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Kozinets () Netnography - Doing Ethnographic Research Online (1) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Of course, this. guide to doing ethnographic work on online communities in the field of consumer and marketing research. As the author de- fines it, “netnography” is a form of ethnographic research, adopting . /volumes/8/3/kaz-news.info [June 1, ]. Delia D. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online-Info, Free Book . If you want Chapter 1 all to yourself, you can download a pdf of it by just clicking here.
We lurk in. It is somewhat surprising that more anthropologists have not conducted online ethno graphies. He further elaborates that there is a surprisingly complex and dynamic relationship between skinhead culture online and notions of race and racism. Williams and Copes They reveal tensions between commercial orientations and power structures online and the communal forms that they promote. Online communities are widespread phenomena. She relates cyberculture to the postmodern notion of the fragmented.
In one anthropological investigation. In their study of an edgy. Campbell studies skinhead culture online. When we go online. The computer. There are a number of important theoretical and practical implications to the fact that participants can use these sites to engage in voice and resistance efforts out side of the formal boundaries of various types of organizations such as human resource departments or labour unions.
Because of online communities and ICT. They describe a paradox in which the Internet is both liberating and constraining in the lives of those partaking in this particular community of practice. Kozinets and Sherry also studied these tensions between communities and the commercial organizations of wider society in the setting of the Burning Man festival and its all—year—round online community.
Gossett and Kilker undertook a study of counter institutional websites.
They do this in an anonymous and supportive envi ronment that offers them a reduced fear of retribution or termination from their jobs. Another important theme is that of the interrelationship between commercial and marketing institutions and the communities that they foster. Kozinets identified several core tensions between the stigmatized Star Trek and media fan communities. In this respect cyberspace is no longer distinct and separate from the real world.
Kanayama asserts that elderly Japanese people beneficially partake in online community interactions with one another in a variety of ways and use diverse linguistic formats such as emoticons and haiku. It is part of everyday life. She also recounts the interesting combination of realistic and fantastic elements that allow for rich and playful online communication to arise.
Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online
Online communities even appear to be changing the nature of work and work relationships. They assert that these sites enable and empower individuals to publicly and anonymously voice their work-based frustrations.
Whitty also explores the widely reputed aspect of disembodiment online. Demonstrating that the use and importance of online communities are not limited to the young or middle—aged. She suggests that. Her study. Carter advances the argument that some people are investing as much time and effort in online relation ships as they are in their other relationships. In her study of relationships and friendships online. Along these lines.
This factor creates. He depicts gay Internet portals openly courting the gay community online with promises of inclu sion and an authentic communal experience. Robert McDougal suggests. He suggests that. It is also the case that online community participation seems to weaken the influence of existing local cultures and their embedded practices.
Bolanle Olaniran A salient point is raised by Olaniran He notes that: The communication implication is that members must develop a new set of norms that is unique to their particular group.
An early study concludes that environmental organizations became more politically active because of the Internet and online communities Zeiwietro Olaniran The longer—term implications of this delocalizing trend for local communities and traditional ways of life are far from clear. Campbell and Carlson This will help you evaluate these approaches before we proceed to the chapters that introduce.
European Management Journal. Annette N. The Social Net: Human Behavior hi cyberspace. The following chapter overviews and compares various research methods used to understand the social world of online communities and cultures.
Communication Research. Ethnographic inves tigations teach us about the varieties of strategies and practices used to create a communal sense and also teach us about the varieties and substance of online community participation. Thousand Oaks. Interpersonal Processes in Electronic Groups. Joseph B. Nancy K. Log On: Researching Real Experience in Virtual Space.
Recent developments in ethnographic online research reveal how much online communities are changing notions of the self. Walnut Creek. Robert V. Oxford University Press. In contemporary academia. Question-centered guidelines help the researcher integrate these approaches with one another and with netnography.
The focus and research domain of each method is compared. This is unfortu nate. Creswell Many methods are complementary with netnography. Collecting and analysing those data. My general advice to scholars is to read in an area of scholarship that interests you.
