processes leading to a successful installation and operation background in fiber optics, such as having completed a FOA CFOT certification course, should be assigned to one on-site person with instructions to inform all parties keeping. Lightweight drums of fiber optic cable can be moved by hand, however, large drums .. A successful splice creates a smooth, uniform and homogeneous flow of. This “Fiber Optic Basic Training” Guide has been designed to get you started Cable: Fiber needs protection to survive all the places it gets installed and it's the.
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practice covers the basic guidelines for installation of fiber-optic cable in supersede any conflicting instructions in this document whenever they do not exceed For an automated intermediate assist procedure to be successful, the placing. Companies such as AT&T, MCI, and U.S. Sprint use optical fiber cable to carry been used successfully to further increase data rates to beyond a terabit per. of communications explains the need for bandwidth and how fiber optics filled that need, perhaps too well. phone, your calls usually go wireless only to the tower, where a fiber-optic cable runs to the backbone later founded a successful company that made reflectors for street lamps. His design . o f. kaz-news.info kaz-news.info
Of course, it still has to compete against SMF which has become the dominant fiber is large-scale data centers. Fiber And Cables The best new cable technology is the high-density cables created using a combination of bend-insensitive fiber and smaller fiber coatings.
These are great solutions for dense urban FTTH as well as giant data centers. Connectors The 16 fiber MPO connector may be something users don't want or need. Since the current TIA standard has more than 20 pages of information on 12 fiber MPO systems trying to explain array connector polarity, we can expect the 16 fiber MPO to more than double that in the future. Then again, perhaps it will prove to be a useful addition to the prefab cable market.
Copper Cabling A flat, shielded Cat 8 cable proposal The work continues on Cat 8, sucking up vast resources on a technology that is past its prime but devotees are unwilling to admit is close to extinction.
Everybody thought the standard was ready to publish but the Ethernet committee decided to add a 50G system. We understand the Cat 8 people decided to hold off to see if they needed even more performance - it would have been embarassing to release Cat 8 and have to come back immediately for Cat 8A!
Fiber is king. It's copper, and it promises to hang around in We never like to make forecasts of the future - they're aways wrong - but we expect to see lots more fiber! Does Animation Help Learning? FOA is trying an experiment. We've been working on some sample animations to see if they clarify some basic fiber concepts. Our first attempts are used to explain how certain fibers work. Here for example are two graphics explaining total internal reflection in optical fiber.
Please take a look at the The Basics webpage for Optical Fiber and let us know what you think. Join the discussion on our LinkedIn groups. It's hard to get a handle on fiber construction costs because every job is unique and few projects reveal the actual costs. One interesting piece of data surfaced recently from the BTOP program, the US broadband incentive program from the early days of the last recession. We analyzed the data and produced these two graphs. Here is a simple graph of the 33 jobs reported, lined up by cost.
Remember most of these are rural projects or in urban areas that lack broadband because of, generally, economic reasons. What we wanted to show was the distribution of costs, so we did another analysis by frequency of cost and got this graph. Now you can see the cost distribution better. This was a giant instrument in a large rugged suitcase to package the HeNe gas laser, power supply and motorcycle battery needed to make this lab instrument portable.
The first field VFL looked like this: Fiber tracing and visual fault location quickly became a standard tool of the field tech. Eventually, the product was miniaturized by mounting the visible diode laser in a active device mount and attaching that to the end of a flashlight, creating the flashlight-sized product we are familiar with today. For premises fiber where multimode was the norm, a "flashlight test" was common, checking continuity and tracing fibers to get the right connections.
The problem was aligning the fiber with the flashlight bulb. FOTEC responded with a product for that application too. The FOTEC solution was a small flashlight with a fiber optic connector adapter, the same adapter that was used on the company's power meters. The problem with this fiber tracer was it was expensive.
A less expensive solution was developed using a pocket-sized Mag-Lite Solitaire flashlight and a molded plastic adapter for 2. Want to hear more? In addition, this text enables the user to develop advanced skills in OTDR testing and interpretation. This unique text contains the knowledge and the step-by-step instructions for installing, inspecting, and evaluating fiber optic connectors by four methods: This unique text guides the trainee through the fiber optic network design process.
