the Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines. Originally S. Wongwises ().  kaz-news.info To avoid danger of a burn, never touch the glass cylinder while the engine is running. The Stirling engine was invented by Robert Stirling () from . Keywords: Heinrici Stirling engine, Schmidt, adia- batic, simple analysis, five volume approach, renewable energy, waste heat recovery. Nomenclature. A.
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Why study Stirling engines? What is a Stirling engine? Heat and Temperature. Work and PV-diagrams. Heat engines. Thermal efficiency. For this project, our team designed and built a Stirling engine intended Stirling Engine MQPs, a flywheel and power testing apparatus, to fully. PDF | Stirling engines work using the heat energy as the energy input and are based on the Stirling cycle. It is proposed to develop a Stirling.
Closed cycle - gas is unpolluted.
Simple engine design. Remarkably quite Operates at lower pressures. Stirling engine performance Disadvantages of the Stirling Engine Low power to weight ratio More expensive than internal combustion engines for same power output. Not self-starting. Require a longer warm up time Efficiency drops if the temperature difference between the hot and cold ends decreases.
Difficult to vary the power output Sealing of Stirling engines is extremely difficult. Applications of the Stirling engine Solar Power Generation Stirling solar units are capable of generating 25kW electricity. Applications of the Stirling engine Automobiles using Stirling engines Research led by General Motors and Ford not a success Low power to weight ratio More expensive than internal combustion engines for same power output.
Require a longer warm up time Dr. Miniature Stirling engine. Uses heat from the processor to cool the processor. Applications of the Stirling engine Stirling engine powered submarines Remarkably quite backup to primary modern diesel-electric engines when a silent approach is required. Applications of the Stirling engine Domestic heat and power - Stirling CHP unit Fuel drives Stirling engine to generate mechanical power to produce electricity. Waste heat from engine heats home. Basic principles of operation and applications of the Stirling engine from its invention in to its modern uses Presented by: Stirling engine presentation.
Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Number of Stirling engines in operation declined Internal combustion engine and the electric motor Dr. Heating a gas causes it to expand Cooling a gas causes it to contract Heating and cooling causes linear movement of the piston Dr.
Mechanical energy generated from temperature difference Flywheel Dr. Stirling engine is an external combustion engine Ability to generate power from any source of heat Dr. Gamma 1 Dr. The air contracts and pulls the piston back Dr. Gas transferred to hot end Dr. Uses heat from the processor to cool the processor MSI claim the engine is 70 per cent efficient Dr. Documents Similar To Stirling engine presentation. Sahil Tajne. Sudiono Ajb. Sahil Mishra. Shiva Srt. Suyash Bajpai.
Kushal Dhokare. Nicole Dela Cruz. Ponraj Govindarajan. This are described below: 1 Alpha Configuration: The alpha configuration has two power pistons, one in a hot cylinder, one in a cold cylinder, and the gas is driven between the two by the pistons. It is typically in a V-formation with the pistons joined at the same point on a crankshaft. The basic diagram of alpha configuration is shown in Figure 5.
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It is typically used with a rhombic drive to achieve the phase difference between the displacer and power pistons, but they can be joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft. Its schematic diagram is shown in Figure 6. They are joined to form a single space with the same pressure in both cylinders. The pistons are typically in parallel and joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft. Its schematic diagram is shown in Figure 7. This is shown in given table : Table 2: Solar radiation for a given time Time hrs.
But, in the time period of 3pm-6pm we can see the fluctuation of radiation. This may be due to the change in climatic conditions like rainfall, cloud cover, etc.
Now, to find the total solar radiation received by the parabolic dish, we need to calculate its area. So, considering Schmidt factor equal to 0. Tin can Tin can: -Higher To receive heat from Mild steel can thermal source.
Aluminum Provide space for Easily available. Season wood 3 Power Piston To seal the gas. Stainless steel and easy to work. Copper rod 6 Flywheel Store rotational energy Film disc Circular wood: and provide required Circular Availability and momentum to the wood cost effective. Metal flywheel 7 Diaphragm Converts the pressure Balloon Balloon: Available inside of the engine into everywhere.
