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The rotation of the drums gives twist and entanglement to the fibers. The yarns that are produced with each spinning method have quite different structures and properties as far as sizing and weaving are concerned.
The ring spun yarns are characterized by high level and relatively uniform twist. In open end spun yarns, there is a distinct core of fibers with relatively low twist; other fibers are wrapped around the core.
The structure of air-jet yarns is in between the open end and ring spun yarns. The strength of MVS yarns is closer to ring spun yarns than the other methods. Ring spun yarns also have the highest elongation followed by jet spun and open end yarns.
The evenness of jet spun yarns is more than open end yarns that are, in turn, more consistent than ring spun yarns. As a result, the jet and open end spun yarns have fewer slubs, thin and thick places which result in less warp stops at the loom. Ring spun yarn has the highest hairiness due to a high twist level that causes the fibers to protrude from the yarn structure. Open end and jet spun yarns are more susceptible to handling damage than ring spun yarns.
Ring spun yarns are costlier than open end yarns which in turn are costlier than Murata vortex spun yarns. Two or more single yarns can be twisted together to obtain ply yarns.
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In the direct yarn number system, weight per unit length is specified. Heavier yarn has greater weight per unit length. In the indirect yarn number system, length per unit weight is specified. Less heavy yarn has greater length per unit weight.
Traditionally, the direct system is used in the metric system and indirect system is used in the English system. However, there are exceptions to this.
Examples of direct yarn number system units are tex and denier. The tex is the weight in grams of meters of yarn. For example, a tex yarn weighs grams per kilometer. In the indirect yarn number system, the number of hanks in one pound of yarn is indicated. If there is one hank in one pound of yarn, then that yarn is called 1s ones single count yarn; if there are 7 hanks, it is called 7s sevens single count, etc.
The length of a hank is different for different kinds of yarns.
Sizing Yarn for Weaving with Singles
A cotton hank is yards. For worsted yarn, one hank is yards and for linen yarn one hank is yards. In the indirect system: 2. Due to this inverse relationship, this system is called the indirect system. The relation between metric count and cotton count is: 2. The letters S and Z are used to designate left and right twist, respectively Figure 2. Twist Multiplier In practice, twist multiplier is used to calculate the turns per inch necessary for a given size spun yarn.
Review Questions 17 2. Brandrup, J. Broughton, R. Find out what a generic name and a trade name for a fiber is. Twist multiplier is determined from the turns per inch and the cotton count: 2. What is fiber spinning versus yarn spinning? How do the crystallinity and molecular orientation affect the fiber properties?
If you were to design a battledress uniform fabric, how would you choose the fiber, yarn and fabric structures? The structure of the fabric and its appearance are affected by the pattern of interlacing to a large extent. As a result, fabrics made of the same yarns may differ greatly in appearance and properties if the interlacing pattern is different. There is practically an unlimited number of weaves that can be developed.
This gives the designer endless possibilities to develop a fabric for any purpose. The possibilities are only limited by the imagination of the designer. This is an obvious advantage that textile technology offers. The warp yarns are parallel to each other and run lengthwise through the fabric or along the weaving machine direction.
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In general, there are thousands of warp ends on a typical weaving machine making a fabric. Sometimes, a warp yarn is also called the machine direction yarn, especially in industrial fabric manufacturing.
Filling yarns run perpendicular to the warp yarns. The name usually depends on the industry. Figure 3. Facing the machine from front, the right of the observer indicates the right side of the weaving machine. This is the side where the pick is received receiving side. The left side, where the pick is inserted from, is called the picking side. Although most modern weaving machines use the left side as the picking side, in some machines the right side is the picking side.
The warp yarns are numbered starting from the left side of the weaving machine. The harness numbering starts from the front side of the loom. These reference points are important to avoid confusion among the professionals. Order of interlacing is a result of order of entering the warp yarns through the heddles and order of lifting the harnesses. Order of interlacing of a fabric is called the weave. In the weave diagram, the columns represent the warp yarns ends and the rows represent the filling yarns picks.
The ends are numbered from left to right, and the picks are numbered from bottom to top. A square in the diagram represents the intersection of one end and one pick. If the warp yarn is over the filling yarn in that intersection, then the square is filled or marked with an X that is why a weave diagram is also called an X-diagram , or any other symbol. For example, in the figure the first warp yarn is over the first filling yarn, the second warp yarn is under the first filling yarn, and so on.
