MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS PDF

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page of the text, and compare this to the version number of the latest PDF version He is the author of Marketing Communications: engagement, strategies and. Marketing communications defined; Nature of information; Consumer The role of Public Relations in marketing communications; Functions of Public Relations. Marketing Communications. Pages · · MB Integrated Marketing Communications the role of social media in the marketing communication mix.


Marketing Communications Pdf

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Marketing communications is a management process through which an organisation engages with its various audiences. By understanding an audience's. BMA MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Semester 1, THIS UNIT IS BEING OFFERED IN Hobart, Launceston & by distance Teaching Team: Dr Kim. N Marketing Communications Lecture notes Dr Robert Cluley B76 Business School North [email protected] N Marketing.

Discussion of the current target market s. Who are they, and what are their characteristics? Overview of the current communication tools used. What level of integration is there? Discussion of the current creative strategy.

For example, what is the campaign theme? What execution techniques are apparent? Outline of the basic problems or issues you see in the current campaign. Discussion of the strategies you propose that the client should consider for their new or revised campaign, including which communications tools you believe will be the most appropriate in o e i g the lie t s essage to the ta get a ket s , a d a changes to the creative strategy or execution techniques.

The specific guidelines for this item are: The report should include an introduction and a conclusion. The word count includes such items as headings, in-text references and quotes. Do not use coursework from other universities or from non-academic websites, e. Wikipedia, as references.

Assessment Criteria: The following documents will be available through MyLO: Presentation to the client of the new or revised campaign Your task now is to convince the client to accept the new or revised campaign proposal. How you attempt to do that is an important part of the process. While substance is crucial, style is important, too.

What’s new in the ICC Marketing Code?

Please keep in mind that you are also selling your agency, its people, and its capabilities. In afti g ou age s pit h, the lie t e uests that ou p o ide the following information: A brief introduction of your agency and team members.

An overview of the basic problems or issues you found in the current campaign. A brief overview of the new or revised marketing communication strategies.

Particular focus should be placed on any changes to the target market, an explanation of the creative strategy and its rationale. Identification of the communications tools you propose to use, and how they work together to achieve the communications objectives.

A beginner's guide to marketing communications [PDF]

Consequently, the p ese tatio ust e usi esslike a d p a ti all fo used, adopti g a eal o ld pe spe ti e ega di g esou es a d assu ptio s. Gi e the st i t time limitations, you do not need to include discussion of theoretical issues. Note that this item of assessment relates to presentation skills, as much as to knowledge of marketing theory.

Attention should be paid to all aspects of professional presentation, including standards of dress, language, and the quality and layout of presentation materials. This should be uploaded to filesharing site SlideShare. Detailed submission instructions, technical requirements, and information on suggested software is available on MyLO: Video, presentation to camera - maximum length of 6 minutes Accompanying PowerPoint presentation — 12 slides maximum Due Date: Report on the marketing communication strategies for the proposed campaign Your agency has won the account from its rival, and it is now time to detail your research, the proposed strategies, and the theory underpinning your decisions.

The report can be divided into three sections as set out below. Note that while some of the topics within these sections have been covered in the Critical Analysis and the Campaign Pitch, more detail is required in this item, both in the explanation of your strategies, and in relation to the theory underpinning your decisions.

Segmentation allows marketers to deliver messages more precisely and to prevent wasted coverage to consumers who do not fit the profile of the target market. A a d s positio ep ese ts the ke featu e, e efit o image that it sta ds fo i the ta get a ket s olle ti e i d. Ma kete s de isio s a e ased o the u de l i g goals or objectives that need to be accomplished for a brand. The content of these objectives varies according to the form of marketing communications used.

This includes the rationale behind the primary communications objective s , the links to the target market s , and the major selling idea.

How it communicates the major selling idea, and what provides the common thread that will run through all communications tools. You also need to consider the use of imagery, colour, logos, taglines, etc. What execution techniques are proposed? You need to justify why this would be appropriate for the target market and campaign theme. Explanation of how the creative strategies noted above will be integ ated a oss all the hose tools to ei fo e the a d s positioning.

