IBN HAWQAL PDF

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AUTHOR: Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Hawqal. DESCRIPTION: The earliest set of maps to survive from the corpus of Islamic cartography are those that. Muḥammad Abū'l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal also known as Abū al-Qāsim b. ʻAlī Ibn Ḥawqal . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Muḥammad Abū'l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal, also known as Abū al-Qāsim b. ʻAlī Ibn Ḥawqal al-Naṣībī, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; was a 10th-century Arab .


Ibn Hawqal Pdf

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pp. («Collection U.N.E.S.C.O. d'œuvres représentatives»). L,a géographie de langue arabe est née de préoccupations diverses. Et d'abord, savantes, bien . Ibn Hawqal's visit to the island comes at a time of internal stabi and regional security for Muslim Sicily, now under Kalbid rule.2 sources speak of little internal . Kitab ~urat al-ar4(Picture of the earth) of Abu al-Qasim. Mubammad ibn Hawqal in the manuscript dated /. , found in the Topkapl Sarayi Miizesi.

Bernard Lewis, Il linguaggio politico delVIsla? The Political Language of Islam , trans. Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti Rome: Laterza, , p. Google Scholar 7. Google Scholar 9. Umberto Rizzitano, Storia e cultura della Sicilia saracen?

Flaccovio, , p. Google Scholar Dom Jean Leclercq, Pietro il Venerabil? Peter the Venerable Milan: Saint-Wandrille, , p.

Mario Tedeschi, Manuale di diritto ecclesiasiic? Handbook of Church Law Turin: Giappichelli, , p. Therefore, in the year [ A. A quarrel developed between one of their men and one of the Buja, during which the Buja man insulted the Prophet - God bless him!

The Caliph gave him the men and weapons he wanted, set him free and allowed him to choose whatever he deemed necessary. When the two armies stood face to face, the Muslims were frightened by that impressive sight.

Fight for your lives and your honour and you will be victorious! At day-break he had this proclamation made: "You Buja troops!

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Here are some letters for you from the Prince of the Believers! The Buja broke their ranks in utter confusion and began running into all directions. Because of this imprudence they all died, crushed by the hooves [p.

They met either death or captivity. He was standing on a hill surrounded by a defensive line, swearing that he would not move from that place until the hill itself would break down. K; pp. A daily poll tax of the same amount was imposed on both of them. The latter, on being warned about the plot, said: - "I should like him to bear before God the responsibility for my blood, rather than I would take up on myself the responsibility for shedding his blood.

After the death of al-Mutawakkil [ A. The Buja country is situated between the Nile and the sea. The clearings are meeting places of elephants, giraffes, lions, rhinos, leopards nimr , hunting-leopards fahd and other wild game, which come there to feed in the bush, rivers and swamps.

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This mountain extends from the sea as far as Dukn. Mustafa, al-Maktaba, p.

They live both on the mountains and in the valleys, where they breed cattle and small animals and cultivate the land.

Their number cannot be estimated because they live in the innermost parts of the deserts. It is a country [p. All the clans are split into hundreds of other subdivisions fakhdh , each of which has one or two chiefmen. They are all cattle-breeders and all nomads. Their territory, including the part which is watered by rainfall and sown and that which serves as grazing land, equals in length a two months' journey, and its width is limited by the Nile and the Sea.

Their winter-campings are on the sea coast and the summer-campings are in the valleys in the interior of the country, where water is found for their subsistence. In autumn, they move westwards near to the Nile, where the land has few trees, but provides rich pastures, undergrowth and water pools. They live mainly on meat and milk; the poor eat wild game, gazelles, ostriches and wild asses.

They are Muslims only nominally. They live scattered or gathered into groups as far as the land opposite Aden.

Next, this territory borders on the deserts of Nubia. The Nile of Egypt waters their towns, districts and villages: altogether the country is well populated and fertile, yielding abundant crops of dates, cereals and vegetables.

The most prosperous part of the country is the territory of 'Alwa, which has an uninterrupted chain of villages and a continuous strip of cultivated lands, so that [p. The district of Dujn is covered uninterrupted by villages, supplied with water, forests, cultivated land and game.

Their king is a Muslim, who speaks Arabic, and is a vassal of the king of 'Alwa. There are among them many Muslims, who originally came from many countries where this religion prevails. They are traders and often travel to Mecca and other parts.

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They have cattle and till the land; they are ruled by their elders. In war-time, they are only foot-soldiers; their weapons are javelins and wooden pikes; they have no horsemen. This river flows into the Nile. These rivers have a [p. This is the extreme limit of the kingdom of 'Alwa on the Nile.

Its inhabitants have no contact with their neighbours nor do they make any commercial transaction with them. They go naked, without covering their bodies: nobody knows anything about their mode of living and their behaviour.

West of the Nile there is a great river which flows westward, with a great discharge: it is called the White Nile. Within the country of 'Alwa, there is an island the end of which is not known: it lies between the White Nile and the main branch of the Nile we have just now described.

Rich mines, producing pure gold and iron are found in their country. The western frontier of these peoples is not well known.

They are Christians and are subjects to the Lord of 'Alwa. The King of Dongola is under the King of 'Alwa.

Ibn Hawqal

It is a very large country, without well-defined frontiers, with uninhabited places and deserts which it is difficult to cross. Beyond this, the country extends towards the Zanj, opposite Aden. The whole of the territory of al-Maqurra, is under the authority of the King of Dongola.The western frontier of these peoples is not well known. They are traders and often travel to Mecca and other parts.

The latter, on being warned about the plot, said: - "I should like him to bear before God the responsibility for my blood, rather than I would take up on myself the responsibility for shedding his blood.

Google Book Search helps readers discover the worlds books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. Their king is a Muslim, who speaks Arabic, and is a vassal of the king of 'Alwa.

The chapter on the Byzantine Empire - known in the Muslim world as, and called by the Byzantines themselves, the "Lands of the Romans" - gives his first-hand observation of the languages spoken in the Caucasus , with the Lingua Franca being Azeri and Persian across the region.

Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. The other is near [p.