The weave diagram should show at least the minimum number of warps and fillings needed to identify the woven structure completely. Describing the repeat unit is usually enough to identify the whole fabric structure, since the rest of the fabric is formed by extending the repeat unit in the warp and filling directions as shown in Figure 3.
Starting from the left side of the weaving machine the warp yarns are selected one by one, the first, the second, the third, etc. Drawing-in-Draft DID diagram indicates which warp end is attached to which harness as shown in Figure 3.
The vertical columns in the DID represent the warp yarns and the horizontal rows represent the harnesses which are numbered sequentially from bottom to top. If a warp yarn is controlled by a 3. For example in Figure 3. The DID diagram should show the configuration for the whole repeat unit unit cell of the fabric.
Straight draw is the simplest and therefore the most widely used drawing pattern. However, there also are drawing plans other than straight draw. Some of these plans are shown in Figure 3. If there are warp yarns in the unit cell that have the same interlacing pattern, then these warp yarns can be attached to the same harness, thus minimizing 22 FIGURE 3.
This is called least harnesses draw. Of course a straight draw can also be used; however, in that case, the number of harnesses required will be equal to the number of warp yarns in the unit cell as shown in Figure 3. The advantage of straight draw is the simplicity of drawing. The disadvantage is the cost of extra harnesses that may not be needed. Naturally, each warp end would correspond to one dent. However, it is not practical to draw only one yarn through a dent since the number of warp yarns is generally more than the number of dents in the reed.
Therefore, in practice more than one yarn is placed in a dent. The practical number of warp yarns per dent can be between 2 and 4. The upper limit is determined by the warp diameters and the width of the dent. The warp yarns should be able to move up and down freely in the dent during shed change in order to have interlacing with the filling yarns. If a simple reed plan is to be used, it may not be necessary to draw a reed plan but simply state the number of warp yarns per dent.
This is done using cam draft or chain draft CD for cam and dobby shedding. In jacquard shedding, every warp end is controlled individually.
CD diagram shows the order of lifting the harnesses and therefore the warp yarns since each warp end is attached to a harness. In CD diagram, the columns represent the harnesses and the rows represent the picks. The picks are numbered from bottom to top as in the case of unit cell; therefore, the heights of the unit cell and the CD are equal.
Conversely, a blank square means that the harness is lowered during the insertion of that particular weft. In the figure, harness 1 and harness 4 are lifted during the insertion of the first pick. In practice, Figures 3. Such an organization of weave diagram, DID, reed plan and CD gives most of the information for the design and manufacturing of the fabric. The only information missing from this diagram is the selvages.
The DID diagram and reed plan for selvages are constructed similar to the body of the fabric. For single layer fabrics, drawing of these profiles is relatively easy. Warp and filling profiles are especially helpful to better visualize complex fabric structures such as multilayer fabrics. Assuming that they have similar yarns and the same number of warp and filling yarns per unit length, they have different properties, e.
Although there are some weaves that are difficult to structurally connect to these three basic structures, most of the others are derived from these three basic 26 FIGURE 3. The immediate derivatives of these three structures are warp rib, filling rib, and basket weave. These six designs are explained below. It should be noted that some consider the twill weave as the only basic weave from which all the other weaves are derived. It has oneover one-under interlacing for both warp and filling yarns as shown in Figure 3.
Plain weave requires only two harnesses. However, it can be woven on more than two harnesses especially if the warp density is more than 50 ends per inch epi. Quite often, it is woven on four harnesses.
As a result of this, the plain weave has low modulus compared to other designs that have less crimp in their structure. This results in a design that has ribs or texture ridges across the fabric in the warp direction which are caused by grouping of filling yarns. The repeat units of all warp ribs have two warp yarns. The first warp follows the formula and the second warp does the opposite. Therefore, any warp rib design requires a minimum of two harnesses.
The number of filling yarns in the repeat unit is the sum of the digits in the warp rib formula. Warp rib formulae are classified as regular balanced or irregular unbalanced.
The numerator and denominator of a regular or balanced warp rib formula is the same number, e. In irregular or unbalanced formula, the digits are different numbers, e. If only a portion of the formula has the same number as numerator and denominator, the design is still considered to be an irregular rib.