Outline of the marketing communication tools you have chosen. Why, and how do they align with your objectives? All marketing communication messages require some form of media for transmission. You need to note the choices between channels and media outlets and their relative usefulness.

An issue that confronts all organisations is deciding how to allocate their resources between the various options. The costs of the channels and outlets need consideration, as does issues such as reach and frequency.

Identify and explain how the recommended communications tools will be strategically integrated to support the campaign theme and achieve the communications objectives. An executive summary is not required. This is an academic assignment and you are expected to support your conclusions with at least ten 10 references to the relevant and contemporary academic literature.

Students may also contact the Student Adviser who will be able to help in identifying the issues that need to be addressed, give general advice, assist by liaising with academic staff, as well as referring students to any relevant University-wide support services. The Student Adviser is located in room a in the Commerce Building in Hobart and is contactable by phone on There is also a range of University-wide support services available including Student Services, International Services and Learning Development.

Please refer to the Current Students homepage at http: Should a student require assistance in accessing the Library, visit their website for more information at http: Students who have completed their examinations and who feel that they have been disadvantaged due to illness or other circumstances affecting their study, may fill out a form to request that their lecturer takes this into consideration when marking the examination.

Forms should be submitted directly to the relevant school, accompanied by appropriate supporting documentation, as soon as possible after the completion of the examination. Granting of special consideration is at the discretion of the lecturer and school. The relevant form can be found at the following website: This dictionary must not be annotated — that is, it must have no notes written in it.

Students must request permission from the Student Centre in order to use a bilingual dictionary. Submission of Coursework Lodging Coursework All Coursework must have the School of Management Assignment Cover Sheet inserted as the first page of the assignment not as a separate file. The Sheet is available as a blank template from the School of Management website: Please remember that you are responsible for lodging your Coursework on or before the due date.

We suggest you keep a op.

All coursework must be handed in by 2. Please note: Detailed submission instructions are available on MyLO: Requests for Extensions Written Coursework: Extensions will only be granted on medical or compassionate grounds and will not be granted because of work or other commitments.

Requests for extensions should be made in writing to the unit coordinator prior to the due date. Medical certificates or other evidence must be attached and must contain information which justifies the extension sought.

Late assignments which have not ee g a ted a e te sio ill, at the le tu e s dis etio , e pe alised dedu ti g te pe e t of total marks for each full day overdue. Assignments submitted more than five days late will normally not be accepted by the unit coordinator. Faculty of Business Late Assessment Policy A full copy of the Faculty of Business late assessment policy is available from the Faculty homepage at http: Academic Referencing and Style Guide Before starting their assignments, students are advised to familiarise themselves with the following electronic resources.

The first is the School of Management Guide to Writing Assignment, which can be accessed from the following site -: Think, for instance, of the difference between an site listing and an advert. When we list an item on site, essentially all we are doing is announcing that we have an item for sale. We are providing news to potential customers.

In theory, at least, we will try to provide as much accurate information about the product as we can to help downloaders make an informed choice. It is designed to attract and persuade potential customers. It does not simply list information about the product — indeed, as we will see much advertising contains no product information at all — but rather it sells.

Specifically, it works by creating awareness of a product, interest in the features it offers, desire for it and encourages someone to act on that desire this is known as the AIDA model of sales.

Marketing Communications

Put more simply, it promotes and persuades. Balancing the need to grab attention with the subtle art of persuasion is, it turns out, not easy. Indeed, one of the first problems that advertisers encountered is that promotion often gets in the way of persuasion.

In other words, as too many adverts attempted to grab attention by making large promises, readers quickly became sceptical about the promises and, as a consequence, they lost some of their persuasive power. Managing this tension has provided advertisers with one of their most enduring sources of inspiration and innovation. References Fletcher, W. N Marketing Communications Persuasive communication, cyborgs and robots OBJECTIVE: To introduce theories of advertising developed through cognitive psychology and compare these with explanations developed using social psychological concepts.