The method you choose to do your research should depend upon the nature and scope of your question. These techniques can also help to tell other researchers who will come later what are the most interesting constructs and relationships.
Despite what anyone might tell you.
The guiding advice here is that your research method should be directly related to provide data and analysis capable of answering the research question that you want to investigate. Consider that the conversational data flowing through the Internet are composed of various numerical bits riding wires between various distant servers.
Sudweeks and Simoff It is this matching process between approaches and questions that should interest netnographic researchers.
The explanations that follow. Creswell complicates the neat division between qualitative and quantitative research. Ask your self: As thinking becomes more developed about some of these topics.
It can only be better at studying a particular phenomenon or at answering particular types of research questions. In a new or constantly changing field such as Internet studies. It attaches itself to and incorporates a vast variety of different research techniques and approaches. Surveys have been useful for providing an initial overview of the area of online communities, from which we have been able to discern largescale patterns. Once researchers have determined adequate categorizations and clas sifications, surveys can assist in understanding how popular and even how valid these categorizations might be.
Surveys can also be used after online interviews in order to confirm or verify particular kinds of local understanding. How many people read blogs? How many use online communities to learn about a hobby? How often do people check with their online communities? All of these questions require survey research. The application of surveys using web-pages or other online formats is called the online survey method.
Online survey methods have grown rapidly in the last decade Andrews et al. From practically a standing start, online surveys have become the major method for investigating a wide variety of social questions. Online surveys are an excellent way to gain a particular kind of understanding about online communities and culture.
There are two kinds of online surveys salient to this discussion. The first are surveys that deal with online commu nity topics, and reveal to us aspects of online community and culture. The second are sur veys that deal with other topics not directly related to online communities or cultures, but which study topics using or among members of an online community.
Let us talk about the latter, more general, type of online survey first. Whereas the traditional mail or telephone survey excluded a lot of potential researchers from large— scale data collection Couper , online surveys are far more accessible and easyto-use. For example, the online service SurveyMonkey.
The service is also currently free to use for students or others doing small-scale samples. It has been very popular with students in my courses. Research by Watt even demonstrates that the cost per respondent can decrease dramatically as the online sample size increases, something that does not happen with any other form of survey.
In terms of accu racy, research thus far indicates that the results of online surveys seem not to differ significantly from the results of postal surveys, but offer strong advantages in distrib ution and turnaround time Andrews et al.
Online surveys are unique. They have distinct characteristics such as their technological features, the particular demographic characteristics of the groups they survey on the Internet, and the particular patterns of respondent responses. The Pew Internet Reports are valuable sets of data that help us to under stand the rapidly changing world of online activity They are the results of survey research.
Many researchers interested in the overall complexion of the Internet and its online cultures and communities employ these data. They use them in order to understand the frequency, popularity and changes in the activities of people as they interact and communicate online, use blogs, and utilize social technology tools.
These survey—based studies also illuminate interesting patterns of usage by different demo graphic groups, such as men and women, different ethnic groups and races, and different ages and generational cohorts.
Similarly, repeat surveys of online panels such as The Digital Futures Project are useful as tracking studies enabling us to discern changing general patterns in online community usage. The Spectator category encompasses 48 per cent of online adult Americans, two-thirds ofJapanese online adults and those in large Chinese cities, and 37 per cent of online adult Europeans Li and Bernoff , p.
According to Forrester Research, 18 per cent of the adult online population in the United States, 10 per cent of European adults online, and an amazing 38 per cent of South Koreans online are Creators, the backbones of many online communities Li and Bernoff , pp.
These survey—derived global statistics reinforce the widespread nature of online community participation. Surveys about the world of online culture and communities provide answers to questions about adoption, usage patterns, usage preferences, and demographics. Online surveys are therefore good for research on online cultures and communities in which you want to: Online and other surveys can help answer research questions about online cultures and communities such as: How many people around the world participate in online communities?
Do men participate in online communities more than women? What are the most popular online community activities?
How many people in Finland log on to a virtual world daily? How much time do teenagers spend using e—mail versus social networking sites? How many people plan to meet someone they met through an online community in the next year?