The text identifies 14 easy-to-understand steps, starting with identification of the standards to be transmitted and ending with the calculation of acceptable values for the installed links.
The intermediate steps identify the potential components fibers, cables, connectors, etc. The final step is the development of a complete design package.
From the standards to be transmitted and a map of the network, one develops a design package that defines: One evaluates multiple connector installation methods to determine the method that provides the lowest total installed cost. This page, introductory text is designed for those interested in a brief overview of fiber optic communications.
This text provides a framework on which the student can organize additional detailed knowledge. They have some unique characteristics in their design and use that users need to understand to implement them successfully.
This video will look at their unique features and discuss how to use and test them in actual cable systems. This creates problems having the right patchcords to test or connect them in systems. In this video, we show the variations and how to accommodate them all with one connector - the Panduit PanMPO. Thanks to Robert Reid and Panduit for samples to use in the video. We got samples of the Easy Cleaver from 3M and tested them ourselves, and they work great.
So you get a review of how to strip fiber and a product review of the new stripper in this FOA YouTube video about fiber strippers. FOA talks about all the applications for fiber optics, what jobs involve and the qualifications for the workers in the field.
What's A "Network" That's a common question from fiber and cabling people. Even though they may be installing the cable plants for networks, often the nature of networks is not something they have been exposed to, other than perhaps the catch-all "star network" description.
But what is a network? What does it connect? How does it connect users and how does it allocate the bandwidth to them? How do various network types vary? We've been working on some new YouTube videos on networks, starting as we usually do on a new subject with the basics.
We have these three videos online now, but watch for more. A series of videos that use lab demonstrations to show how optical fiber works. We have been updating the Online Reference Guide to keep up with changes in the industry and adding lots of new pages of technical information. Fiber For Wireless: How do you Test Splitters? Tapping fiber has been a big topic in the news. How do you tap fiber? What's A Network?
W e have updated the " Datalinks " page. Three "Quickstart Guides" for fiber optic testing: They are hard to set up properly and complicated to interpret the traces.
Using the autotest function can lead to disastrous results! More New Info: Links to manufacturers and distributors of fiber optic lighting products. The FOA Online Fiber Optic Reference Guide has become very popular - perhaps the most popular technical website ever, typically with over , users downloading about 1. We continue updating materials regularly, keeping it as up to date as possible. Try it! The FOA has about training organizations we have approved worldwide so finding the right one can be difficult!
We've been looking at ways to make it easier, and we think we've got a good solution. In fact we have two solutions. First we have added a sortable table of all the FOA-Approved schools. You mentioned on the first day of the course that there is always one guy in class who had rubbed his last two nickels together to be there and, in that instance, I was that guy.
Now I'm going to be able to provide for my family like never before and I owe it to the certification that I received from you and BDI Datalynk. I just wanted to thank you again.
He was encouraging and proud of our accomplishments and helped us learn from our mistakes in a way that did not break our confidence, rather it pushed us to better results the next go around. In almost 19 years at Verizon and having held numerous positions, I have gone through many training sessions. I cannot remember ever having been actually looking forward to coming back to class quickly after lunch, to get back to the hands on activities, and walking away with the sense of empowerment that the information presented was not only relevant but dead on point accurate!
I will be signing up for the Outside Plant class on March! I can't say enough good things about Tom and his impact! Feel free to quote me, I can only imagine that he will open so many doors and change so many lives in the years to come, with his style of teaching!
Great experience, awesome job! A majority of IBEW NECA contractors do fiber optics and low voltage, especially for applications that combine electrical and communications cabling like smart grid, alternative energy, traffic controls, data centers, etc.
Quote from one of our certified instructors: I want to thank you and your organization for all the resources you provide for the students and the opportunity to offer the certification to the students. The fact that you published the book yourself to get the cost down and the unlimited free resources on your website shows a commitment to the public that is second to none.
I let it be known to the students that the FOA is the best in the industry at supplying knowledge and resources related to the communication industry. I look forward to passing on the information that you provide for the industry. It shows the power of what they offer on campuses around the US. Watch the video here: We have customers that require fusion splice loss, not to exceed 0.