Last week we explored how advertising practitioners have developed different techniques that balance their need to promote their messages with the need to be persuasive — informed by the AIDA model of sales. This week we will explore three psychological theories that explain how advertising works — that is to say, theories which unlock the blackbox in some way.

The starting point of the IPM is that consumers extract information from adverts to inform their download decisions. At its most basic, the model describes a number of steps through which consumers pass as they extract that information: exposure, attention, comprehension, yielding and retention.

Informed by this model, researchers have investigated what types of information consumers use and how best to present that information to ensure that consumers access the information in adverts. One of the problems with the IPM is that it turns out that not many adverts include the kinds of product information it suggests and not that many consumers actually go through the process it sets out.

It does this by shifting our focus from the information in an advert to the attitude of the consumer to it. In other words, ELM acknowledges that people will interpret, rather than receive, information. It also allows for consumers who do not pay a great deal of attention to adverts by describing two routes through which consumers can be affected by adverts.

Typically, this occurs when the person has a positive attitude towards the advert that leads them to pay attention to it. According to the model, the peripheral route can only change attitudes, allowing subsequent communications to pass through the central route. So, ELM assumes that true persuasion — a change of attitude — is a function of the elaboration that occurs as a result of an advert. But clearly, given the level of advertising exposure, it is more common for advertising to not work than for it to work.

It is here that low-involvement models have been developed. The starting point for these models is that much consumer decision making does not involve a rigorous evaluation of alternatives but, instead, habit and repeat downloading.

Empirical research suggests that when a consumer tries something new it is not because they have been convinced it is better option but, rather, because they want to try a new product to see if it is better. As such, low involvement models tell us that advertising can really only make a consumer aware of a product.

This allows consumers to trial a new option. Following this, advertising can reinforce any positive experiences such that the consumer is encouraged into repeat downloading.

Thus, from low-involvement research, we get the Awareness-Trial- Reinforcement model of advertising. Indeed, each is based on ideas developed within cognitive psychology rather than behavioural psychology. The particular hierarchy that each focuses on information, attitude, habit is based on a particular idea of how people make decisions — that is to say, each is based on a different theory of consumer behaviour. To bring out these assumptions, we will close by contrasting these models with a social psychological explanation of advertising.

Here, it is argued that advertising provides various forms of social pressure that make us conform to advertising messages. So far we have considered how advertising changes behaviours through information, attitudes and habit. In contrast, other adverts do something else. They produce brands. In this regard, in a famous text, a cultural theorist called Raymond Williams describes advertising as a magic system. For Williams, advertising should, therefore, be considered as a form of black magic, like voodoo, through which objects take on meanings that have nothing to do with them.

Taking this critique further, a range of social theorists have argued that advertising has, in the first instance, turned us into consumers who value brands over things. For now, we will think about how marketing communications can perform the magic that Williams discusses.

This perspective starts from the assumption that people are motivated by something internal to them — not something that is imported in through advertising. These internal drives and desires are, according to motivation researchers, hidden. In this sense, a key distinction for motivation researchers is the difference between the source of motivations and the aims of them. The sources of motivations are relatively limited survival, pleasure and so on. But the aims of motivation can change to fit our individual and social contexts.

Instead, the cultural and social contexts in which a particular group of consumers live will determine their desires into a number of identifiable segments but these may well differ to other consumers in other cultural and social settings. In this regard, motivation research encouraged advertisers to adopt the methods of cultural analysis developed within anthropology to see how particular objects could take on new meanings. Through this, advertising practitioners moved away from sending information and obvious selling.

Instead, they turned toward the use of symbolism and imagery. These techniques allowed them to create the associations between objects and desires. Indeed, it is here that advertising has come into increasing contact with cultural texts such as movie characters, celebrities, art and popular music. These texts have meanings which advertisers can invest in products.

Exploring the links between products, meaning and culture has occupied some of the best semiotic and post-modernist thinkers of recent times. Within marketing communications research, for example, Mickey analyses how a large public relations firm, hired by a group called Citizens for a Free Kuwait, was able to push the case for American intervention in what later became known as the Gulf War by manipulating the media. They formed a backdrop out of which public opinion in America towards Kuwait shifted and laid the ground for war.

