possi ble,bec ause a kn owl edge of them is n ecessaryin fastwritin g. Throughou t the exerc i ses in thi s book the grammalogs an d c on traction s are prin te d in. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have Pitman's Shorthand Writing Exercises and Examination Tests. Pages·· Learn Pitman English Shorthand (Free download pdf file) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Learn Pitman English.
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Learn Shorthand. Home; Learn Shorthand. Book Category, SH LEARNING, SH LOWER UPTO 80WPM, popular_books, SH INTER UPTO WPM, SH SENIOR . Pitman's Shorthand. (WITHOUT EXERCISES). When the student has worked carefully through the SHORTER. MODERN COURSE, he will find it extremely. WHAT IS PITMAN SHORTHAND? Pitman Shorthand is a modified version of Pitman's Shorthand as it has been known and practised over the past.
Thus the symbol for B with symbol for T drawn directly above it represented "bat", while B with T below it meant "but"; top-right represented "e", middle-right "i", and lower-right "o".
A vowel at the end of a word was represented by a dot in the appropriate position, while there were additional symbols for initial vowels. This basic system was supplemented by further symbols representing common prefixes and suffixes. One drawback of Shelton's system was that there was no way to distinguish long and short vowels or diphthongs; so the b-a-t sequence could mean "bat", or "bait", or "bate", while b-o-t might mean "boot", or "bought", or "boat".
The reader needed to use the context to work out which alternative was meant. The main advantage of the system was that it was easy to learn and to use. It was popular, and under the two titles of Short Writing and Tachygraphy, Shelton's book ran to more than 20 editions between and Shelton's chief rivals were Theophilus Metcalfe 's Stenography or Short Writing which was in its "55th edition" by , and Jeremiah Rich 's system of , which was published under various titles including The penns dexterity compleated Another notable English shorthand system creator of the 17th century was William Mason fl.
Tombstone of Heinrich Roller , inventor of a German shorthand system, with a sample of his shorthand Modern-looking geometric shorthand was introduced with John Byrom 's New Universal Shorthand of Samuel Taylor published a similar system in , the first English shorthand system to be used all over the English-speaking world. Thomas Gurney published Brachygraphy in the midth century.
Gabelsberger based his shorthand on the shapes used in German cursive handwriting rather than on the geometrical shapes that were common in the English stenographic tradition. Hebrew Shorthand Taylor's system was superseded by Pitman shorthand , first introduced in by English teacher Sir Isaac Pitman , and improved many times since.
Pitman's system has been used all over the English-speaking world and has been adapted to many other languages, including Latin. Pitman's system uses a phonemic orthography. For this reason, it is sometimes known as phonography, meaning "sound writing" in Greek. One of the reasons this system allows fast transcription is that vowel sounds are optional when only consonants are needed to determine a word.
The availability of a full range of vowel symbols, however, makes complete accuracy possible. Isaac's brother Benn Pitman, who lived in Cincinnati , Ohio , was responsible for introducing the method to America.
The record for fast writing with Pitman shorthand is wpm during a two-minute test by Nathan Behrin in Not until the ability to write shorthand without mental hesitation has been acquired, should speed practice begin.
A student observing the note-taking of an experienced stenographer will be struck with admiration at the smoothness of the writing and the perfect regularity of the outlines. An excellent method of practice for the like facility is in the copying of a selection sentence by sentence until the whole is memorized, and then writing it over and over again.
All notes taken at any speed should strictly be compared with the printed matter. It will then be found that many words are taken for others because of the forms they assume when written under pressure. Most of these can be avoided by careful attention to the writing.
Experience alone will authorize any deviation from the text-book forms. Phrasing should be indulged in sparingly on unfamiliar matter. But on familiar matter the student should always be alert for opportunities of saving both time and effort by employing the principles of intersection, elimination of consonants and the joining of words of frequent occurrence.
Nothing less than absolute accuracy should satisfy the student. Conflicting outlines should be carefully distinguished. Where words may be distinguished either by the insertion of vowels or the changing of one of the outlines, the latter should always be the method employed; vowels should freely be inserted whenever possible.
The sense of the matter should be carefully preserved by the punctuation of the notes, indicating the full stop and leaving spaces in the notes between phrases. The best matter of the for the student beginning practice for speed is to be found in the dictation books compiled by the publishers of the system.