Aluminum Cheap and easy to foil use. Glass mirror 2.
One end of cylinder is hot while another end is cold. Its top portion is closed with another aluminum can. It also encloses tightly fitted displacer. Available wood was cut into circular shape and piled up to make cylindrical shape of height It is bend as shown in figure. It connects to power piston and displacer with the help of connecting rods. Figure 3D view of crankshaft 4 Flywheel: Wood of thickness 12 mm is cut into circular shape of diameter mm.
This combines with crankshaft to convert linear motion to circular motion. Figure Pictorial view of parabolic concentrated reflector. Then a small hole is made in the middle. Then through the hole a connecting rod is connected to the crankshaft.
Stirling engine presentation.pdf
While doing so, we encountered both technical and manufacturing problems as given below: a. Hard to find the cylinder of required dimension and material. Difficult to give proper shape to the crank shaft manually. Problem encounter with the air leakage in power piston.
Light weight displacer was hard to fabricate with proper dimension. Problem in calculating output of the system. Following measures were applied for the modification of problems that were raised while testing. PVC L-shaped pipe was used for power piston with balloon for air. Schmidt analysis was done rather than idealized. In practice this additional power may not be fully realized as the additional "dead space" unswept volume and pumping loss inherent in practical regenerators reduces the potential efficiency gains from regeneration.
The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity without introducing too much additional internal volume 'dead space' or flow resistance.
These inherent design conflicts are one of many factors that limit the efficiency of practical Stirling engines. A typical design is a stack of fine metal wire meshes , with low porosity to reduce dead space, and with the wire axes perpendicular to the gas flow to reduce conduction in that direction and to maximize convective heat transfer.
MAKE Projects: Stirling Engine - PDF
Many small 'toy' Stirling engines, particularly low-temperature difference LTD types, do not have a distinct regenerator component and might be considered hot air engines; however a small amount of regeneration is provided by the surface of the displacer itself and the nearby cylinder wall, or similarly the passage connecting the hot and cold cylinders of an alpha configuration engine.
Heat sink[ edit ] The larger the temperature difference between the hot and cold sections of a Stirling engine, the greater the engine's efficiency.
The heat sink is typically the environment the engine operates in, at ambient temperature. In the case of medium to high power engines, a radiator is required to transfer the heat from the engine to the ambient air. Marine engines have the advantage of using cool ambient sea, lake, or river water, which is typically cooler than ambient air. In the case of combined heat and power systems, the engine's cooling water is used directly or indirectly for heating purposes, raising efficiency.
Alternatively, heat may be supplied at ambient temperature and the heat sink maintained at a lower temperature by such means as cryogenic fluid see Liquid nitrogen economy or iced water.
Displacer[ edit ] The displacer is a special-purpose piston , used in Beta and Gamma type Stirling engines, to move the working gas back and forth between the hot and cold heat exchangers. Depending on the type of engine design, the displacer may or may not be sealed to the cylinder, i. Configurations[ edit ] There are three major types of Stirling engines, that are distinguished by the way they move the air between the hot and cold areas: The alpha configuration has two power pistons, one in a hot cylinder, one in a cold cylinder, and the gas is driven between the two by the pistons; it is typically in a V-formation with the pistons joined at the same point on a crankshaft.
The beta configuration has a single cylinder with a hot end and a cold end, containing a power piston and a 'displacer' that drives the gas between the hot and cold ends.
It is typically used with a rhombic drive to achieve the phase difference between the displacer and power pistons, but they can be joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft. The gamma configuration has two cylinders: one containing a displacer, with a hot and a cold end, and one for the power piston; they are joined to form a single space with the same pressure in both cylinders; the pistons are typically in parallel and joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft.
Alpha configuration operation[ edit ] An alpha Stirling contains two power pistons in separate cylinders, one hot and one cold. The hot cylinder is situated inside the high temperature heat exchanger and the cold cylinder is situated inside the low temperature heat exchanger.
