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Notify me of new posts by email. Learn more. Culture Geography of India — Majid Husain. Geography Oxford School Atlas — Oxford. Polity Indian Economy — Ramesh Singh.

Economy Economic Survey. Science and Technology Environmental Studies: From Crisis to Cure — Rajagopalan. IAS Pre. Share 11K. Integrate Learning With Test-Taking! Comments Great work.. You are welcome! World Bank, World Development Report, A highly concise and to-the-point idea on the issue comes from Joseph.

How Much Has Happened? Williamson, J. Michael P. Todaro and Stephen C. Delhi, p. Walt W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto,.

The basic price is the amount receivable by the producer from the downloadr for a unit of a good or service produced as output minus any tax payable such as sales tax or VAT the downloader pays , and plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale; it excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer.

In other words, the basic price is what the seller collects for the sale, as opposed to what the downloader pays. We have been a witness to a number of notions coming in from the literature of Economics in this area—starting with. Meanwhile, humanity was faced with an unique riddle of climate change. Progress is a general term frequently used by experts to denote betterment or improvement in anything.

In economics, the term was used for a long time to show the positive movement in the lives of people and in an economy. It had both quantitative and qualitative aspects to it. After a point of time, some economists started using all the three terms—progress, growth and development—interchangeably to mean almost the same thing.

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But it was only during the s, s and s that a clear meanings of these terms really evolved. But growth and development were allotted their clear-cut meanings. An increase in economic variables over a period of time is economic growth. The term can be used in an individual case or in the case of an economy or for the whole world. The most important aspect of growth is its quantifiability, i. We have a few examples: We may say that economic growth is a quantitative progress.

To calculate the growth rate of an economic variable the difference between the concerned period is converted into percentage form. For example, if a dairy farm owner produced litres of milk last month and litres in the following month, his dairy has a growth rate of 5 per cent over a period of two months. Similarly, we may calculate the growth rate of an economy for any given successive periods. Growth rate is an annual concept which may be used otherwise with the clear reference to the period for which it is used.

Though growth is a value neutral term, i. Economic growth is a widely used term in economics which is useful in not only national level economic analyses and policymaking, but also highly useful in the study of comparative economics. International level financial and commercial institutions go for policymaking and future financial planning on the basis of the growth rate data available for the economies of the world. The main issue economists discussed was—how to increase the quantity of production and income of a country or a nation-state.

It was believed that once an economy is able to increase its production, its income will also increase and there will be an. There was no conscious discussion over the issue of quality expansion in the lives of the people. Economic growth was considered as a cause and effect for the betterment of the lives of the people. This was the reason why economists, till the s, failed to distinguish between growth and development, though they knew the difference between these terms.

It was during the s and in the later decades that economists came across many countries where the growth was comparatively higher, but the quality of life was comparatively low. The time had come to define economic development differently from what the world meant by economic growth.

For economists, development indicates the quality of life in the economy, which might be seen in accordance with the availability of many variables such as: Income is generated from productive activities.

It means that before assuring development we need to assure growth. Higher economic development requires higher economic growth. But it does not mean that a higher economic growth automatically brings in higher economic development—a confusion the early economists failed to clarify.

We may cite an example here to understand the confusion: One might be giving little attention to health, education and going for saving, and the other might not be saving but taking possible care of the issues of health and education.

Here the latter necessarily will have higher development in comparison to the former. Thus, we may have some diverse cases of growth and development: Without a conscious public policy, development has not been possible anywhere in the world.

Similarly, we can say, that without growth there cannot be development either. The first such instance of growth without development, which the economists saw, was in the Gulf countries.

These economies, though they had far higher levels of income and growth, the levels of development were not of comparable levels. After the arrival of the WB and IMF, conscious economic policies were framed and prescribed for the growth and development of less developed economies.

We can say that economic development is quantitative as well as qualitative progress in an economy. If economic growth is suitably used for development, it comes back to accelerate the growth and ultimately greater and greater population brought under the arena of development. Similarly, high growth with low development and ill-cared development finally results in fall in growth.

Thus, there is a circular relationship between growth and development. This circular relationship broke down when the Great Depression occurred. A whole new branch of economics—welfare economics has its origin in the concept of welfare state and the immediacy of development. But any attempt in this direction was only possible once there was a tool to know and measure the level of development in an economy and the determinants which could be considered as the traits of development.

