Intro to Work Study - ILO - George Kanawaty - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) , Text File .txt) or read book online. a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level or performance.” Introduction. Productivity. Work Study. Method Study. Introduction to Work Study (4th ed.) by George Kanawaty. Read online, or download in secure PDF format.

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Definition. Work Study is the systematic study of work systems with the purposes of. 1) developing the preferred system and method. 2) standardizing this system. free download introduction to work study kanawaty george pdf book introduction to work study kanawaty george download ebook introduction to work study. Introduction to work study. 1. Training Programme For Sewing Floor Staff @ D.B.L ; 2. APPROACH TO WORK STUDY Conducted by: .

To standardise the method of doing a work, 2.

To minimise the unit cost of production, 3. To determine the standard time for doing a task, 4. To eliminate unnecessary human movements, 6. To utilise facilities such as man, machine and materials most effectively, and 7. To a systematic investigation of all factors.

WORK STUDY - Production and Operations Management

Objectives of Work Study: The following are the objectives of work study: 1. Increased efficiency, 3. To choose the fastest method to do a job, 4.


To improve the working process, 5. Effective utilisation of resources, 8.


To decide equipment requirements, 9. To aid in calculating exact delivery, To formulate realistic labour budgeting, and To decide the required manpower to do a job.

Work study ensures higher productivity, 2. His input has not changed. First, productivity was used to measure increase in output expressed in numbers of pots produced, in the first case, and in monetary terms in the second, giving different values in each case.

In other words, depending on what one is interested in measuring, the nature of the output and input will vary accordingly. Second, while actual production increased in this example from to pots, productivity in monetary terms did not show the same corresponding increase. This means that we have to distinguish between increased production and increased productivity, which in this example was measured in terms of monetary gains.

Introduction to Work Study

Let us continue with our example and assume that the potter decided to replace his wood-fired kiln by an oil-fired kiln. Let us also assume that his production remained constant at pots a month. Measured in monetary terms, the value of his output is X 1.

However, our potter may wish to argue that as a result of the new kiln his quality has improved, that he will have fewer rejects returned and that the users' satisfaction will increase over time so that he may be able to increase his price again. Furthermore, his own sense of satisfaction at work has improved, as it has become much easier to operate the new kiln. Here, the definition of the output has been enlarged to encompass quality and a relatively intangible factor, that of consumer satisfaction.

Similarly, the input now encompasses another intangible factor, that of satisfaction at work. Thus productivity gains become more difficult to measure accurately because of these intangible factors and because of the time lag that needs to be estimated until users' satisfaction will permit an increase in prices of the pots produced in the new kiln.

This simple example helps to show that the factors affecting productivity in an organization are many, and often interrelated. Many people have been misled into thinking of productivity exclusively as the productivity of labour, mainly because labour productivity usually forms the basis for published statistics on the subject. It also becomes evident how, in a community or a country, improving productivity or extracting the best possible yield from available resources does not mean exploitation of labour but the harnessing of all available resources to stimulate a higher rate of growth that can be used for social betterment, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life.

International Labour Office Geneva

In this book, however, we will be restricting ourselves to productivity issues and more specifically to work study as it applies to the individual enterprise.

Productivity in the individual enterprise Productivity in the individual enterprise may be affected by a series of external factors, as well as by a number of deficiencies in its operations or internal factors.

Examples of external factors include the availability of raw materials and skilled labour, government policies towards taxation and tariffs, existing infrastructure, capital availability and interest rates, and adjustment measures applied to the economy or to certain sectors by the government. These external factors are beyond the control of any one employer. Other factors, however, are within the control of managers in an enterprise and these are the ones that will be discussed.

The output and input factors n an enterprise In a typical enterprise the output is normally defined in terms of products or services rendered. In a manufacturing concern, products are expressed in numbers, by value and by conformity to predetermined quality standards. In a service enterprise such as a public transport company or a travel agency, the output is expressed in terms of the services rendered.In such a case the four resources become unco-ordinated like the efforts of four horses without a driver.

See note at the bottom of figure 2. Mitchell, who, as Chief of I. Productivity in the Individual Enterprise By failing to ensure that designs are properly developed or that customers' requirements are met from the beginning.

Standardization of products or parts will make the job of inventory control easier by demanding less variety of materials to be bought and held in stock. And if input increases by a greater percentage than output.