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kaz-news.info: Internal Combustion Engines (Fourth Edition): This hallmark text is an ideal offering for the course on Internal Combustion Engines. This revised. Internal Combustion Engine by V Ganesan PDF, gives the fundamental concepts and the specifics of various engine designs. The information is provided in a. ____ About the Author sew ~ Dr. V. GANESAN currently working as Professor of Mechanical Contents Application of IC Engines.
So one should be careful in drawing the ideal p-V diagram Fig. The compression ratio of an SI engine is between 6 and 10 while for a Cl engine it is from 16 to In CI engines, a high pressure fuel pump and an injector are provided to inject the fuel into the combustion chamber. The carburettor and ignition system necessary in the SI engine are not required in the Cl engine.
The ideal sequence of operations for the four-stroke CI engine as shown in Fig. Air alone is inducted during the suction stick: Air inducted during the suction stroke is com- pressed into the clearance volume.
Both valves remain closed durmg this stroke, Fig. Expansion Stroke: Riel injectiolnpstarts nearly at the end of the compression stroke.
The rate of miection is such that combustion maintains the pressure constant in spite of thevpiston movement on its expansion stroke increasing the volume. I-Ieatis assumed to have been added at constant pressure.
I.C. Engines V Ganesan.pdf
After the injection of fuel is completed is. Both the valves remain clnsed during the expansion stroke, Fig. The exhaust valve is open an t B intake valve is closed during this stroke. This results in a CI engine being heavier than the SI engine. However, in both SI and CI engines operating on four-stroke cycle, power can be obtained only in every two revolution of the crankshaft.
Since both SI and CI engines have much in common, it is worthwhile to compare them based on important parameters hke basic cycle of operation, fuel induction, compression ratio etc.
The detailed comparison is given in Table 1. In such an arrangement, theoretically the power output of the engine can be doubled for the same speed compared to a four-stroke engine. In twostroke engines the cycle is completed in one revolution of the crsiikshaft. The induction of the compressed charge moves out the product of combustion through exhaust ports.
Therefore, no piston strokes are required for these two operations. Figure 1. The air or charge is inducted into the crankcase through the spring loaded inlet valve when the pressure in the crankcase is reduced due to upward motion of the piston during compression stroke. After the compression and ignition, expansion takes place in the usual way. During the expansion stroke the charge in the crankcase is compressed.
Near the end of the expansion stroke, the piston uncovers the exhaust ports and the cylinder pressure drops to atmospheric pressure as the combustion products leave the cylinder. Further movement of the piston uncovers the transfer ports, permitting the slightly compressed charge in the crankcase to enter the engine cylinder. The same objective can be achieved without-piston deflector by proper shaping of the transfer part. During the upward motion of the piston from At part throttle operating condition, the amount of fresh mixture entering the cylinder is not enoughto clear all the exhaust gases and a part of it remains in the cylinder to contaminate the charge.
This results in irregular operation of the engine. The two-stroke diesel engine does not suffer from these defects. There is no loss of fuel with exhaust gases as the intake charge in diesel engine is only air. The two-stroke diesel engine is used quite widely. Many of the high output diesel engines work on this cycle. A disadvantage common to all two-stroke engines, gasoline as well as diesel, is the greater cooling and lubricating oil requirements due to one power stroke in each revolution of the crankshaft.
Consumption of lubricating oil is high in twostroke engines due to higher temperature. A detailed comparison of two-stroke and four-stroke engines is given in Table 1.
Thus, one power stroke is obtained in every two revolutions oi the crankshaft. Again, because of one power stroke for two revolutions, powcr produced for same size of engine is less, or for the same power the engine is heavier and bulkier.
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Because of one power stroke in two revolutions lesser cooling and lubrica- tion requiiements. Lower rate of wear and tear. Four-stroke engines have valves and valve actuating mechanisms for open- ing and closing of the intake and ex- haust valves Because of comparatively higher weight and complicated valve mecha- nism, the initial cost of the engine is more.
Volumetric efficiency is more due to more time for induction. The thermodynamic cycle is com- pleted in two strokes of the piston or in one revolution of the crankshaft Thus one power stroke is obtained in each revolution of the crankshaft. Because of one power stroke m one revolution greater cooling and lubri- cation requirements. Higher rate of wear and tear. Because of Light weight and simplicity due to the absence of valve actuating mechanism, initial cost of the engine is less.
Used where low cost, compactness and light weight are important, viz.