It has been a realty difficult task to achieve consensus among the experts on these determinants of development. It is easy to compare qualitative aspects such as beauty, taste, etc. The report had a human development index HDI which was the first attempt to define and measure the level of development of economies. The HDR measures development by combining three indicators—Health,. The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimension, called goalposts, and then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalposts, expressed as a value between 0 and 1 i.

The three indicators4 used to develop the composite index are as given below: These estimates are based on enrolment by age at all levels of education and population of official school age for each level of education.

Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. These indicators are normalised using a minimum value of zero and maximum values are set to the actual observed maximum value of mean years of schooling from the countries in the time series, —, that is The education index is the geometric mean of two indices.

The Health component is measured by the life expectancy at birth component of the HDI and is calculated using a minimum value of 20 years and maximum value of This is the observed maximum value of the indicators from the countries in the time series, — Thus, the longevity component for a country where life expectancy birth is 55 years would be 0. The HDI uses the logarithm of income, to reflect.

The scores for the three HDI dimension indices are then aggregated into a composite index using geometric mean. The HDI facilitates instructive comparisons of the experiences within and between different countries. The UNDP ranked5 the economies in accordance of their achievements on the above-given three parameters on the scale of one i. As per their achievements the countries were broadly classified into three categories with a range of points on the index: By , economies around the world had officially accepted the concept of human development propounded by the UNDP.

Basically, the UNDP designed HDR was used by the World Bank since the s to quantify the developmental efforts of the member countries and cheap developmental funds were allocated in accordance. Naturally, the member countries started emphasising on the parameters of income, education and life expectancy in their policymaking and in this way the idea of HDI got obligatory or voluntary acceptance around the world. For many years, experts and scholars came up with their own versions of defining development.

They gave unequal weightage to the determinants defining development, as well as selected some completely different parameters which could also denote development in a more suitable way. Since quality is a matter of value judgement and a normative concept, there was scope for this representation.

Most of such attempts were not prescriptions for an alternative development index, but they were basically. One such attempt was made by economists and scholars of the London School of Economics in which concluded that, Bangladesh was the most developed country in the world with the USA, Norway, Sweden getting the lowest ranks in the index. Basically, it is very much possible to come out with such an index. As for example, we may say that peace of mind is a necessary element of development and betterment in human life which depends heavily on the fact as to how much sleep we get everyday.

It means we may try to know a good sleep by the data of thefts and burglaries in homes. In this way a country where people hardly have anything to be stolen or no risk of being burgled might be considered having the best sleep in night, thus the best peace of mind and that is why this will be the most developed country. Basically, the HDI could be considered as one possible way of measuring development which was evolved by the concerned group of experts with the maximum degree of consensus.

But the index which calculates the development of economies on certain parameters might be overlooking many other important factors, which affect the development of an economy and standard of living. As per experts, such other determinants affecting our living conditions might be: As experts were studying the development process of the developing world, they were also surveying the performance reports of the developed world. As the western world came to be regarded as developed, having top twenty ranks on the HDI, social scientists started evaluating the conditions of life in these economies.

Most of such studies concluded that life in the developed world is anything but happy. Crime, corruption, burglaries, extortion, drug trafficking, flesh trade, rape, homicide, moral degradation, sexual perversion, etc. It means development had failed to deliver them happiness, peace of mind, a general well-being and a feeling of being in good state.

Scholars started questioning the very efforts being made for development around the world. Most of them have suggested a need of redefining development which could deliver happiness to mankind. Why has development not delivered happiness to the developed world? The answer to this question does not lie in any one objective fact, but touches so many areas of human life.

First, whenever economists from the outset talked about progress they meant overall happiness of human life. Happiness is a normative concept as well as a state of mind. Therefore, its idea might vary from one economy to the other. Second, the period in which development was defined, it was considered that with the supply of some selected material resources human life can be improved.

These resources were pin-pointed as, a better level of income, proper level of nutrition, healthcare facilities, proper levels of literacy and education, etc. Happiness is a broader thing than development. Happiness has its non-material side also. It means, while the world has been trying to maximise its prospects of development, i.

The non-material part of our life is rooted in ethics, religion, spiritualism and cultural values.

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As development or. Due to partial definition of development, the developed world has been able to achieve development, i. Somehow a very small kingdom had been able to define development in its own way, which included material as well as non-material aspects of life and named it the Gross National Happiness GNH. This country is Bhutan. Gross National Happiness: Bhutan, a small Himalayan kingdom and an economic non-entity, developed a new concept of assessing development in the early s—the Gross National Happiness GNH.