This type of engine has a high power-to-volume ratio but has technical problems because of the usually high temperature of the hot piston and the durability of its seals.
The crank angle has a major effect on efficiency and the best angle frequently must be found experimentally. The following diagrams do not show internal heat exchangers in the compression and expansion spaces, which are needed to produce power.
A regenerator would be placed in the pipe connecting the two cylinders. Most of the working gas is in the hot cylinder and has more contact with the hot cylinder's walls. This results in overall heating of the gas. Its pressure increases and the gas expands. Because the hot cylinder is at its maximum volume and the cold cylinder is at the top of its stroke minimum volume , the volume of the system is increased by expansion into the cold cylinder.
MAKE Projects: Stirling Engine (PDF)
The system is at its maximum volume and the gas has more contact with the cold cylinder. This cools the gas, lowering its pressure. Because of flywheel momentum or other piston pairs on the same shaft, the hot cylinder begins an upstroke reducing the volume of the system.
Almost all the gas is now in the cold cylinder and cooling continues. This continues to reduce the pressure of the gas and cause contraction. Because the hot cylinder is at minimum volume and the cold cylinder is at its maximum volume, the volume of the system is further reduced by compression of the cold cylinder inwards. The system is at its minimum volume and the gas has greater contact with the hot cylinder. The volume of the system increases by expansion of the hot cylinder.
The complete alpha type Stirling cycle. Note that if the application of heat and cold is reversed, the engine runs in the opposite direction without any other changes. Beta configuration operation[ edit ] A beta Stirling has a single power piston arranged within the same cylinder on the same shaft as a displacer piston. The displacer piston is a loose fit and does not extract any power from the expanding gas but only serves to shuttle the working gas between the hot and cold heat exchangers.
When the working gas is pushed to the hot end of the cylinder it expands and pushes the power piston. When it is pushed to the cold end of the cylinder it contracts and the momentum of the machine, usually enhanced by a flywheel , pushes the power piston the other way to compress the gas.
Unlike the alpha type, the beta type avoids the technical problems of hot moving seals, as the power piston is not in contact with the hot gas. If a regenerator is used in a beta engine, it is usually in the position of the displacer and moving, often as a volume of wire mesh.
of the Stirling engine from its invention in
Power piston dark grey has compressed the gas, the displacer piston light grey has moved so that most of the gas is adjacent to the hot heat exchanger. The heated gas increases in pressure and pushes the power piston to the farthest limit of the power stroke.
The displacer piston now moves, shunting the gas to the cold end of the cylinder. The cooled gas is now compressed by the flywheel momentum. This takes less energy, since its pressure drops when it is cooled.
The complete beta type Stirling cycle Gamma configuration operation[ edit ] A gamma Stirling is simply a beta Stirling with the power piston mounted in a separate cylinder alongside the displacer piston cylinder, but still connected to the same flywheel. The gas in the two cylinders can flow freely between them and remains a single body. This configuration produces a lower compression ratio because of the volume of the connection between the two but is mechanically simpler and often used in multi-cylinder Stirling engines.
Other types[ edit ] Other Stirling configurations continue to interest engineers and inventors. The rotary Stirling engine seeks to convert power from the Stirling cycle directly into torque, similar to the rotary combustion engine.
No practical engine has yet been built but a number of concepts, models and patents have been produced, such as the Quasiturbine engine.The greater the temperature difference between the hot end and cold end the greater the efficiency of the Stirling engine Dr. These inherent design conflicts are one of many factors that limit the efficiency of practical Stirling engines.
In its simplest form, the engine contains a working gas, a liquid, and two non-return valves. The displacer, on the other hand, is very loosely fitted so that air can move freely between the hot and cold sections of the engine as the piston moves up and down. As a secondary effect, increased thermal efficiency yields a higher power output from a given set of hot and cold end heat exchangers.
In addition to giving great design variability in the heat transfer area, this layout eliminates all but one external seal on the output shaft and one internal seal on the piston.
Dynamic modeling of thermal and electrical microgrid of multi- apartment in different European locations.
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