That being said Here is what I have experienced Fusion splice loss on various strands in ranges of 0. Typically, I have noticed this for multiple splice locations and they are typically on the same strand Re-burns, to try to get the splice loss below 0. Here is my main question When installing cable, should it be installed in such a way to keep with the "Flow" of the cable Meaning, keeping the sequentials going the same direction always and not deviating from span to span, with the cable. Basically, every time the cable is cut, after a segment has been installed The head of the reel, must stay with the last segment, that was cut.
If you have a splice that shows 0. So if you have 0. There is no reason to worry about how you arrange the fibers to splice. The variations along a single cable are relatively small. If you take one fiber and cut it then splice in another different fiber length, where you see a gainer at one end in one direction, you will see the gainer in the opposite direction in the other end. See http: The cables tested were short singlemode runs.
Some of the data has shown higher loss values at nm versus nm. In my experience I have only seen that occur when there are tight bends or connector contamination.
Any ideas? The losses are low, under 0. Several factors are relevant here.
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Testing short SM cables can be problematic since it sometimes takes m for the fiber to settle into SM operation, where launches at a connector may excite several modes. Do you know if they used a loop mode filter in the launch cable?
It has to be calibrated out too! Depending on the fiber type, the light from a source is going to be traveling in a different pattern than Considerable amounts of light in SM fiber travels outside the core and more will be outside the core at the higher wavelength, I do not know of any definitive study of this phenomenon. And of course there is the greater sensitivity of the fiber to bending losses at nm. We think of this generally in terms of installation issues, but just the way the tester is held when testing can cause bending losses near the test set on the reference cables that can equal a few tenths of a dB.
In the FOTEC days, we always advised techs to lay the testers on a table, not hold them in their hands because of the stress on the reference cables would vary according to how you hold the instrument. There can even be some wavelength dependence in reflectance depending on the connector types, but generally SM has low reflectance. So our conclusion is the data is OK. Test MM Fiber nm? What is your opinion about the need for testing at nm on OM3 and OM4 fiber especially now that bend insensitive multimode fiber is taking over?
As you say, BI fiber makes the issue of finding stresses moot. I would like to know if anyone has heard of or knows of any issues pertaining to the Index Matching Gel in prepolished splice connectors or mechanical splices getting cloudy over years and failing?
We have not heard of any problems with the index matching gel failing over time. That gel is usually a silicone compound that is highly stable and even if it were to cloud there is only a few microns between the fiber ends, hardly enough to cause a problem. There have been many papers written on this topic and long term tests by manufacturers that show no problems. Fiber In Service Loops Q: We're wondering how much excess fiber in service loops to add. I have typically seen feet on straight through boxes reserves , feet on cut ends for splicing and anywhere from feet at the premise depending on how much is required for the termination device, positioning, etc.
Here the temperature can go as low as deg C. A plastic jacket at cold temperatures is very stiff and hard to work with. Special cables for low temperatures are available. It worked well.
Maintenance of Fiber Networks Q: Basically, the network needs to be installed properly, fully tested and everything carefully documented.
Then no routine maintenance is required. Most problems with fiber optic networks occurs when techs are working with it, e. Electronic transmission equipment can be tested anytime to ensure proper data transmission, but that does not involve accessing the fiber.
Fiber Optic Cable Installation Guidelines
We have several things which may be of help: You Tube Video: I do not believe there is a standard definition of dynamic range, but it is generally accepted to be the highest loss of the longest cable where you can see the end of the cable.
What is dead zone is it fixed in meters mean an OTDR cannot measure up to initial 5, 10 or 20 meter A: The dead zone is a function of the pulse width and speed of the OTDR amplifier. What Type of settings needed before launching a test A: See FOA Lecture Basically you set up wavelength s , test pulse width long enough to reach end of cable but short enough for best resolution , index of refraction or group velocity a function of the fiber type and wavelength and the number of averages enough to mitigate noise but not take too long Q: Reading a test with nm and nm - why values different for a same length of fiber.
The attenuation of the fiber will be different at each wavelength and the index of refraction which is different at each wavelength causes a difference in length. The OTDR measures length by measuring time and then multiplying that by the speed of light in the fiber which is the inverse of the index of refraction. How do you get old cables out of a conduit when they are stuck? Usually we are concerned about reducing friction when pulling cables through conduit, but sometimes you need to get them out.