This results in a design that has ribs or texture ridges across the fabric in the filling direction.
These ribs are caused by 3. Analogous to the warp ribs, the repeat units of all filling ribs have two filling yarns. The first filling follows the formula and the second filling does the opposite. Therefore, any filling rib design requires a minimum of two harnesses.
The number of warp yarns in the repeat unit is the sum of the digits in the filling rib formula. The regular balanced or irregular unbalanced formulae apply to filling ribs as well. Basket weaves are produced by combining warp and filling ribs. In basket weaves, warp and filling yarns are grouped and they interlace together.
The number of warp and filling yarns in the unit cell is equal to the sum of the digits in the formula. The basket weaves require a minimum of two harnesses.
Basket weaves can be classified as common formula or uncommon formula Figure 3. In a common formula basket weave, the first warp yarn and the first filling yarn follow the same formula. In an uncommon formula basket weave, the first warp and the first filling follow different formulae. The interlacing pattern of each warp yarn starts on a different filling yarn and follows the same formula.
The twill line is not a physical line but an impression caused by the stepwise progression of the interlacing of the design. Depending on the direction of the twill line, the twill weaves are called right-hand or lefthand twills. In right-hand twill, the twill line runs from lower-left to upper-right.
In left-hand twill, the twill line runs from lower-right to upper-left. A fabric with a right-hand twill on the surface has a left-hand twill on the back. Twill weave formulae are classified as regular balanced or irregular unbalanced. The digits of a regular or balanced twill formula are the same number, e. Examples of irregular right- and left-hand twills are shown in Figure 3. The sum of the digits in the formula determines the unit cell of the design which also gives the minimum number of harnesses required to weave the design; at least three harnesses are required for a twill weave.
There are an unlimited number of twill weave variations. The designs shown in Figures 3. In a common twill the starting point of each warp interlacing pattern is on the adjacent pick.
Twill angle also depends on the warp and filling density.
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Sometimes, especially in denim manufacturing, the fabric is sheared after weaving which also changes the twill angle.
A variation of twill weave is called broken twill. In this type of design, the start-up point of the pattern is random, which distorts the twill line. A yarn is considered to have a float knuckle if it stays over or under more than one other yarn. This dominance of one yarn results in a smooth texture. At least five harnesses are required for a satin weave, which is named after the minimum number of harnesses required to make it, e. Satin weaves can be classified as warp faced or filling faced based on the dominance of the yarns on one side of the fabric.
If the long warp float is on the top surface of the fabric, the design is called warp faced. If the long filling float is on the top, it is called filling faced. A filling faced satin is also called a sateen.
A counter is used to determine the layout of the unit cell of the satin weave. Each warp yarn has the same interlacing pattern in the weave with a different starting point. In general, the number of interlacings is kept to a minimum such that the design does not resemble a twill weave. A number cannot be selected freely as a counter; there are rules in selecting counters.
Usually a satin has a pair of numbers as useful counters. Table 3. The numbers in the pairs should not have a whole number relationship to each other and the sum of the pairs must be equal to the minimum number of harnesses required to make the weave.
It is possible to develop weaves with various patterns such as honeycomb, stripes, check patterns, spot patterns, etc. Some of these special fabrics are discussed in Chapter There are several sources that may necessitate the development of a new fabric style. Compare the six basic weave designs plain, warp rib, filling rib, basket, twill and satin for the following properties.
Assume that the yarn counts and densities are the same. Complaints are also a good reason to develop new fabric designs or to modify existing ones. Sometimes, a new fabric idea may come from the associates in the manufacturing plant or competition from outside the plant. When developing fabric specifications, the end use requirements must be considered.
Other considerations are raw material, yarn structure, fabric structure and finishing. There are several ways and methods to develop fabrics.
Developing a completely new design is a good way to avoid any patent infringements, if there is any. What is a three dimensional 3D woven fabric?
How do you determine the number of minimum harnesses required to produce a woven fabric design? When does a CD diagram become identical to the X-diagram? Therefore, after yarn manufacturing, the next successive step would be to weave the yarn into a fabric. However, in practice, the condition of yarn produced on the spinning machine is not always good enough to be used directly for fabric formation. Package size, yarn surface characteristics, and other factors make it necessary for both filling yarn and warp yarn to be further processed for efficient fabric formation.