It turned out the Kuwaiti girl who gave such compelling testimony was actually the daughter of the Kuwaiti Ambassador to the USA. Her testimony had been prepared as a piece of rhetoric by the PR firm and she had been coached to deliver the most emotive performance she could. By that point, however, it was too late. America was already at war. For Mickey, this case shows how marketing communications techniques can use the mass media and cultural forms to create contagious ideas that change how people interpret the world.

References Mickey, T. Williams, R. We have seen that advertising is a form of communication that aims to promote and persuade.

We have also seen how those aims are achieved through a combination of different language and media that have, themselves, changed over time. In this class we will explore the ways in which these cultural resources, themselves, have been shaped by their need to appeal to advertisers.

So far we have been dealing with advertising as a form of communication that is separate from cultural texts. In newspapers, for example, we find print advertising demarcated from information and entertainment. In TV, similarly, advertising is separated into commercial breaks or sponsorship announcements at the start and end of shows. In so doing, we will begin to consider the effects of marketing communications in a wider social and cultural context.

Earned advertising occurs when a product or service is recommended or reviewed on a mass media outlet such as a blog or a magazine. A well- established form of earned advertising happens when opinion leaders review products through print and broadcast media.

Here, users of products are able to share their experiences of products and brands with other users. Such communication is thought to be particularly persuasive as the source of the messages is presumed to be unbiased the ELM tells us that source validity is a key driver of consumer attitudes towards persuasive communication.

Demonstrating the assumed impact of earned advertising, brands are increasingly seeking ways to manage these reviews in the same way some lecturers try to garner good feedback! They distribute free products to opinion leaders and even go as far as posting bogus review of their products and services.

Indeed, as we have seen, through the practice of PR, brands have the opportunity to shape both reviews and the news about their products. Typically, they release it for free but make various editorial and artistic demands to ensure the content promotes the brand. The best example of owned advertising is a sponsored web-based show. As with earned advertising, it is thought that such owned advertising is especially powerful because it gets round some of the usual defences people have developed against advertising.

In short, it is hoped people will engage with owned advertising as entertainment and not advertising. Both earned and owned advertising depend on a range of different media — some traditional and some new. However, such media, it is widely agreed, have their own aims.

For example, the news is not concerned with promoting or persuading but informing public debate. Equally, entertainment is thought to offer a chance to escape from the daily grind and expand our horizons.

Some argue that these goals can live in harmony with the aims of advertising. Economic historians such as Petrova have demonstrated that, historically, the growth of an advertising market is an important factor in the provision of an independent news media. However, others argue that the goals of these different media often come into conflict with the aims of advertising. If we take the goal of journalism to be the provision of information that is not only true but independently verified, we can see begin to see where potential conflicts might arise.

According to the model, the peripheral route can only change attitudes, allowing subsequent communications to pass through the central route. So, ELM assumes that true persuasion — a change of attitude — is a function of the elaboration that occurs as a result of an advert.

But clearly, given the level of advertising exposure, it is more common for advertising to not work than for it to work. It is here that low-involvement models have been developed.

The starting point for these models is that much consumer decision making does not involve a rigorous evaluation of alternatives but, instead, habit and repeat downloading.

Empirical research suggests that when a consumer tries something new it is not because they have been convinced it is better option but, rather, because they want to try a new product to see if it is better.

As such, low involvement models tell us that advertising can really only make a consumer aware of a product. This allows consumers to trial a new option. Following this, advertising can reinforce any positive experiences such that the consumer is encouraged into repeat downloading. Thus, from low-involvement research, we get the Awareness-Trial- Reinforcement model of advertising.

Indeed, each is based on ideas developed within cognitive psychology rather than behavioural psychology. The particular hierarchy that each focuses on information, attitude, habit is based on a particular idea of how people make decisions — that is to say, each is based on a different theory of consumer behaviour. Here, it is argued that advertising provides various forms of social pressure that make us conform to advertising messages.