At first, the dictation should be slow to permit the making of careful outlines. Gradually the speed should be increased until the student is obliged to exert himself to keep pace with the reader; and occasionally short bursts of speed should be attempted as tests of the writer's progress.
The student ambitious to succeed will endeavor to familiarize himself with all matters pertaining to stenography. By reading the shorthand magazines he will keep himself in touch with the latest developments in the art. Facility in reading shorthand will also be acquired by reading the shorthand plates in these magazines.
For comparison and suggestion, he will study the facsimile notes of practical stenographers. He will neglect no opportunity to improve himself in the use of his art. General Knowledge competitive exam in Hindi. Latest Quicker Maths Tricks M. Tyra PDF Download.
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Ell takes its N Hook at its end, whether upwards or downwards. An Ell standing alone is always written upwards and therefore a hook at the base is Wel and at the top is L-N. F or V cannot be shown by a final hook on a curved stroke, because attachments circles, loops, hooks, attached vowels are never written outside the curve, so a full stroke Eff or Vee must be used. Stroke En is preferable when it starts its own syllable, so long as the join remains good.
Syllables generally have their own stroke, with abbreviating devices used for additional sounds within the syllable. In practice you will omit most vowels and the remaining consonant structure of the outline generally lets you know where the syllables break and where the vowels are:. If both attachments are on the same side of a straight stroke and therefore written in the same direction, the outline would tend to curve and become illegible at speed.
This mostly occurs in past tenses with the suffix "-ted" and "-ded":. The stroke is vocalised as normal, with a third place vowel being written outside the hook.
The stroke is read first, then the vowel, then the hook. If the next syllable starts with a vowel, the vowel sign is placed against the next stroke, as it is spoken after the N sound: A third-place light dot vowel would be appropriate, if vowel insertion was felt necessary. The stroke is read first, then the hook, then the halving or doubling sound. It is easier to remember if you think of the hooked stroke as being halved or doubled:. The only time the hook is read after a halving or doubling sound is when the hook is used in a few phrases to represent another whole word.
This goes against the rule for the order in which the elements are read — the rule is always observed within a word, and only occasionally broken for adding a word in a phrase.
The instances of such phrases are few but the usefulness gained is worthwhile, and no clashes will be found:. If the N hook is already in use in the main word, you cannot then make it do double duty for the next word in the phrase as well, such as "kinder than" "blunder on" "gift of" "bereft of".
Derivatives will not always retain the N hook of the primitive outline, they will vary according to the subsequent strokes, vowels, and attachments that are involved, in exactly the same way as spoken words change their syllable stress and their vowels. This also applies to words that are not derivatives but share the same consonant structure.
Where the syllable after the N F or V is unaccented, a following R- or L- hooked stroke or full strokes are often used, producing a better reflection of the pronunciation and therefore more legible outlines: Derivatives may replace a stroke with a hook, or vice versa, to accommodate vowels or suffixes, or to obtain a compact or faster outline:. When a final vowel follows the N F or V sound, the stroke En is used. Thus the existence of a final vowel is indicated without actually writing it:.
When the N sound is preceded by a circle or loop, there is no stroke to put a hook on. In these cases using stroke En is the only option and therefore does not indicate a following vowel:. A few words retain the hook and used halved Ess for the "-est" sound, to gain a better outline:.
After other triphones, and diphones, N hook is used: You cannot use the NS circle i.
In some cases it is possible to show the medial hook followed by Circle S. These need extra care to write clearly and it is helpful to exaggerate the length of the hook and the flattened circle see also explanation of R Hooks in middle of outline which have a similar formation:.
Downward Ell is generally an upstroke, but an initial Ell is written downwards before horizontals Kay, Gay, En, Em, Ing to show that there is a vowel before the Ell, and then stroke En is used, because an N Hook would make the Ell look like Wel. Using stroke N in such cases does not necessarily signify a following vowel:. As with other hooks to curves, the Shun Hook is always written inside the curve, never outside. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke the same size as the L hook on curved strokes:.
Straight strokes: The Shun Hook can be written on either side of a straight stroke, according to the following rules.