Surveys are not particularly appropriate for research that must: That, however, is a big difference. In the physical world, the topic of interviewing is so intertwined with the conduct of ethnography that the two are virtually inseparable.
So it is with netnog raphy and online interviewing. The online interview has become a staple of online ethnographic research, present as part of the method from the very beginnings of work in this field e.
In this chapter, 1 will overview the conduct of online depth inter views. Although, as we will see in the next few chapters, it is possible to conduct a purely observational netnography, the recommended participant—observational stance very often dictates an interview component online or off. Bruckman , p. Although I agree that synchronous, text—based, chat interviews tend to offer a very thin and often rather rushed and superficial interaction, I believe that other online means such as e—mail, and of course online audio and audio visual connections, are extremely valuable see Kivits Chapter 6, which examines netnographic data collection methods, will feature a detailed discussion and set of guidelines to help plan and conduct interviews.
Online interviews have traditionally been hindered by the lack of individual identifiers and body language.
Who, exactly, am I speaking to? Barring some way to contextualize the social and cultural data beyond the self—evident fact of the online encounter, the data can be difficult to interpret.
In Chapters 6 and 7, we will discuss these issues and provide some strategies for dealing with them. Conducting an interview through your computer means that your communi cations are going to be shaped by the medium you use.
Studies seeking to under stand the subjective impact of Internet connectivity can also collect documents from research participants. These documents often take the form of diaries or jour nals in which participants record day—to—day or even hour-by—hour events, reflec tions, or impressions of experiences.
For example, Andrusyszyn and Davie describe the interactive journal—writing study they undertook online. The online format of journal writing or diary keeping has several inherent advantages. Participants can be reminded or prompted automatically for their entries. Entries can be automatically saved. As well, participants can enter their journals in a form that is easier to read than handwriting, and in computer—readable text form. Many of the advantages of online interviewing can also pertain to the data arising from online diaries or journals.
Depending on your research focus, you may or may not need the sort of detailed, open—ended, descriptive, reflexive personal understanding that can be gained from journals or depth interviews. As with in—person ethnography, a simple in situ conversation, or a quick exchange of information, might suffice to inform your research question. As with research in general, the recommended type of interview is going to be determined by the type of data that are required.
For the type of nuanced cultural understandings of online social groups that are usually sought in a. Online depth interviews are appropriate for research on online cultures and communities in which you must: Depth interviews allow netnographic researchers to broaden their understanding of what they observe online.
Online interviews can help answer research questions about online cultures and communities such as: What are the most common metaphors that people in Norway use to understand online culture? What impact do the stories that people hear in online communities have on the way that they connect with their spouse? Interviews are not necessarily useful when you want to: Most online ethnographers in cultural studies.
In this way. Members of the focus group might see each other. The group could be moderated in order to prevent one or two people from dominating the session as often happens in the face—to—face settings. Online focus group interviews have become popular in the last five years.
Gaiser considered some of the opportunities for method ological innovation with online focus groups. In addition it could be quite similar to a series of personal depth interviews conducted in sequential or even parallel fashion.
Focus groups are a popular form of qualitative research used to gather opinions and perspectives rapidly as an input for industrial or governmental decision-making. Software is now readily available for online focus group interviews.. Kozinets a.
Cherny The dynamic group interactions of a focus group create challenges for moderators as well as interesting research findings. A majority of research studies using focus group techniques have used asynchro nous methods. The ability to conduct question-and-answer sessions in asynchronous fashion with the group is. The online medium also offers the focus group moderator new flexibility. Jenkins The focus group conducted through teleconferencing software has been heralded as one of the major trends in focus group development Greenbaum and the procedures for conducting them have been honed by a number of commercial marketing research companies.
Other important conclusions about synchronous focus group interviews are that: Hughes and Lang offer a range of useful methodological guidelines for online focus groups. These patterns are quite familiar. It may be at this point that these methods begin to shade subtly one into the other. Baym The online focus group session can be staggered in time.