These preparatory processes are called weaving preparation, which is the subject of this chapter. Warp and filling yarns are subjected to different conditions and requirements during weaving. Therefore, the preparation of warp and filling yarns is different.
Warp yarn is subjected to higher stresses which requires extra preparation. The filling yarns are not subjected to the same type of stresses as the warp yarns and thus are easily prepared for the weaving process. Depending on the spinning method, the filling yarns may not be prepared at all, but rather taken straight off the spinning process and transported to the weaving process. This is the case with open-end rotor , air-jet and friction spinning systems which provide a large single-end package suitable for insertion during weaving.
However, ring spun yarns need to go through a winding process for several reasons that are explained below. The processes used to prepare yarns for weaving depend on yarn type as well. Winding is the major preparation process for filling yarn. Warp preparation includes winding, warping, slashing and drawing-in or tying-in.
Figure 4. Spun yarn quality characteristics that are most important for good weaving performance include short- and long-term weight uniformity, imperfections, tensile properties and hairiness.
It should be noted that variation in a property is almost always more important than the average value of that property. Regardless of the processes employed, a second concept of quality has to be embraced.
Not only must the quality of the yarn itself be maintained and enhanced, but also the quality of yarn packages is extremely important to further processing. The cost to repair a yarn failure is much less if it occurs prior to the weaving process.
In addition, a yarn failure during weaving also increases the chances for off quality fabric. Many if not most of the quality problems encountered during fabric forming are directly related to mistakes made during yarn manufacturing or yarn preparation for weaving.
Since winding is common for both filling and warp preparation, it will be discussed first for both yarn systems. Properly formed packages of defect-free spun yarn are an even more critical factor. Package considerations include condition of the package core, the proper provision of yarn transfer tails; properly formed splices or knots; elimination of internal defects such as slubs, sloughs, tangles, wild yarn, scuffs and ribbon wind; and elimination of external defects such as over-end winding, cobwebs, abrasion scuffs, poor package shape or build, proper density hardness and unwindability.
This simple definition may make the winding sound like a trivial process; however, it is an important and necessary process that performs the following functions especially for ring spun yarns. Therefore, the amount of yarn on several small packages is combined by splicing or knotting onto a single package Figure 4. Knotting has been replaced by splicing in modern winding machines. Thin and thick places, slubs, neps or loose fibers on the yarn are cleared during winding and, thus, the overall quality of the yarn is improved Figure 4.
Staple yarns require this clearing operation most because they may have these kinds of faults more often. Unwinding of yarn from the spinning package—The yarn package is held in the creel in an optimum position for unwinding. Yarn withdrawal can be done in two ways Figure 4. In this method the spool is rotated and therefore the yarn does not rotate during withdrawal.
As a result, the yarn twist does not change, which is an advantage. Since the yarn does not rotate, the spool must rotate for side withdrawal. This requires additional energy and equipment, which is a disadvantage.
At high winding speeds, due to inertia, the rotation of the spool can cause yarn tension variations. Upon start-up, higher tensions may be developed because the winder must overcome spool inertia. In this system, the spool does not rotate. Therefore, the problems associated with rotating a spool are avoided. The method is simple and does not require driving the spool.
The disadvantage of this system is ballooning which is due to the way the yarn is withdrawn and unwound from the package at high speeds. Centrifugal force causes the yarn to follow a curved path leading to ballooning upon rotation of the yarn Chapter 8, Jet Weaving.
Ballooning leads to uneven tensions in the yarn. Each time one complete wrap of yarn is removed from the supply package, the twist in that length changes by one turn. This change may be insignificant for regular round yarns, but in cases where flat yarns of metal, polymer or rubber 4. These yarns cannot be unwound using the over-end method; therefore, the side withdrawal method must be used.
In fiber optics guided FOG missiles, over-end unwinding is used to send the missile to the target while observing the target from a ground station.
Variation in tension due to ballooning, as well as twisting, may cause yarn or fiber optic breakage Figure 4. The tensioning and clearing region— In this region, proper tension is given to the yarn for a desired package density and body. The typical components of this region are a tension device, a device to detect thick and thin spots in the yarn clearing device and a stop motion. The stop motion causes the winding to stop in case of yarn breakage or the depletion of a supply package.