It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke the same size as the hooks in Kwa and Gwa. Balancing the outline takes precedence over rules b and c:.
The Shun Hook is written on the opposite side to an initial attachment circle, loop or hook , to help the outline remain straight when written at speed. If the attachments at each end were on the same side, the stroke would tend to curve and become illegible:. A preceding curved stroke that makes no angle with the straight stroke requires to balanced, for the same reason, i.
The strokes that have initial attachment as part of their basic form also need to observe balance, as there is the same tendency to curve the outline: If there is no balancing required, then the direction of the Shun Hook is able to indicate the presence of a vowel, without actually writing it.
The hook is written on the opposite side of the preceding vowel. As there is always a vowel between a Tee, Dee or Jay, and the Shun Hook, it is not necessary to indicate its presence, and therefore, if there is no balancing required, the Shun Hook is written on the right hand side anticlockwise in order to keep the outline moving forward:. The end of the hook is level with the end of the stroke:.
A preceding third place dot vowel or diphone is shown next to the small Shun Hook; second place vowels are not indicated; first place vowels do not occur between S-Shun:.
Association Below is an advanced non-dictionary outline that reflects its alternative pronunciation "asso-SI-ashun", and its use is worth considering, as it is such a common word.
Its representation in phrases is however normal theory that you will find in instruction books although the Circle S in the phrases is representing the first S sound i. Derivatives of this, as well as similar words and their derivatives appreciation etc, see above all use stroke Ish and this should be adhered to, as not all of them can be pronounced with the S sound as an alternative.
The S sound seems to be preferred when there are two SH's in the word, which can be awkward to say clearly. The Shun hooks do not take Stee or Ster loops, or any other hooks. The Circle S may end up slightly flattened into a small loop but should be kept small. The Shun Hook to should not be allowed to sprawl, to avoid mistaking it for a full stroke.
Imagine these pairs written less than neatly and without vowels:. Words written in longhand with double SS are still just plain Shun, do not be tempted by the longhand spelling to insert an additional Circle S:. Medial Shun Hooks generally join well, although in some joins the large hook needs to be opened out slightly. The direction of the Shun Hook is maintained when it is used medially, but in a few words it changes sides in order to join the last syllable:.
Shun Hook cannot take a loop, therefore "-shun-ist" uses a halved Ess, either up or down:. Some endings have to be disjoined or use full strokes for the "shun": The Shun Hook is written about half the length of the halved stroke and the T or D is sounded last:. With stroke En, halved stroke Ish is preferred, because the join between a full stroke and a halved En would have no angle and be illegible:. After a triphone mostly long U diphthong plus another vowel , the stroke Ish is used to provide distinguishing outlines:.
T sound often slurring to CH: Use stroke Dee to add D sound to a thin stroke: This occurs naturally in English when there is no vowel between e. It might be easier to remember thus: This allows many past tenses to be formed without changing the form. The T or D is spoken after the hook sound:. In plurals, the vowel is no longer joined and so the outline reverts to rule a and b above, i. Outlines that represent "two thins or two thicks" can retain their halving in the plural, they are not relying on an attached diphthong to be allowed to halve:.
The more strokes or attachments that an outline has, the easier it is to read, and so there is less need for the restrictive rule that covers monosyllables:. Past tenses in "-ed" generally halve the last stroke, and therefore the outline will sometimes change slightly. You cannot just add stroke Dee to the end of the existing outline. As a rule outlines with similar sounds have similar outlines and do not show differences based on what part of speech it is although some clashes do need to be dealt with by having distinguishing outlines:.
It may be halved if it has an initial circle or loop, a final hook or when joined to another stroke. If hooked, halve for either T or D:.
When there are other strokes in the outline, up or downward Hay halved may be used for either T or D as convenient:. Overall, on an unhooked upward Hay, it is safe to halve for T and use stroke Dee for D. The two outlines "cowhide" and "go-ahead" seem to be the only examples of Hay being halved for D.
Halve for T; if hooked, halve for either T or D: The endings "-ward- wart -wort -yard" are described on Theory 20 Contracted Suffixes page. If written perfectly, at the correct angle and length, there is no clash between the following pairs, but at speed this small distinction may suffer and it is important to be aware of the necessity to maintain accurate outlines:.