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Details are given in Fig. It is also called a compression-ignition engine, Cl engine or Diesel engine. The charge is ignited near the end of the compression stroke by an externally applied spark and therefore these engines are called spark-ignition engines. Working of this type of engine is similar to that of the engines using volatile liquid fuels SI gas engine.
Engine using solid fuels like charcoal, powdered coal etc.
Solid fuels are generally converted into gaseous fuels outside the en- gine in a separate gas producer and the engine works as a gas engine. The fuel is generally introduced into the cylinder in the form of minute droplets by a fuel injection system near the end of the compression process. Combustion of the fuel takes place due to its coming into contact with the high temperature compressed air in the cylinder.
Therefore, these engines are called compression-ignition engines.
Admission of air or fuel-air mixture at near atmospheric pressure. Admission of air or fuel—air mixture under pressure, ie. A high voltage spark is made to jump across the spark plug electrodes. In order to produce the required high voltage there are two types of ignition systems which are normally used. They are: They derive their name based on whether a battery or a magneto is used as the primary source of energy for producing the spark. In the case of CI engines there is no need for an extemal means to produce the ignition.
Because of high compression ratioiemployed, the resulting temperature at the end of the compression process is high enough to self-ignite the fuel when injected. However, the fuel should be atomized into very fine particles. For this purpose a fuel injection system is normally used. Introduction 19 1.
The cylinder arrangement is only applicable to multi- cylinder engines. An arrangement of cylinders in whidi the centre-line of the crankshaft journals is perpendicular to the plane containing the centrelines of the engine cylinders.
An arrangement of cylinders in which the centre- line of the crankshaft journals is parallel to the plane containing the centrelines of the engine cylinders. A number of cylinder arrangements popular with designers are described below.
The details of various cylinder arrangements are shown in Fig. In-line Engine: The in-line engine is an engine with one cylinder bank, i. This type is quite common with automobile engines. Four and six cylinder in—line engines are popular in automotive applications.
In this engine there are two banks of cylinders i. Opposed Cylinder Engine: This engine has two cylinder banks located in the same plane on opposite sides of the crankshaft. It is inherently a well balanced engine and has the advantages of a single crankshaft. This design is used in small aircrafts. Opposed Piston Engine: When a single cylinder houses two pistons, each of which driving a separate crankshaft, it is called an opposed piston engine. The movement of the pistons is synchronized by coupling the two crankshaft: Opposed piston arrangement, like opposed cylinder arrange ment, is inherently well balanced.
Further, it has the advantage of requiring no cylinder head. By its inherent features, this engine usually functions on the principle of two-stroke engines. Radial Engine: Radial engine is one where more than two cylinders in each row are equally spaced around the crankshaft. The radial arrangement Delta type Fig. Type Engine: Other applications include industrial power plants and as prime movers for electric generators. Table 1. In such applications a little higher fuel consumption is acceptable.
The smallest engines are used in mopeds 50 cc engine and lawn mowers. Scooters and motor cy- cles, the commonly used two wheeler transport, have generally cc, two-stroke gasoline engines developing a rnaximum brake power of about 5 kW at rpm. High powered motor cycles have generally cc two- stroke gasoline engines developing a maximum brake power of about 10 kW at rpm. Two-stroke gasoline engines may also be used in very small electric generating sets, pumping sets, and outboard motor boats.
The brake power on a single crankshaft can be upto kW. Nordberg, 12 cylinder mm bore and mm stroke, two-stroke diesel engine develops kW at rpm. This speed allows the engine to be directly coupled to the propeller of a ship without the necessity of gear reduoers.
A typical automobile is powered by a four-stroke four cylinder engine developing an output in the range of kW at a speed of about rpm.
American automobile engines are much bigger and have 6 or 8 cylinder engines with a power output upto kW.
However, the oil crisis and air pollution from automobile engines have reversed this trend towards smaller capacity cars. Four-stroke gasoline engines were also used for buses and trucks. They were generally cc, 6 cylinder engines with maximum brake power of about 90 kW. However, in this application gasoline engines have been prac- tically replaced by diesel engines. The four-stroke gasoline engines have also been used in big motor cycles with side cars.
Another application of four-stroke gasoline engine is in small pumping sets and mobile electric generating sets. Small aircraft generally use radial four-stroke gasoline engines. Engines having maximum power output from kW to kW have been used in aircraft. It is manufactured in sizes from 50 mm to more than mm of cylinder diameter and with engine speeds ranging from to rpm while delivering outputs from 1 to kW. Small diesel engines are used in pump sets, construction machinery, air compressors, drilling rigs and many miscellaneous applications.