The yarn is directed into this region by a guide. There are two types of guides Figure 4.
Closed guides require a yarn end to thread, and open guides do not. Open guides, however, give less positive guiding. Engineering issues here are guide smoothness, abrasion between yarn and guide causing yarn damage. If the guide is too rough, damage of yarn due to abrasion will occur. On the other hand, if the guide is too smooth, friction may develop.
Guides are usually made from hard stainless steels or from ceramics. Wire guides are easier to manufacture to any shape. The chromium layer can be satin finished or mirror polished depending on the need. Ceramic coated metal guides are especially good for synthetic fibers.
These guides combine wear resistance of ceramic compounds with ductility of metals while allowing complex shapes to be made. As a result, there is no need for inserts, clamps or gluing.
Alumina sintered yarn guides with mat surfaces are recommended for synthetic and mixed yarns nylon, polyester, etc. Porcelain yarn guides are produced with mat or mirror glazes. They are resistant to wear of natural or synthetic fibers and yarns.
Tension device. The tension device maintains a proper tension in the yarn to achieve a uniform package density. It also serves as a detector for excessively weak spots in the yarn that break under the added tension induced by the tension device. There are three major types of tension devices Figure 4. If Tin is zero, so is the Tout. In this system, a deadweight or spring is used to apply a normal force N to change the tension [Figure 4.
The output tension is calculated by: 4. Tout may be changed simply by changing the normal force N.
This is the most common type which consists of at least a disc and Capstan type tensioner. Yarn clearers. The purpose of a yarn detector is to remove thin and thick places. Yarn detectors are usually two types: mechanical and electronic. A mechanical clearer may be as simple as two parallel blades Figure 4. The distance between the plates is adjustable to allow only a predetermined yarn diameter to pass through.
A thicker spot on the yarn slub will cause the tension on the yarn to build up and eventually break the yarn. Consequently, this type of device can only detect thick places in the yarn. Electronic detectors are mainly two types: capacitive and photo-electric Figure 4.
It should be emphasized that the system measures the mass of the yarn. The signal is not based on the physical dimensions of the yarn.
When the generated signal reaches a certain value, the yarn is cut. In a photo-electric detector, the yarn passes between a light source and a photocell. Any fluctuation in yarn thickness causes the fluctuation of light coming to the photocell, which changes the resistance of the photocell. This resistance change is detected by a signal conditioning amplifier which can be set to send a signal to cut the yarn and stop the winding process.
The latest yarn clearing systems can also detect foreign fibers. These fibers are classified and eliminated during the winding process. As a result, the quality of the yarn can be improved during the winding process.
Stop motion. The purpose of a stop motion is to stop winding when the yarn breaks or runs out. Stop motions vary from machine to machine. In general, a mechanical stop motion consists of a counter weighted or spring loaded sensing device which is held in an inactive position if the yarn is present.
Breakage or running out causes the absence of this restraining yarn and allows the sensing device 4. Electronic stop motions simply sense the existence of the yarn without mechanical contact. The winding region—In this region, the yarn package which is suitable for further processing is wound.
Many types of package configurations can be obtained including cone, tube or cheese, dye tube or spool depending on the next stage of processing. The basic requirement of winding is uniform tension on the yarn.
Uniform tension is necessary for consistent winding and yarn uniformity with respect to properties that are functions of tension. If the tension on yarn passing the tension device is constant, the tension in the package should be constant provided that the yarn speed is constant, i. The yarn is wound on the package by only rotating the package.
Then, the linear velocity or the tangential speed of any point on the circumference of the package is: A. Constant speed winders. The spindle is driven at a constant speed, i.
This is not a desired situation, as explained below. Therefore, the tension will vary throughout the package. This problem can be overcome by using the second type of the spindle drive systems in which the spindle speed is varied.
Variable speed winder. As R increases i. Therefore, this system can be justified only for very delicate yarns. A simple way to achieve this is to use the second type of winder. In this system, the spindle, that carries the package, is free to rotate and the package is driven through surface friction between the package and a driven drum or roller. At the point of contact A assuming no slippage , yarn, friction drum and package have the same velocity, i. In this system, the spindle, which holds the package, is driven directly.