Rising strokes such as "and" "should" Ray and Hay must keep their shallow angle. If you write extremely small outlines, the distinctions will be more difficult to maintain. When halved for D in their plain unhooked form, these strokes are thickened, in order to provide a more distinctive outline:. M-D and N-D strokes are not compound consonants, as they can have a vowel inbetween: The strokes Eld and Ard are compound consonants, they do not have a vowel inbetween.
They are always written downwards, as no thick stroke is ever written upwards:. Sometimes Ray is used for the -erd sound where it makes for a quicker outline or where Ard does not join easily:. These strokes cannot be halved in their plain form, as those shapes are used for the halved and thickened versions of Em En Ell Ar, where they are of more use because of their greater frequency.
Ing plus T or D needs to have the full stroke added, as the halved form is unavailable, being allocated to N-D. The lightly sounded K sound that comes inbetween the two is omitted:.
Ing may be halved if hooked for R, and the light K or G sound is omitted: Keeping both words in their normal form is more legible:.
Some phrases also use halving for a T or D that rightly belongs to the next word, or even a whole word like "it" and "to". One of the words may end up halved, and so be written differently than when standing alone:.
Vowels are placed to the stroke as normal, and read before or after that stroke. The three places of the vowels are closer together along the stroke, so that more care is needed when inserting them. Each vowel sign must stay with its own stroke, and so the rule regarding putting a third-place vowel against the next stroke does not apply here: Pitman goodness goodwill biddable cottage potato. First up or downstroke of outline is halved The first up or downstroke is the one that is placed in position to match the vowel, and it continues to do so even if halved.
Any downstrokes following it may end up going through the line, but that is irrelevant, only the first up or downstroke needs to be in position. Do not raise the outline up further to get other strokes off the line:.
For comparison, note that if the S or ST comes before the T or D, the formation is entirely different: This order of reading always applies within outlines, but in some phrases it is overridden because of their great usefulness. Note that the hook is being used to indicate another complete word, not a sound within a word:.
The presence of the full Tee or Dee stroke at the end of an outline does not always mean that a vowel follows, because the monosyllable rule above sometimes requires a full stroke for other reasons. In such cases inserting the last vowel should be considered, and always inserted in names:. This generally occurs where a medial T or D sound is followed by a Circle S, which itself cannot be vocalised, thus requiring a stroke against which to write the vowel that comes after the T underlined:.
Most outlines are constructed to enable full vocalisation, and abbreviation methods generally take a lower priority. The lack of somewhere to put a vowel sign would imply that there is no vowel to place, thus reducing legibility. Exceptions are made on an individual basis to gain a more facile outline, so long as it remains readable unwritable vowels underlined:.
If no clear angle can be made, halving is avoided and other methods must be used:. Use disjoining. Note that it is the last stroke that is halved. In everyday shorthand the vowels are omitted and so the disjoined strokes can be written closer to the rest of the outline:. A change of thickness may provide a reasonable angle with halved curves, but not with a succession of straight strokes:.
Sometimes the angle has to be made a little sharper on purpose to show up the join:. Two half length strokes may be joined as long as there is a clear angle, otherwise use full strokes or disjoin:. The sounds of -NT -ND would normally be achieved by adding N hook and halving the preceding stroke, but in the following words that would not produce any angle of join.
There is no choice but to use a halved stroke En, and its use does not therefore always indicate a vowel between the N and the T or D: Medial hook to produce a join: The past tense is shown also with each example:. Normally halvaing for past tenses occurs on the last stroke, but outlines like "accentuate" have pushed the halving back onto the stroke before, in order to have a full stroke T to accompany the triphone.
This also allows derivatives to match. Compare with:. Names sometimes use full strokes in preference to using abbreviating devices. This improves legibility, although the outlines may be slightly slower to write. This is especially important as context cannot help. Vocalisation is often easier, and avoids ambiguities, such as whether a halving means T or D, or a hook means F or V:. The vowel added by the doubling syllable is never shown in the outline, and indeed cannot be shown as there is nowhere to write it.
As its vowel is slurred, this is not a problem. Doubling is not used when the vowel is an accented one, full strokes are used, to enable the outline to be vocalised.