Tractors For agricultural application use about 30 kW diesel engines whereas jeeps, buses and trucks use 40 to kW diesel engines. Generally, the diesel engina with higher outputs than about, kW are supercharged. Earth moving machines use supercharged dimel engines in the output range of to kW. Locomotive applications require outputs of to kW. Diesel engines are used both for mobile and station- ary electric generating plants of varying capacities.
Compared to gasoline Introduction 23 It can only be converted frdm one form to anothere In the reciprocating internal combustion engine the fuel is fed into the combustion chamber where it burns in air converting chemical energy of the fuel into heat, The liberated heat energy cannot be totally utilized for driving the piston as there are losses through the engine exhaust, to the coolant and due to radiation.
The heat energy which is converted to power at this stage is called the indicated power, in and it is utilized to drive the piston. The energy represented by the gas forces on the piston passes through the connecting rod to the crankshaft. In this transmission there are energy losses due to hearing friction, pumping losses etc.
In addition, a part of the energy available is utilized in driving the auxiliary devices like feed pump, valve mechanisms, ignition systems etc. The sum of all these losses, expressed in units nf power is termed as frictional power, fp. The remaining energy is the useful mechanical energy and is termed as the brake power, 17p. In energy balance, generally, frictional power is not ' shown separately because intimately this energy is accounted in exhaust, cooling water, radiation, etc.
Five impor- tant engine efficiencies and other related engine performance parameters are given below: Indicated thermal efficiency is the ratio of energy in the indicated power, ip, to the input fuel energy in appropriate units.
Gas engines have much lower volumetric efficiency since gaseous fuel displaces air and therefore the breathing Capacity of the engine is reduced. It increases as manifold pressure increas. For any particular engine, operating at a. They are derived from the indicated and brake power respectively. For derivation see Chapter It may be noted that 3,, is often a more appropriate parameter than crank ' rotational speed for correlating engine behaviour as a.
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Au- tomobile engines operate at the higher end and large marine diesel engines at the lower end of this range of piston speeds. Thus, for the same piston displacement and trmep, an engine running at a higher speed will give a higher specific output.
It is clear that the output of an engine can be increased by increasing either the speed or the bmep, Increasing the speed involves increase in the mechanical stresses of various engine components.
For increasing the bmep better heat release from the fuel is required and this will involve more thermal load on engine cylinder. Also, the maximum gas velocity through this area.
From Figi1. This is expressed either as a. In the SI engine the fuel-air ratio practically remains a. Therefore, the term fuel-air ratio is generally used instead of air-fuel ratio. A mixture that contains just enough air for complete combustion of all the fuel in the mixture is called a chemically correct or stoichiometric fuel- air ratio.
A mixture having more fuel than that in a chemically correct mixture is termed as rich mixture and a mixture that contains less fuel or The ratio of actual fuel—a. Stoichrometric fuel-air ratio a E 2: The four-stroke cycle 3 8.
The over-square ratio is 1. The clearance volume IS Calculate the bore, stroke and compression ratio of the engine. The frictional power is estimated to be 25 kW.
Calculate the indicated power ip and brake power bp developed by the engine. Solution in. Find the indi- cated power and frictional power. Air—gas ratio 9: The compression ratio is 8: Engine I: Engine Two-stroke, two-cylinder, SI engine, indicated power is 10 kW. It is available in paperback. He has done extensive research on topics like: Heat transfer and internal combustion engines. Visit Seller's Storefront. Shipping costs are based on books weighing 2.
If your book order is heavy or oversized, we may contact you to let you know extra shipping is required. List this Seller's Books. Payment Methods accepted by seller. BookVistas Address: November 24, Stock Image. Ltd, New Condition: New Soft cover. Save for Later. download New Price: About this Item This hallmark text is an ideal offering for the course on Internal Combustion Engines.
This revised edition offers complete coverage of the fundamental concepts and design aspects by using simple language, self-explanatory sketches and the emerging trends in the field of I C Engines. Bookseller Inventory Ask Seller a Question. Bibliographic Details Title: Ltd Publication Date: Softcover Book Condition: New Edition: About this title Synopsis: All books are new. We accept payments by the following methods:Frictional Losses I The thermodynamic cycle is com- pleted in two strokes of the piston or in one revolution of the crankshaft Thus one power stroke is obtained in each revolution of the crankshaft.
Engine I: Assuming it to be a single cylinder square engine, calculate thc crank radius and the speed of the engine. By its inherent features, this engine usually functions on the principle of two-stroke engines.