Without rejecting the idea of human development propounded by UNDP, the kingdom has been officially following the targets set by the GNH. And ethics are rooted in the religious and spiritual texts. But the new world is guided by its own scientific and secular interpretation of life and the world has always been suspicious about recognising the spiritual factor in human life. Rather the western idea of secularism was defined after rejecting the very existence of anything like God and also rejecting the whole traditional hypothesis of spiritualism as instances of ignorance and orthodoxy.

And there should not be any doubt in accepting it that the western ideology in the name of development has ultimately, dominated the modern world and its way of life. And anybody can assess today what kind of happiness the world has been able to achieve in the end. As per the study, the period —98 has been spectacular in terms of development with life expectancy increasing by a hopping 19 years, gross school enrolment reaching 72 per cent and literacy touching The world which is in the process of globalisation at one hand has started introspecting whether multicultural co-existence is possible.

We may conclude that mankind is passing through a phase of serious introspection and transition where the dominant view in the world may metamorphose into redefining the very idea of development by including ethical values and spiritualism as important parts.

But till now the proponents of development look a bit shy in believing and accepting whole- heartedly that there exists a non-material part of life, which needs to be realised to make our development result into happiness.

The report is a nation survey, fifth of its kind the first being in —is the outcome of coalition of researchers. Social support someone to count on 3. Healthy life expectancy at birth 4. Freedom to make life choices 5. Generosity 6. Perception of corruption Major highlights of the WHR are as given below: Top ten countries remained the same as WHR with minor shuffling.

Rankings of WHR are given in the brackets. People in well paid roles are happier, but money is only one predictive measure of happiness. Happiness is an aspiration of every human being, and can also be a measure of social progress. Yet, are the citizens of different countries, happy? If they are not, what, if anything, can be done about it? As per the WHR , the problem, of course, is that happiness is used in at least two ways: If individuals were to routinely mix up their responses to these very different questions, then measures of happiness might tell us very little.

Changes in reported happiness used to track social progress would perhaps reflect little more than transient changes in emotion. Fortunately, respondents to the happiness surveys do not tend to make such confusing mistakes. Both the WHRs did. The responses of individuals to these different questions are highly distinct.

A very poor person might report himself to be happy emotionally at a specific time, while also reporting a much lower sense of happiness with life as a whole; and indeed, people living in extreme poverty do express low levels of happiness with life as a whole.

Such answers should spur our societies to work harder to end extreme poverty. The WHR is based on the primary measures of subjective well-being;9 life evaluations;10 life satisfaction;11 and happiness with life as a whole. Trends in Happiness The report presents data for the world showing the levels, explanations, changes and equality of happiness. The world has become a slightly happier and more generous place over the past five years, despite the obvious detrimental happiness impacts of the financial crisis —08 , as per the report.

Because of continuing improvements in most supports for better lives in Sub-Saharan Africa, and of continued convergence in the quality of the social fabric within greater Europe, there has also been some progress toward equality in the distribution of well-being among global regions. There have been important continental crosscurrents within this broader picture.

Improvements in quality of life have been particularly notable in Latin America and the Caribbean, while reductions have been the norm in the regions most affected by the financial crisis, Western Europe and other western industrial countries; or by some combination of the financial crisis, and political and social instability, as in the Middle East and North Africa.

It argues that both approaches were, at least in part,. The two approaches provide complementary lenses which enrich our ability to assess whether life is getting better. Conclusion At the end, it may be concluded that there is now a rising worldwide demand that policy be more closely aligned with what really matters to people as they themselves characterise their lives.

In past few years, more and more world leaders such as the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, South Korean President Park Geun-hye and British Prime Minister David Cameron have been talking about the importance of well-being as a guide for their nations and the world.

The World Happiness Report was published in support of these efforts to bring the study of happiness into public awareness and public policy. Now it depends on the nations as how they use the findings of the WHR.

This was followed in April by the first UN high-level meeting on happiness and well-being, chaired by the Prime Minister of Bhutan. At the same time the first World Happiness Report was published,14 followed some months later by the OECD Guidelines setting an international standard for the measurement of well- being.

A time also came when many scholars and world leaders raised the ultimate question—are we happier today? The WHR itself provides a very interesting and eye-opening inquiry into the state of human happiness in the world.