Doubled strokes are not quite so straightforward as normal length strokes to place in position:. Downstrokes all go through the line, as their angle is steep and crossing the line cannot be avoided. It is possible to start first position outlines higher up, but this does not really make a lot of difference and should not be relied upon. Occasional extra vocalisation would be a wise precaution. Upstrokes are written at a shallower angle, taking up less vertical space, and they can therefore have the normal three positions.
This is easier to achieve because the lowest part of the stroke is at the beginning — there is slightly more control over the beginning part of any stroke or outline than at the end.
Horizontal strokes are positioned as normal, i. Where the doubled stroke is not the one that is being put in position i. A final circle S can also be added to any of the outlines and is spoken last of all:.
The plurals use a hooked stroke, as the diphthong is no longer joined: Curved strokes are doubled for all the sounds. Unlike straight strokes, no restriction is necessary because a double curved stroke does not resemble two of the same stroke in succession. No thickening is needed for the D sound, as that is represented as part of the doubling:. The doubled Ell is normally written upwards; it is only written downwards for ease of joining i.
As there is never a vowel after it, it never changes direction to indicate a following vowel, as the normal length Ell can sometimes do:. The doubled stroke is exactly the same sound as the normal length hooked form, but is only used where the hooked form does not join easily or if it is the only stroke in the outline.
There are thus two versions for the same sound:. Use hooked form for better join; use hooked form where both would be convenient i. A doubled straight stroke is the same shape as two of the same stroke in succession. As the latter are less common, always vocalise them. As it is a short form, it is never vocalised, and it sits on the line. Doubling can be used in phrases for "there their other dear".
Generally all short forms consisting of a full stroke can be doubled to add these words. No attachments: If a straight stroke has none of the required attachments, then a hooked stroke must be used for the sounds:. The presence of an initial hook on a straight stroke is insufficient on its own to allow doubling:.
The initial circle at the beginning of Hay does not count as an attachment as it is an integral part of the stroke:. Unequal length with no clear join: Strokes of unequal length must have a clear angle of join, otherwise use hooked strokes or disjoin:. Accented syllable: Do not use when the syllable has an accented vowel — the full strokes are needed in order to have somewhere to write the vowel sign:.
If the third vowel is short as in "proprietor" doubling can be used — as the last vowel of such a triphone is slurred or hardly sounded, there are in effect only two main vowels. Do not use when a final vowel follows — full strokes are needed to provide somewhere to write the vowel, and in some cases lets you know the vowel is there, even if it is not being written in:.
No R sound: If there is no R sound in the syllable, doubling is not appropriate. An R sound is always represented in Pitman's Shorthand, despite the fact that many variations of English do not pronounce it clearly or at all. Hilda Kilda Florida Inga.
The sound of H can be represented in several ways, the choice being influenced by which makes the best join and therefore most legible outline:. A silent longhand H is not represented in shorthand.
Upward Hay is the most used form — it is preferable as it is a forward moving stroke:. Take care that "hydraulic" and "hydro-electric" are not read for each other. Large Medial Circle A Circle S can be enlarged so that it includes a following Hay circle, but this large circle must be written so that the result still resembles upward Hay, i. Only a few words use this:. Retain in derivatives where a syllable is added see also Derivatives below for -s, -n and -ed:.
Medially and finally: Note that the downward Hay can only take a final Circle S when it is attached to another stroke, because only then is it obvious it is a Hay and not some other stroke. The circle part of the Hay is written anticlockwise diagram below:. Before Ray: Upward Hay is generally used before Ray, but a few words produce better outlines with downward Hay. The first four are taking advantage of halving the Ray, and the last two are avoiding 3 straight strokes in succession which would be illegible:.
It therefore does not count as the first stroke when placing the outline in position and is not used if a vowel precedes it. The form offered here, using two of stroke Ray, accords with the accented vowels that follow them — take your choice.
Tick versus full Downward Hay If the H sound has an initial vowel before, or triphone after, use the full stroke. This is the only time that the stroke Hay indicates the presence of a vowel or triphone. Tick Hay in phrases Tick Hay may occur medially in a phrase.
Vocalisation should be considered, as in a phrase it is identical to Tick The.