Here is a page from American Polywater the leading lubricant company with advice on the subject. Manufacturing Guide? Is there a guide published by FOA that provides insight as to the process of fiber optic manufacturing?
It's my understanding that the guide stresses quality and controls to ensure performance and reduce product loss? We do have a guide for manufacturers. It is mostly aimed at communications systems and components manufacture. Here is a link to download it. How Long Does Termination Take? FOA received a request from a consultant recently wondering if we had information on the termination times for fiber optic cables. After some looking in our archives, we realized we had a document online that compared times for various fiber optic termination processes.
The paper was written after several FOA instructors did a comprehensive time and motion study on termination processes. The document is about 15 years old but still relevant. What are the chief defining standard s that specifies connector and assembly IL insertion loss and RL return loss or reflectance for both SM and MM fiber? The description on our Guide is here: Reflectance is described on that page and here also: I did some research and I noticed that there is a bunch of tests that can be done to fiber optics and I was wondering if there is a list of primary tests that can be done as a basic test.
Fiber optic testing does have a hierarchy of tests. It is a simple test and the equipment needed is inexpensive. Techs will also use a microscope to inspect the fiber optic connectors for dirt and damage, a big issue for fiber. The instrument called an "OTDR" takes a snapshot of the fiber using a technique like radar.
Most outside plant cables are tested with an OTDR and the data the snapshots are called "traces" stored for future reference. OTDRs are more expensive and require more training to use properly. Here is a link to a page on the FOA Guide site that explains the technical,details: I heard that plastic fibres such as PMMA can suffer damage from cleaning from an alcohol solution. Are there alternate cleaning solutions available for these types of fibres.
Typically use with a lint free swab. We are starting to test some OPGW cables. Are there some reusable connectors in the commerce? I assume you mean you need to test with a bare fiber on the OPGW. For testing bare fiber, use a splice, not a connector. Have a long pigtail on the OTDR as a launch cable, long enough for the test pulse to settle, say m, then use a splice for a temporary connection. You can fusion splice the fibers then cut the splice out or use a removable splice like the Corning Camsplice http: Is A Flashlight Test Adequate?
I contracted a firm to install an OM3 of meters. I saw the light too, and I thought the culprit was my switch or my SFP. I want to know: A visual continuity test is not adequate - your eye is not calibrated! The installer should have tested the link with a light source and power meter http: The connectors should also be inspected with a microscope to ensure proper polishing and cleanliness http: If the SFP output is -6dBm, what is the power at the receiver?
That says bad installation! The SX link should work over m if the fiber has been properly installed. Older Fiber? I have some When is a good time to upgrade? When you need to or have to. If it's working OK, there is no need to upgrade! I have always counted the loss of a connector as.
Is that correct? While the industry always says "connector" loss, it is actually "connection" loss. As we explain in the page on termination and splicing http: This is an important point often not fully explained. In order to measure the loss of the connectors you must mate them to a similar, known good, connector. When a connector being tested is mated to several different connectors, it may have different losses, because those losses are dependent on the reference connector it is mated to.
If you have been passing connectors tested 1. We prefer to use lower magnification and have a wider view so I can see more of the ferrule to determine its condition.
You can see the fiber effectively at X but X may be better. We've used the Westover units for years because they offer two different methods of illumination - direct and at an angle. If you are doing a lot of patchcords, I recommend a video microscope. Recycling Cabling Q: Who can I contact regarding recycling cable I am removing from a building? Here are some people who say they recycle fiber optic cable or at least know how to do it: That old mobile phone has a camera which may be sensitive to infrared light - lots more than your eye - and can detect light in an optical fiber or from a transmitter.
See below or the video now on YouTube. You should check out your old cell phones before you recycle them. We've found older models use sensors which are better at infrared than the newer ones which take better pictures.I just wanted to thank you again. Their lasers lasted only minutes, but that marked tremendous progress on tiny lasers that were a perfect match for the tiny cores of optical fibers.
Each strand is made of optically pure glass and is thinner than a human hair. Although Colladon is the true grandfather of fiber-optics, Tyndall often earns the credit.
Cart 0. Find out more On this website You might like these other articles on our site covering related topics: This recently updated training, field, and reference text is a comprehensive presentation of the information essential to successful fiber optic installation. Notice how the water carries the light, with the light beam bending as it goes!