There are two variations of this system: constant speed winders and variable speed winders. Types of Packages Figure 4. This process is almost a repetition of the spinning, except that, in place of winding on to bobbins, this is done upon reels of 43 to 44 inches circumference; indeed, many silk throwsters throw their silk upon the spinning machine by placing the spindle bands so as to rotate the spindles in the contrary direction, and then reel off the silk into hanks ready for the dyer.
The silk when dyed is re-wound from the hank upon bobbins of tin or wood, by machines named soft or dyed-silk 9winding-frames, similar in principle and action to the winding machines for raw silk, and the bobbins are now delivered to the weaver for warping and winding upon pirns for weft.
The warping machines are of the usual form, with a large wooden fly as in cotton warping, and the weft is wound on pirns by girls, with the simple hand wheel forming one at a time , or in the most modern mills by the pirn winding machine, which contains 40 to spindles, under the care of one attendant: the pirn is formed upon bobbins specially shaped for the purpose, sometimes by running in a metal internal cone, which as the pirn fills gradually forces it upwards, until its spindle is out of gear from the driving power, and then it remains motionless until the attendant re-adjusts the position of the spindle and places on it an empty bobbin.
The same effect is produced by three small conical formed rollers pressing on the outside of the bobbin, but both these varieties of machine have been found to be injurious to the delicate shades of colour in the dyed silk, as by the compression and friction the thread is flattened and glazed, and thus rendered unequal in appearance when in the piece goods; and to obviate this serious defect the plan used by the best manufacturers is to wind the pirn without external pressure upon the bobbin, which is placed on a spindle, which by toothed gear gradually sinks down in the machine, until its driving band arrives at a loose pulley, which then allows the spindle to rest until the full pirn is removed; or by another mode, the traverse or winding-on rail rises gradually, and effects the same object.
In this description of the silk manufacture, I have not gone minutely into a description of the mechanical arrangements necessary to produse these beautiful and costly fabrics ; in point of fact, the machines are not intricate in construction, but they require careful workmanship. Many manufacturers in this advanced age of sewing silks, in Leek and elsewhere, spin and throw with the simple hand-wheel, where a boy as in twine or rope making carries the ends of silk and makes them fast at the other end of a room, and the man called the twister rapidly whirls the hooks on which the silk is tied, gradually moving up the wheel as the twisting proceeds to accommodate the shortening of the thread; then, after his judgment tells him that the thread is sufficiently twisted, he fastens two or more ends of the twisted silk upon one hook, reverses the direction of revolution in his hand9wheel, and throws all into one strand.
Lately, there have been introduced to the silk trade several novel machines which, though they have not hitherto ob tained extensive use in this country, may prove useful aids to silk industry. One is a mode of winding the silk from the cocoon, and spinning it on the same machine.
This has been done by Mr. Chadwick and others of Manchester, and beautiful work produced, but the difficulties in a new machine of turning off a paying quantity of work, joined to the want of commercial facilities for obtaining from abroad an adequate supply of cocoons, has hitherto impeded the success of the experiment. Another is a mode of "sizing" or measuring the thickness of the silk thread, by passing it between two or more rollers nicely adjusted, and so arranged that when a part of different thickness occurs, the rollers move a system of levers which either stop the winding-on bobbin, or else transfer the thread to another bobbin.
This operation is also accomplished by taking paper spools exactly alike in weight, and winding upon each of them a definite number of yards of silk, then with a delicate balance assorting them, placing those of like weight in distinct lots, and thus obtaining a number of spools with equal lengths and weights of silk to be put together on the doubling machine; for this matching is essential to the regularity of the twist in the silk spinning, as when threads of unequal diameters are "thrown" together it is very difficult to prevent its being unevenly done, and harder twisted in one place than another, or "corkscrewed," as it is technically called.
At present, it is the office of a manager or operative of approved skill to size or match by the eye or touch the various bobbins of raw silk, before placing them on the spinning or doubling machines.Work on winding machines to reel the yarn from bobbins onto spools or cones. The SSM precision winding machines cover a wide range of customer needs These machines are automatic, which means that when the quill is filled, it is doffed and an empty quill is placed on the spindle automatically.
Straight draw is the simplest and therefore the most widely used drawing pattern.
Polymers are the resource for manmade fibers. Since the yarn does not rotate, the spool must rotate for side withdrawal.
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