You cannot used both ticks together in a phrase:. Note the exact placement of first place vowels in regard to the tick — the vowel sign is placed at the extreme end of the stroke, necessary so that the vowel sign is not mistaken for a second place vowel. This does not mean that the vowel is spoken before the H — if there were a vowel before the H, you would be using a full downward Hay stroke to place it against.
Note also that the tick does not count as the first up or downstroke:. Use Dot Hay when the other forms cannot conveniently be written. It is only used if the resultant outline remains legible when unvocalised.
If you omit the vowel sign, then also omit the Dot Hay. Dot Hay on its own is meaningless, but a vowel sign on its own is preferable, when hard-pressed, if you feel the outline needs it for clarity.
The Dot Hay is the outer one of the two. The two dots are not side by side in relation to the stroke. This can look similar to two vowel signs written together e. Dot Hay in compound words Some outlines that use stroke Hay will change to Dot Hay when they are part of a compound word, either because stroke Hay is inconvenient or impossible to join, or to obtain a briefer outline.
The list is not exhaustive: Initial in- , when not a negative, is shown by a small "-in" hook to upward Hay only. This hook is only used for inh- instr- inskr- The hook does not need vocalising, as the vowel is included in the meaning of the hook.
The stroke Hay still goes through the line because the first sounded vowel is a third place one, despite it not being represented by a dot:.
Negatives in- and un- use stroke N, which makes a much more reliable outline, considering that the meanings are opposites: Some words that use downward Hay on its own, use upward Hay to accommodate attachments and to form single-syllable derivatives:.
Writing the Circle Stroke Hay must never be allowed to resemble S-CH or S-Ray, so medially and finally it is sometimes necessary to write the circle going back upon itself. The use of such an abrupt change of direction is always kept to an absolute minimum in the rules of Pitman's Shorthand. Whichever method is used to write the Hay, the final shape is always the same, i.
Similarity to other strokes: An additional stroke in the outline makes it clear which direction the strokes were written: See also note on Theory 10 Halving "extra care straight strokes" Top of page. The sound of W is represented in two main ways. The outline uses whichever method produces the easiest outline to write and read, and in some cases to indicate the presence of a preceding vowel:. This is the form most commonly used.
As stroke Way has an initial hook as part of its basic form, it can take no other initial hooks or initial loops:. In the first two, the letter R is not sounded at all, the vowel is the same as that in "wool".
The order of reading is like a Circle S: Note that when the semicircle is attached to Ar, it looks as if it is on the second side of the stroke, but it is still an initial attachment and is therefore spoken first.
A vowel on that side counts as coming after the Ar:. Final "-ward" "-wort" "-wart" are often represented by halved Way in compound words. The initial semicircle may be followed by a diphthong, but use stroke Way if followed by a diphone or triphone, the point being that the latter have separately sounded vowels, forming an extra syllable, and having the full stroke Way helps to indicate this:.
Initial semicircle is only used with simple strokes, so use stroke Way if the next stroke is hooked:. When stroke Way in the middle of an outline would be impractical, impossible, or the outline would be too lengthy, a small unattached semicircle is used instead.
It represents the W sound plus the following vowel sound, and replaces that vowel sign — it is written in the same place against the stroke as the vowel sign would occupy. If in doubt, it is safer to write it in. This is the same direction as the short forms "with" "when" which are both dot vowels. This is the same direction as the short forms "what" "would" which are both dash vowels.
The medial semicircle is occasionally called the "W diphthong" in some older books, reflecting the fact that it is made up of only vowels, even though sometimes it does the job of a consonant when it begins a syllable. As it requires some thought to decide when it is safe to use the medial semicircle instead of stroke Way, it is best to practice as many examples as possible, so that no hesitation occurs during dictation, hence the lengthy but not exhaustive list below.
The resultant outline must be unambiguous even when the semicircle is not written in. In compound words the semicircle stays with its own word, which means that a first or second place vowel may end up moving forward to the next stroke. This allows the outline to reflect the words that the compound word is made from, making the outline more legible:. Several of the TW outlines using the medial semicircle need distinguishing from similar outlines and so it would be safer to always insert the semicircle in those: The longhand convention of writing the letters "Wh" for the sound of HW should be ignored when forming shorthand outlines.