While at the one hand the world enjoys technologies of unimaginable sophistication, at the other hand, at least one billion people are living without enough to eat. The world economy is propelled to soaring new heights of productivity through ongoing technological and organisational advances; yet it is relentlessly destroying the natural environment in the process.

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Countries achieve great progress in economic development as conventionally measured; yet along the way countries succumb to new crises of obesity, smoking, diabetes, depression, and other ills of modern life. These contradictions would not come as a shock to the greatest sages of humanity, including Aristotle and the Buddha, who taught humanity, time and again, that material gain alone will not fulfil our deepest needs.

Material life must be harnessed to meet these human needs, most importantly to promote the end of suffering, social justice and the attainment of happiness. They require our urgent attention, and especially so at this juncture in human history.

The Anthropocene will necessarily reshape our societies.

In years or decades, conditions of life may become dire in several fragile regions of the world. We are already experiencing deterioration of life support systems in the dry lands of the Horn of Africa and parts of Central Asia. On the other hand, if we act wisely, we can protect the Earth while raising quality of life broadly around the world.

We can do this by adopting lifestyles and technologies that improve happiness or life satisfaction and reduce human damage to the environment. Sustainable Development is the term given to the combination of human well-being, social inclusion and environmental sustainability. Higher household income or higher per capita GNP generally signifies an improvement in the life conditions of the poor.

The poor suffer from dire deprivations of various kinds: As incomes rise from very low levels, human well-being improves. Not surprisingly, the poor report a rising satisfaction with their lives as their meager incomes increase.

On the opposite end of the income spectrum, for most individuals in the high-income world, the basic deprivations have been vanquished. There is enough food, shelter, basic amenities such as clean water and sanitation , and clothing to meet their daily needs.

In fact, there is a huge surfeit of amenities above basic needs. Poor people would swap with rich people in a heartbeat.

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Yet all is not well. The conditions of affluence have created their own set of traps. Most importantly, the lifestyles of the rich imperil the survival of the poor. Human-induced climate change is already hitting the poorest regions and claiming lives and livelihoods.

So too is the loss of community, the decline of social trust and the rising anxiety levels associated with the vagaries of the modern globalised economy, including the threats of unemployment or episodes of illness not covered by health insurance in the United States and many other countries.

The increased US output has caused massive environmental damages, notably through greenhouse gas concentrations and human-induced climate change, without doing.

The paradox that Easterlin noted in the US was that at any particular time richer individuals are happier than poorer ones, but over time the society did not become happier as it became richer. This is due to four reasons: They are happier when they are higher on the social or income ladder. Yet when everybody rises together, relative status remains unchanged.

In fact, there are still other general reasons to doubt the formula of ever rising GNP per person as the route to happiness. In other words, it may be nice to have more money, but not so nice to crave for it.

Psychologists have found repeatedly that individuals who put a high premium on higher incomes generally are less happy and more vulnerable to other psychological ills than individuals who do not crave higher incomes. Aristotle and the Buddha advised humanity to follow a middle path between asceticism on the one side and craving material goods on the other. Since the imagery is ubiquitous on all of our digital devices, the stream of advertising is more relentless than ever before.

Its goal is to overcome satiety by creating wants and longings where none previously existed. Advertisers and marketers do this in part by preying on psychological weaknesses and unconscious urges. Cigarettes, caffeine, sugar, and trans-fats, all cause cravings if not outright addictions. Fashions are sold through increasingly explicit sexual imagery. Product lines are generally sold by associating the products with high social status rather than with real needs.

This means that poor people benefit far more than rich people from an added dollar of income. This is a good reason why tax-and-transfer systems among high-income OECD countries on balance take in net revenues from high-income households and make net transfers to low-income households. Put another way, the inequality of household income is systematically lower with net of taxes and transfers than before taxes and transfers.

Individuals care largely about themselves and derive pleasure mainly through their consumption. Many of our decisions are led by emotions and instincts, and. And we are largely unaware of our own mental apparatus, so we easily fall into traps and mistakes.

We also understand again! We learn through imitation, and gain our happiness through meeting social norms and having a sense of belonging to the community. Of course there are limits to such cooperation and fellow feeling. We also cheat, bluff, deceive, break our word, and kill members of an out- group. We engage in identity politics, acting as cruel to outsiders as we are loving to our own group.

For today we have more choices than ever before.

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In the ancient world, the choice facing most of humanity most of the time was little choice indeed—to work hard to secure enough to eat, and even then to face the risk of famine and death from bad weather or bad luck.

