardium, myocardium, endocardium.

Blood low in oxygen enters right atrium from superior and inferior venae cavae.

From here it passes to the right ventricle. From here it is sent to the lungs, where it receives oxygen and gives off CO2. Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium and passes to the left ventricle. From here it leaves heart through the aorta. The heart is a fist-sized organ that is placed in the middle of the chest cavity. It is slightly offset to the left. The left heart is stronger so heartbeats felt more strongly on the left. Important Facts About Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

Most carry oxygenated blood. Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical arteries. Important Facts About Veins Blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart.

The Human Body: The Advantages of Specialization

Most carry deoxygenated blood from tissues. Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical veins. Less muscular than arteries and closer to skin. Valves in veins prevent backflow. Important Facts About Capillaries Smallest blood vessels in the human body. Makeup microcirculation. They connect arterioles and venules.

Help enable the exchange of O2, CO2, other nutrients and waste substances between blood and tissues.

Lymph capillaries drain lymph from lymph vessels. Circulatory system — Lymphatic system Important Facts About Lymphatic vessel Thin-walled, valved structures that carry lymph.

Lymph is a fluid that lies between body tissues. Important Facts About Lymph node Oval or kidney-shaped organ.

Present at multiple locations throughout the body including armpits, neck, and groin. Important for the proper functioning of the immune system.

Act as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. Red blood cells produced by the bone marrow in heads of long bones. Bone marrow is a key component of the lymphatic system. Important Facts About Thymus The specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system. Within the thymus, T cells or T lymphocytes mature. These are key to the adaptive immune system. Consists of two identical lobes located in front of the heart. Important Facts About Spleen Similar in structure to the large lymph node.

Acts as a blood filter. Removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood.

It recycles iron. It also synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp. Functions and anatomy of Human Body — Nervous system Important Facts About Brain The main organ of the human central nervous system and the human body. Located in head, protected by the skull. Composed neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. Divided into three parts — forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The cerebral cortex is so large that it overshadows all other parts of the human brain. Three parts of the cerebral cortex — cerebrum forebrain , cerebellum hindbrain , and brainstem.

There are two hemispheres in the brain — left and right. The mind is an emergent property of the brain. Consists of — Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata.

Medulla Oblongata is responsible for involuntary functions like sneezing, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, etc. Pons has a role in sleep and dreams. Also deals with swallowing, bladder control, equilibrium, hearing, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, and posture. It also secretes digestive enzymes called pancreatic juices. Insulin is produced from near the area called Islets of Langerhans. Divided into two by vertical fin called nasal septum.

Important Facts About Larynx Involved in protecting trachea, manipulating pitch and volume of sound. Important Facts About Trachea The cartilaginous tube that connects larynx and pharynx to the lungs. Important Facts About Bronchi The airway in the respiratory tract that allows air into the lungs.

Primary bronchus — right and left. These branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi. No gas exchange takes place in bronchi. Important Facts About Lungs Primary respiratory organs. Two lungs left and right — each divided into two lobes. They extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer to the bloodstream. They release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.

The right lung is bigger than the left lung. Protected by the ribcage. The primary muscle that drives breathing. Separates thoracic cavity containing the heart and lungs from the abdominal cavity. Also removes excessive organic molecules from the blood.

Thus it removes waste products of metabolism. Also produce hormones — renin, calcitriol, and erythropoietin. Two bean-shaped organs made up of cells called nephrons. Important Facts About Ureters Tubes that take urine from kidneys to the bladder. Important Facts About Bladder The hollow muscle that collects urine from kidneys before urination.

List of systems of the human body

Typical capacity of the bladder is between and ml. Important Facts About Urethra The tube that connects the urinary bladder to urinary meatus. It helps in the removal of fluids from the body. Reproductive organs — Female reproductive system Important Facts About Ovaries Produces and periodically releases eggs in the female body. They are both gonads and endocrine glands.

They secrete estrogen, testosterone, progesterone. They allow passage of eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. Important Facts About Uterus It is a hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ in females. Aka womb. One end connects to the fallopian tubes. The other end, the cervix, opens into the vagina.

Parts of the body

It is within the uterus that the egg is fertilized, and the fetus is developed. Important Facts About Vagina It is the opening of the female genital tract.

It allows for sexual intercourse, childbirth and channels menstrual flow. Important Facts About Vulva This is the external genital organ of the woman. Important Facts About Clitoris It is a female sex organ. Important Facts About Placenta Aka afterbirth.

The organ that connects developing fetus to the uterine wall.

Reproductive organs — Male reproductive system Important Facts About Testes They are the male gonads producing sperms. They are also endocrine glands producing androgens, primarily testosterone.

Typically there are two. It is an exocrine gland in males. Important Facts About Penis It is the external male sexual organ. It also serves as the urinal duct. Important Facts About Scrotum It is the male reproductive organ. It consists of a pair of suspended sacs. It is an endocrine gland, the size of a pea. It is found at the base of the brain.

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It secretes hormones that regulate growth, blood pressure, certain functions of sex organs, thyroid glands, temperature regulation, pain relief, metabolism, and some aspects of pregnancy, childbirth nursing etc. Important Facts About Pineal gland Aka conarium or epiphysis cerebri. Small endocrine gland found near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres.

It resembles a tiny pine cone. It consists of two connected lobes. It is found in the neck. They help regulate growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. T3 and T4 are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine. It also produces calcitonin which plays a role in calcium homeostasis. The hormonal output is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH. Important Facts About Parathyroid glands Small endocrine glands in the neck. It produces parathyroid hormone.

Important Facts About Adrenal glands Aka suprarenal glands. Endocrine glands that produce many hormones. These include adrenaline and the steroids cortisol and aldosterone. They are found above the kidneys. Functions and anatomy of Human Body — Circulatory system: Cardiovascular system Important Facts About Heart The muscular organ that pumps blood through blood vessels to the entire body. Divided into 4 chambers — Left atrium top , right atrium top , left ventricle bottom , right ventricle bottom.

In a healthy heart, blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. Enclosed by a protective sac called pericardium. Wall of heart made up of — epicardium, myocardium, endocardium. Blood low in oxygen enters right atrium from superior and inferior venae cavae.

From here it passes to the right ventricle. From here it is sent to the lungs, where it receives oxygen and gives off CO2. Oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium and passes to the left ventricle. From here it leaves heart through the aorta. The heart is a fist-sized organ that is placed in the middle of the chest cavity. It is slightly offset to the left. The left heart is stronger so heartbeats felt more strongly on the left. Important Facts About Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

Most carry oxygenated blood. Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical arteries. Important Facts About Veins Blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most carry deoxygenated blood from tissues. Exceptions are pulmonary and umbilical veins. Less muscular than arteries and closer to skin. Valves in veins prevent backflow. Important Facts About Capillaries Smallest blood vessels in the human body.Two important anatomists from the Roman era were Celsus and Galen.

The critical thinking questions have been updated and expanded in the sixth edition to further challenge students to use the chapter information in novel ways toward the solution of practical problems. In response to the increased technology and depth of understanding in the twentieth century. Maintenance of the Body In this unit, the structure and function of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems are discussed as they contribute in their individual ways to the overall functioning and general welfare of the organism.

The 5. Important Facts About Ear The ear is an organ for hearing and balance. He also believed that the left ventricle of the heart was filled with a vital air spirit pneuma that came in from the lungs. Martin, Kishwaukee College.