In an early exposition. An asynchronous posting of a set of questions to a group is also a common technique in netnography. METHODS and 5 the method requires technologically literate and keyboard-skilled participants who may not always be available or appropriate Hughes and Lang Examples of ties would include sharing information. In a netnography. This understanding would be based upon significant quantities of qualitative data gathered from a focus group comprised of specific.
A group of people who are connected by particular social relationships. Wellman This data collection can happen quickly. Netnography tends to be more concerned with the naturally occurring interactions of online groups rather than those of artificial groups that are assembled by researchers for the purpose of some particular investigation.
In social network analysis there are two main units of analysis: A network is composed of a set of actors connected by a set of relational ties. They can be used to learn about the norms.
Unlike online depth interviews. The actors. Mann and Stewart There is. There are many opportunities for synergies between the structural analysis of social networks and the more meaning—centered analysis of netnography.
Social networking analysts seek to describe networks of relations as fully as possible. Netnographers also consider those resources. Carton et al. The fol lowing offers a necessarily brief overview to the adaptation and integration of social networking techniques into netnography.
Netnographers need not adopt social network analysis techniques in their studies. The interested researcher should.
Over the last 30 years. Social network analysis thus deals in relational data and. Wellman et al. Wellman has been one of the key figures. Examining a computer network that connects people together as a social network. Its unit of analysis is the relationship. Social network analysis is structural. Public profiles of individuals or their pseudonyms. This provides a representation of the overall structure of relations. One approach is to survey either an entire group. These questions can also be automated.
Although incomplete. These questions can be limited to certain groups. In studies of whole networks.
Kozinets () Netnography - Doing Ethnographic Research Online (1)
It is certainly possible for software to collect the data about everyone that a person contacts online. Unrestricted studies can reveal the different communities and cultural groups from which particular people draw particular cultural and informational resources.
We could also conceivably study the online coffee connoisseur community as one whole network. The second descriptive approach. Because the consideration of group boundaries is so critical. Multiplex ties are more supportive. Two actors could have a tie based on a single relationship such as belonging to the same American Idol—discussing mailing list. There are several different kinds of centrality.
In general. A central actor in this context is truly in the middle of things.
Eigenvector centrality measures how much a node is connected to other nodes that are also tightly connected to one another. One important measure to netnography is centrality. This pair could also have a multiplex relationship based within a number of differ ent relationships. Relations refer to the resources that are exchanged. There is a range of interesting units of analysis used in social network analysis.
An example might be people who are regular visitors to the same blog. It focuses on measuring how many other actors a particular actor is in direct contact with.
Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online-Info, Free Book Chapters, and More
It is worth noting that these judgements tend to depend upon the cultural situation of social actors whether information is important or trivial is a cultural determination of value. Social network analysis helps us learn about how social networks manifest through computer network connectivity. The more influence an actor has over the flow of information. Multiplexity is one of the properties of social ties.
Figenvector centrality is more concerned with power and influence than popularity. To understand the relationships created by these ties. The strength of ties can be operationalized depending on the type of community.
Peers may communicate more or less frequently. Degree centrality looks at the most popular active actors in a network. Haythornthwaite The automated capture of data can raise concerns about data manage ment. Online commu nities and community networks can also help weak ties grow into strong ties.
Other uses include managing social activism and grassroots campaigns. Online communities appear to be able to help tip latent ties into weak ones. Netnography can also help to inform whether egocen tric or whole network analyses are appropriate. Trusting relationships. There is a vast amount of social network analysis software currently available to assist the social network analyst. Some programs that are commonly used for academic — — Many of the suggestions in this book about matters such as data collection and analysis and Internet research ethics therefore apply equally to netnography as well as to social network analysis of this kind.
Although it is a relatively simple matter to routinely collect information on whole networks or subsamples of networks. With its expansive. Netnography can investigate the meanings behind relationships and ties.
Netnography can identify appropriate nodes whether they are individuals. Netnography can inform and interrelate with social network analysis in several important ways.
Developing trust through reputation systems such as the one that site uses to provide members with feedback on successful transactions is one example.