Should the world pursue GNP to the point of environmental ruin, even when incremental gains in GNP are not increasing much or at all the happiness of affluent societies? Should we crave for higher personal income at the cost of the community and social trust? This is in sharp contrast to the education reform strategy at work in the US, where the emphasis is to put on testing, measurement, and teacher pay according to student test performance.

High- income countries have largely ended the scources of poverty, hunger and disease. Poor countries rightly yearn to do so.

But after the end of poverty, what comes next? What are the pathways to well-being when basic economic needs are no longer the main drivers of social change? What will guide humanity in the Anthropocene: What is the path to happiness?

Most people agree that societies should foster happiness of their citizens.

The founding fathers of the US recognised the inalienable right to the pursuit of happiness. British philosophers talked about the greatest good for the greatest number.

China champions a harmonious society. That indeed has been the traditional view. Yet the evidence is rapidly changing this view. A generation of studies by psychologists, economists, pollsters, sociologists and others have shown that happiness, though indeed a. Asking people whether they are happy or satisfied with their lives, offers important information about the society. It can signal underlying crises or hidden strengths. It can suggest the need for change.

Such is the idea of the emerging scientific study of happiness, whether of individuals and the choices they make, or of societies and the reports of the citizenry regarding life satisfaction—the WHR summarises the fascinating and emerging story of these studies on two broad measurements of happiness: This is important to know that both kinds of happiness have predictable causes that reflect various facets of our human nature and our social life.

Happiness differs systematically across societies and over time, for reasons that are identifiable, and even alterable through the ways in which public policies are designed and delivered. Bhutan is on to something path breaking and deeply insightful. And the world is increasingly taking notice. Raising income can raise happiness, especially in poor societies, but fostering cooperation and community can do even more, especially in rich societies that have a low marginal utility of income.

It is no accident that the happiest countries in the world tend to be high-income countries that also have a high degree of social equality, trust and quality of governance. In recent years, Denmark has been topping the list.

It is, of course, one thing to identify the correlates of happiness, and quite another to use public policies to bring about a society-wide rise in happiness or life satisfaction. The idea of GNH in Bhutan tells a story of exploration and progress since its King declared the goal of happiness over the goal of wealth. For Bhutan happiness became much more than a guidepost or inspiration; it became an organising principle for governance and policymaking as well.

It is believed that in coming years many more countries in the world will be taking clues from Bhutan and the recently published two World Happiness Reports. Mind, Society, and Behaviour said that development policies become more effective when combined with insights into human behaviour.

It further adds that policy decisions informed by behavioural economics can deliver. It sites some examples from India in the areas of healthcare and education: The Report has recommended that the presence of a stereotype can contribute to measured ability differences, which in turn reinforce the stereotype and serve as a basis for exclusion, in a vicious cycle—finding ways to break this cycle could increase the well-being of marginalised individuals enormously.

In economics, there has been a bit of resistance in emphasising other aspects of development, because it is thought of giving ground to the neighbouring disciplines.

Government documents generally, hard-nosed , usually, make no mention. However, there is now a growing body of literature that demonstrates how certain social norms and cultural practices are vital ingredients for economic efficiency and growth.

Groups and societies that are known to be honest and trustworthy tend to do better than societies that do not have this reputation. There have been broad cross- country studies and also laboratory experiments that illustrate this. Societies that are endowed with personal integrity and trustworthiness have the natural advantage, in that no third party is required to enforce contracts.

For outsiders the mere knowledge that a particular society is trustworthy is reason to do more business and trade with it. Fortunately, the new discipline of behavioural economics is beginning to give us some insights into the formation of customs and behaviour: It is almost as if we have a mental inclination not to defile a good ambience through acts of corruption.

This act of making the cityscape more aesthetic somehow made potential criminals less prone to crime. Also, the sheer recognition and awareness that some collective qualities of citizens, such as honesty and trustworthiness, enable the entire society to do well, prompts individuals to adopt those qualities and overcome the ubiquitous free-rider problem. There is a growing literature24 in economics arguing that pro-social behaviour, which includes altruism and trustworthiness, is innate to human beings and, moreover, forms an essential ingredient for the efficient functioning of economies.

In other words, human beings have a natural ability to forego personal gains for the sake of other people or because that is what is required because of a promise the person had made. This trait may well have evolutionary roots, but its existence is now well demonstrated in laboratory tests by recent studies.

However, the recognition that these human and moral qualities can have a large impact on economic development came relatively late to economics.