Shorthand instruction books describe the strokes Hway and Hwel as representing "WH" and "WHL" which is referring to longhand and not to the sounds. It is better to associate the strokes with the sounds they represent, and treat the longhand spelling as a separate matter entirely. Even though many people do not pronounce the H, you should still learn the different forms because of their usefulness in providing distinguishing outlines and because the longhand still needs to be spelled correctly regardless of popular pronunciation.
Outlines should be consistent and not change to reflect people's differing pronunciation. This is not an additional hook to give an additional sound. It is therefore best to learn the stroke as a whole without mentally taking it apart into its constituent sounds. The hook, representing the W or HW sound, is read first:. These two strokes are therefore not compound consonants. These two hooks add their sound to the Ell in the same way that Circle S adds its consonant before a stroke i.
Wel and Hwel cannot clash with a downward Ell plus N hook or Shun hook because the latter are never written alone — they follow a stroke and so the direction they were written in is always clear:. These strokes include the W sound and are best learned as a whole stroke to represent the compound consonant. A first place vowel goes outside the hook, same as for normal size hooks: There are a few words that make better outlines by using the medial semicircle for the KW sound, and with most of them it is seldom necessary to write in the semicircle:.
If a vowel comes before the W or HW sounds, then strokes Way or Hway must be used, as you cannot write a vowel to a hook:. If the word starts with a vowel, then stroke Way must be used, because you cannot write a vowel to the semicircle. Seeing stroke Way where you might expect to see the initial semicircle lets you know that there may be a vowel before it, thus improving legibility when vowels signs are omitted: The aim is to keep related words looking similar, and have distinctive outlines for words that may have the same consonant structure but a different spread of vowels or different derivation.
This is not a top priority rule, but a useful one that increases the legibility of unvocalised shorthand and applies right across Pitman's Shorthand, not just the W forms:. Pondering word derivations and outline choices is out of the question during dictation, but as long as your outline reflects the sounds spoken, you will be able to transcribe correctly.
Whichever form of W is used in the basic outline, this may change to one of the other methods when the word becomes part of a phrase or compound word. The main consideration is the ease of the join, producing a speedy and reliable outline, but the resultant outline must be easy to read back, even when vowels and unattached signs are omitted.
It is seldom necessary to insert any of the unattached semicircles when writing phrases, but they are shown in some of the examples, so that you know where the signs belong.
In a few instances the initial semicircle is retained in a compound word or phrase:. Note that "woman" "women" take their position from the 2nd vowel, so that their difference is maintained when the outlines are not vocalised. They also need to have a semicircle at all times, whether attached or unattached, because in phrases or compound words they could be read as "man" "men".
The phrase "men and women" is common enough to remain unvocalised, but in other phrases vowels may be necessary to show whether these words are singular or plural. The verb "will" in phrases is represented by a plain upward Ell and the semicircle is not necessary — it is always very clear what is meant and to insert it would defeat the purpose of the phrase, which is to gain speed. When "will" is used as a noun, it can take the semicircle, if felt necessary:. Again, the meaning is always clear because the word groupings involved are so common, and medial semicircle or vowel signs need not be written:.
Rather than hesitate over semicircles during a dictation, you should use full strokes or write the two halves of the outline separately and then find out the correct outline later. Even in longhand there is often a question over whether to write something as two words, a hyphenated word or one word. Writing a longer outline or two outlines is far preferable to hesitating and losing the next few words. Making an awkward join, when separate outlines would be more readable and reliable, is also a hindrance.
However, joining or not joining can indicate different uses of the same two words, shown up by where the emphasis falls in the sentence underlined. In the second of each of the sentences below, joining the outlines would be inappropriate and make the shorthand awkward to read back:.
This sign is unlike any other. Prior to the Centenary version of Pitman's Shorthand in , this was the sign for the W or HW plus the "eye" sound, as in "wife" "Wight" "white", and also the short form "why" that we still use. It behaved like the W semicircle — sometimes joined initially to certain strokes, sometimes unattached medially. Longhand often uses the letter W to indicate a long vowel.
In those cases it does not come under any of the above headings, and the appropriate vowel sign is used: Upwards Ell Upwards when it is the only stroke in the outline, regardless of length halved, full or doubled or attachments: Reasons to use downward Ell, in order of priority: To continue the direction of curve of the preceding or next stroke, or its hook or circle, i.