Netnography can be used to identify appropriate relation ship types to examine further. Most network researchers seem to agree that the best approaches use a combination of data collec tion methods. They are also very useful in analysing relational data and providing visualizations of different arrangements of social networks. Welser et al. Visualization techniques have even been used to study extremely large and diffuse communities. In netnographies.
It can be used to provide additional information. In summary. Social network analysis will allow you to answer research questions such as: Is there a core group and a peripheral group in this particular community?
What are the various subgroups in this community or culture? How does information flow through this particular online community? How does communication in a virtual world differ from face—to—face communi cations in terms of who uses it. Social network analysis. There are many other software programs for business and marketing purposes. Fournier and Lee use social network type diagrams to suggest that there are different. Social network analysis is suitable for research on online cultures and communities in which you want to: These software packages can be used to mine relational data from the Internet.
This chapter has been about highlighting the contrasts between these different methods. When we compare in—person ethnography with face—to—face focus groups and personal inter views.
But the student and researcher should be aware that what is far more important is that other techniques and approaches complement and extend netnography. Social practices are careflilly attended to and systems of meaning delicately unpacked. This is very likely why they are the more popular techniques.
The data — — They are time and resource intensive. This is particularly true of in—person. As it was in the previous sections. In—person ethnographies are extremely valuable in industrial and in academic research. In industrial settings. It provides a sense of the lived experience of culture members. Because they involve in—person partic ipant—observation on the part of the researcher.
In this short section. Social network analysis also has this important benefit. In conjunction with one another. This chapter outlined and overviewed several of. One of the major advantages of netnography is the fact that.
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Netnography also has the potential to be conducted in a manner that is entirely unobtrusive. The rich insight they provide may be why profes sional ethnography is increasingly valued in the world of marketing management. Its techniques are not able to provide a richly textured.
It is apparent that many of these techniques can easily work in concert with one another. In—person ethnographers do not have the option of invisible lurking. Results from one type of study can simply and usefully inform the research questions of any other type of study. In many cases. In terms of expending time making choices about fleidsites. The analysis of existing online community conversations and other Internet discourse combines options that are both naturalistic and unobtrusive a powerful combination that sets netnography apart from focus groups.
These hypotheses can be analysed in online experiments. And the social structures under lying these divergent networks can also be analysed using social network analysis.
Howard T. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communications. Journal of Social Structure. Eric Gleave. Sage Publications. A Handbook for Researching Online.
There are oppor tunities to integrate one or more methods into studies that examine multiple facets of online community phenomena. The general methodological guide lines and comparisons found in this chapter set the stage for the detailed introduction of netnography in the next chapter.
Internet research methods. This chapter explains the nature and role of netnography. Ethnography is an anthropological approach that has gained popularity in sociology.
This chapter seeks to delve into the relation between ethnography and netnography. The procedures include planning. ABSTRACT Netnography adapts common participant-observation ethnographic procedures to the unique contingencies of computer-mediated social interaction: The term refers both to the act of doing. What is ethnography. Dick Hobbs provides a cogent definition of ethnography.
This is because ethnography relies very heav ily on what consumer anthropologist John Sherry It is interlinked with multiple other methods. Sirsi et al. Although ethnography is closely related to the case study and. Description resides at the core of ethnography. They have other names because they are sufficiently different from the overall practice of ethnography that they require unique new designations.
Although they relate to participation in. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.
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Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password.There is much lacking that must be cises that offer much for practice, drill work, and supplemented by the instructor if students are to learning. Jakub Macek usefully typologizes the various concepts of cyberculture into four categories: utopian; informational; anthropological; and epistemological. How many different terms do we need? One of the examples of gold mine is a genuine comment written by a person with a very strong emotions towards the brand, either it is positive or negative.
At a time when journal articles are focused on the effect of feedback timing. Netnography and content analysis differed in the adoption of computational methods for collecting semi-automated data, analyzing data, recognizing words and visualizing data Kozinets, The volume provides a useful source of der implicit and explicit conditions.
These units of conversation are note that the native speaker may provide faulty realized differently in online chat, which lacks feedback, an issue that instructors must address prosodic and kinesthetic means to signal the end in their review of chat transcripts.
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