Hence, the literature on this is relatively recent and brief. There is also evidence that social norms and habits that at first sight seem ingrained in a society can change over short periods of time. By this argument it is possible for a country to nurture and develop the kinds of social norms that enable a more vibrant economy.

It is, however, important to recognise that much also depends on civil society, the firms, the farmers and ordinary citizens. The social norms and collective beliefs that. Honesty, punctuality, the propensity to keep promises, the attitude towards corruption are matters shaped in great part by norms, and social beliefs and the behaviour patterns can become habitual. Moreover, in a democracy like India, what can be done by government depends in great measure on how ordinary people think and what people believe in.

That is what electoral politics is all about. An important reason why this got so little attention in the past is because so much of traditional economics was written as if these non- economic facets of life did not matter.

But we now know that a market economy cannot function if people are totally self serving. While self-interest is a major driver of economic growth, it is important to recognise that honesty, integrity and trustworthiness constitute the cement that binds society.

At times economists treated these social norms, preferences and customs as unalterable. If that were so, there would not be much point in analysing their effect. But we do know that these qualities in a people can change. Honesty and integrity can be nurtured and aversion to corruption can be shored up.

If these traits are absent or inadequate in a nation, it is likely that that nation will stagnate and remain in a chaotic poverty trap. Take for instance, contracts which enable markets to develop and form the basis of economic life. If the contractual system in a nation is so weak that when a bank gives a year mortgage to a person for downloading a house, there is high risk of default, the implication of this is not that banks in that country will make large losses.

The implication is that banks will not give loans; and the housing market will remain severely underdeveloped and the total number of houses will be few and far between. Enforcing complicated or large contracts, especially ones protracted over a long period of time, is the responsibility of the state. The state provides the laws and enforcement to enable people to sign contracts.

In these everyday situations it is too cumbersome to bring in the state or the law courts. Here the main guarantor. Societies that have successfully nurtured these qualities have done well; societies that have done poorly on these fronts, tend to do poorly in terms of economic progress. It is not known precisely how these values can be inculcated in society. Again requesting you , please give us some important and essential website by which our preparation become strong.

I too am not taking any support from any institution,so. Glad to know that you are doing self-preparation, and this post was helpful for you. Secondly its not necessary to be maths mastero, you just need to practise so that you can finish things on time…: Hi Rahul Glad to know that you are preparing for the examination and that too without coaching. Well, we are also trying our best to provide the much-needed guidance to aspirants like you.

These books are like your assistant, it is not necessary to go through each and every chapter of the book, otherwise, it will consume lots of time. First of all, you have to build up the concept using NCERT books, then for the in-depth understanding of those concepts, you have to follow the above-mentioned books.

Hope it was helpful. In the above post, we have mentioned all important books for prelims and mains. If you will seriously follow these books than it will be really helpful for you. So I just want to know that If I study only from these limited books which you have listed, I will be able to clear prelims with good marks?

Here is the link to download the combo plan. Easy Gk - current affairs 5 May Reply. Tushar Gupta 4 May Reply.

Pradeeksha 8 Jan Reply. Ishfaq beigh 13 Sep Reply. Deepti bargali 28 Jul Reply. From where I get these books easily and as soon as possible. B4J 31 Jul Reply. The links are given for each and every book, you just need to order from site. B4J 26 Jul Reply. K 7 Jun Reply. Please post the books for IPS mains. Ranjith 31 May Reply. Prashanti 24 May Reply.

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B4J 21 Apr Reply. Sir which books is the best reference books for public administration. We will update you with the list as soon as it is prepared. Tito 11 Mar Reply. Jeevanvarma 12 Feb Reply.

Sajeed 1 Feb Reply. Devendra sharma 27 Jan Reply. Sayanti chakraborty 25 Jan Reply. Books4Jobs 26 Jan Reply. Ratnakar sahu 30 Dec Reply. Thank u so much sir.World Bank, World Development Report, But the reality has been different—the set of polices was already being recommended by the IMF International Monetary Fund and the WB World Bank together with the US Treasury, especially during the period of the eighties and early nineties. Kirti Diwakar 19 May Reply.

Fashions are sold through increasingly explicit sexual imagery. The report had a human development index HDI which was the first attempt to define and measure the level of development of economies.

In the above post, we have mentioned all important books for prelims and mains. Key Features and Benefits. What is the difference between them?

From Crisis to Cure — Rajagopalan. Gender Male Female.