To introduce the cultural critique of advertising and set out how advertising creates brands through motivation research. So far we have considered how advertising changes behaviours through information, attitudes and habit. In contrast, other adverts do something else.

They produce brands. In this regard, in a famous text, a cultural theorist called Raymond Williams describes advertising as a magic system. For Williams, advertising should, therefore, be considered as a form of black magic, like voodoo, through which objects take on meanings that have nothing to do with them. Taking this critique further, a range of social theorists have argued that advertising has, in the first instance, turned us into consumers who value brands over things.

For now, we will think about how marketing communications can perform the magic that Williams discusses. This perspective starts from the assumption that people are motivated by something internal to them — not something that is imported in through advertising.

These internal drives and desires are, according to motivation researchers, hidden. In this sense, a key distinction for motivation researchers is the difference between the source of motivations and the aims of them. The sources of motivations are relatively limited survival, pleasure and so on.

But the aims of motivation can change to fit our individual and social contexts. Instead, the cultural and social contexts in which a particular group of consumers live will determine their desires into a number of identifiable segments but these may well differ to other consumers in other cultural and social settings.

In this regard, motivation research encouraged advertisers to adopt the methods of cultural analysis developed within anthropology to see how particular objects could take on new meanings. Through this, advertising practitioners moved away from sending information and obvious selling.

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Instead, they turned toward the use of symbolism and imagery. These techniques allowed them to create the associations between objects and desires. Indeed, it is here that advertising has come into increasing contact with cultural texts such as movie characters, celebrities, art and popular music. These texts have meanings which advertisers can invest in products. Exploring the links between products, meaning and culture has occupied some of the best semiotic and post-modernist thinkers of recent times.

Within marketing communications research, for example, Mickey analyses how a large public relations firm, hired by a group called Citizens for a Free Kuwait, was able to push the case for American intervention in what later became known as the Gulf War by manipulating the media. They formed a backdrop out of which public opinion in America towards Kuwait shifted and laid the ground for war.

It turned out the Kuwaiti girl who gave such compelling testimony was actually the daughter of the Kuwaiti Ambassador to the USA. Her testimony had been prepared as a piece of rhetoric by the PR firm and she had been coached to deliver the most emotive performance she could. By that point, however, it was too late. America was already at war. For Mickey, this case shows how marketing communications techniques can use the mass media and cultural forms to create contagious ideas that change how people interpret the world.

References Mickey, T. Williams, R. To explore contemporary advertising practices and their influence on culture and public discourse. We have seen that advertising is a form of communication that aims to promote and persuade. We have also seen how those aims are achieved through a combination of different language and media that have, themselves, changed over time.

In this class we will explore the ways in which these cultural resources, themselves, have been shaped by their need to appeal to advertisers. So far we have been dealing with advertising as a form of communication that is separate from cultural texts.

In newspapers, for example, we find print advertising demarcated from information and entertainment. In TV, similarly, advertising is separated into commercial breaks or sponsorship announcements at the start and end of shows. In so doing, we will begin to consider the effects of marketing communications in a wider social and cultural context.

Earned advertising occurs when a product or service is recommended or reviewed on a mass media outlet such as a blog or a magazine. Here, users of products are able to share their experiences of products and brands with other users.

Such communication is thought to be particularly persuasive as the source of the messages is presumed to be unbiased the ELM tells us that source validity is a key driver of consumer attitudes towards persuasive communication. Demonstrating the assumed impact of earned advertising, brands are increasingly seeking ways to manage these reviews in the same way some lecturers try to garner good feedback! They distribute free products to opinion leaders and even go as far as posting bogus review of their products and services.

Indeed, as we have seen, through the practice of PR, brands have the opportunity to shape both reviews and the news about their products. Typically, they release it for free but make various editorial and artistic demands to ensure the content promotes the brand. The best example of owned advertising is a sponsored web-based show. As with earned advertising, it is thought that such owned advertising is especially powerful because it gets round some of the usual defences people have developed against advertising.