Make a legible join with the next stroke in the outline. This may necessitate ignoring the rule of similar motion.
With certain strokes, to differentiate between words that have an initial or final vowel and those that do not. Vowel indication only occurs in cases where both directions of Ell are equally convenient.
Some of the words naturally fall into pairs e. An initial downwards Ell cannot take an initial circle or loop. Note the placing of the vowel signs against the Ell: In such cases it is behaving similarly to stroke Chay. Continue curve An initial or final Ell is written downwards in order to continue the motion of the preceding curved stroke, or straight stroke with hook or circle: It also has he added advantage that the outlines are less likely to be confused with all the "in-" and "un-" words:.
This does not produce an ideal join to the Ell shallow angle, and both strokes going backwards but does allow similar motion between the En and Ell. Presumably the thickness of Jay helps readability despite the poor join compare with "unlatch" below. Such a join is avoided where possible by using Hook L, mainly the "-ology" words: Ell used in phrases for "will" is normally upwards.
Special outlines London Londoner Londonderry but generally thus: Clear join with preceding or next stroke Downwards Ell does not always make a good join with the following stroke, or may produce an outline with too much backward movement, so in some cases the rule of similar motion cannot be used.
With some of the words beginning "-un" this has the incidental advantage of retaining the outlines they are derived from:. Note distinguishing outlines: Vowel indication never occurs medially — medial Ell is chosen only for convenience and to a lesser degree to show derivatives. Downward Ell standing alone never takes a hook, as this would look like stroke Wel. The rule for vowel indication does not apply if there is a circle or hook coming between the Ell and the next stroke, as downward Ell there would not make a good join: If there is a vowel between, then the outlines are formed under the basic rules, with no need for a downward Ell:.
Distinguishing outlines alcohol alcoholic alkali alkaline To remember these, pair them with other outlines: Normal upwards Ell is used, which also achieves similar motion: This seems to happen when there is a long vowel preceding: Only an extra final dot is needed:.
A small number of words with halved strokes take a downward Ell to achieve similar motion with the preceding curve, hook or circle. Such words generally do not come in pairs like "full fully" and so similar motion is the only issue:.
Compare proudly broadly sprightly strictly contritely where the normal upward Ell achieves similar motion as a matter of course. Note also short form coldly. Although Ell halved for T is mostly written upwards, it is written downwards in these circumstances: Keeping halved Ell mostly upwards has the additional benefit of providing distinction from stroke Ld which is always downwards.
Derivatives Some derivative outlines may change the direction of the stroke Ell. Keeping derivatives similar to the original is useful but is never done at the expense of a flowing and reliable outline:. Parts of compound words benefit from keeping their forms, enabling the components can be more easily recognised, but only if a good outline results:.
Negatives "unl-" words follow the rules above i. In those cases the Ell is repeated. This means that the negative is still obvious even when no vowels are written in:. Outlines for similar negatives such as imm- irr- inh- inn- unn- etc are dealt with in the same way see Theory 18 Prefixes page. This section on negatives points up the necessity for shorthand writers to have a good grasp of how English words are formed and their meanings. These and similar negatives are also described on Theory 18 Prefixes page.
This is the same liberty that is being taken when the first place "I" diphthong is joined to the end of the stroke e. The short form includes the L sound, so no stroke Ell is required:. Downstroke Ler Downward Ell is thickened to add the unaccented sound of "-er".This is no problem, as, being half size, it is similar to writing the upward-travelling part of a Ses circle or Shun Hook. Ell used in phrases for "will" is normally upwards. Each vowel sign must stay with its own stroke, and so the rule regarding putting a third-place vowel against the next stroke does not apply here: Em Imp: As the second and subsequent up or downstrokes in the outline simply follow on from the first one, their position with regard to the ruled line carries no meaning.
The outlines here were written with blue ink in a shorthand pen with flexible nib, and therefore the thick strokes appear darker because of the pooling of the ink. The medial semicircle is occasionally called the "W diphthong" in some older books, reflecting the fact that it is made up of only vowels, even though sometimes it does the job of a consonant when it begins a syllable.
In a few instances this has to be written upwards and is the only instance of a stroke being written directly upwards.