In short, it is hoped people will engage with owned advertising as entertainment and not advertising. Both earned and owned advertising depend on a range of different media — some traditional and some new. However, such media, it is widely agreed, have their own aims. For example, the news is not concerned with promoting or persuading but informing public debate.

Equally, entertainment is thought to offer a chance to escape from the daily grind and expand our horizons. Economic historians such as Petrova have demonstrated that, historically, the growth of an advertising market is an important factor in the provision of an independent news media.

However, others argue that the goals of these different media often come into conflict with the aims of advertising. If we take the goal of journalism to be the provision of information that is not only true but independently verified, we can see begin to see where potential conflicts might arise. For advertisers information is always a means to an end — it is used to encourage consumers to download a product, change their attitudes or invest more value in a brand.

Which type of communication will triumph if they come into conflict? Well, when advertisers fund the media they may hold power in the relationship. In this regard, Bagdikian reported that in the early s the mass media was funded at a rate of 5: So, even in the absence of an explicit influence, marketing communications practice might exert an implicit influence over content producers.

Here, Herman and Chomsky describe the apparently independent media in the USA and elsewhere as a channel for business propaganda rather than information. There argue that the organization of the free press has produced a systematic media bias in favour of powerful interests from business.

We will expand on these concerns in coming weeks. The important point, for now, is to recognise how advertising is expanding into new media and developing new techniques to persuade consumers. References Bagdikian, B. Beacon Press. Herman, E. Petrova, M. To set out contemporary developments in the advertising industry and explore how they have affected advertising practice.

In this class we will return to the advertising industry. We have already seen the basic tripartite structure of the industry and explored how the relationships between the advertisers, agencies and media providers work through things like the creative brief.

We have also seen that after advertisers recognized the power of advertising as salesmanship on paper they moved from producing market information to a more creative form of advertising that used humour, fear, art, culture and many other techniques to motivate consumers to download a product or value a brand.

These agencies included a number of different business functions that helped them to listen to their clients, produce creative advertising and download media space to display adverts and campaigns.

Put in more technical terms, full service agencies include: Somewhat ironically given its lowly status within many agencies, traditionally the most profitable function for full service agencies has been the media planning function.

The latter did not pay commission. Up to the s most full service agencies were run as partnerships - often, owned and named after prominent creative talent such as Ogilvy, Collett Dickenson Pearce, etc.

But, for a variety of reasons, in the s this changed. First, larger agencies started to download out smaller ones. This was often done to acquire key accounts or creative expertise or enter new markets American agencies, in particular, often felt the need to follow their clients as they moved into new territories — believing that physical proximity was an essential ingredient for their relationship to stay secure.

Second, in order to access finance to make such downloads, many larger agencies moved from being partnerships to public companies listed on stock-markets. Unsurprisingly, this had a number of knock-on effects: Given the close relationship between clients and agencies built, primarily, around the problems faced by the clients , agencies would not work with multiple clients operating in a particular market. In so doing, agencies began to move away from the full service model.

Indeed, as the media planning function, in particular, did not involve a great deal of interaction with clients, conflict was less of an issue here and this was, consequently, an area where many specialist independent agencies developed. By specializing in media planning, these new agencies focused precisely on the bit of advertising that actually made a profit. As they cut out many of the costly business functions, and specialized in bulk downloading of media space, they could also offer lower commission rates.

The result of these changes to the structure and working practices of the advertising industry has been that advertising has increasingly become a service that is evaluated by clients in terms of price.As a suggestion, you might wish to consider allocating some individual tasks that are part of the critical analysis and a paig pit h s de elop e t hile o ki g olle ti el upo the spe ifi fo us of the assess e t.

In addition, countless social theorists have accused advertising of promoting damaging cultural values. The following documents will be available through MyLO: For Aristotle, rhetoric is the ability to spot the means of persuasion in any given situation.

Discuss some of the reasons that marketers may be shifting advertising dollars to less traditional media. That is to say, we need to be able to present a coherent and supported argument.