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Without a Silver Spoon. by Eddie Iroh. Winner of the International Board on Books for Young People, Certificate of Honour, this story for young people teaches. PDF | The United States has a surprisingly high rate of unintended fertility, particularly among women of color. Although studies have examined. Without a Silver Spoon [Eddie Iroh] on kaz-news.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Winner of the International Board on Books for Young People.

The main variation is the form of the stem, or more specifically the terminal, which can vary from a simple sloping 'slip' top, diamond- or acorn-shaped knop, to the more elaborate spoons topped by a seated lion, a bust of the Virgin or sets of spoons where each terminal is formed as one of the 12 apostles.

At this early period some London silversmiths, like William Cawdell or William Simpson were already specialist spoon-makers.

By the 17th century shapes began to change. The round bowls became longer ovals some with decoration to the underside while the longer stems with broader, flatter terminals often of trefid or wavy-end shape allowed room for initials and dates to the reverse.

For some people these early examples represent the collecting holy grail, but spoon collections usually cast the net wider and take in nicely-marked 18th century spoons. There is also a market for pieces made and marked in provincial towns, notably in the West Country or East Anglia but especially the Scottish assays.

The introduction of dining services in the 18th century brought a proliferation of different types - serving spoons, basting spoons, ladles, mote spoons, marrow scoops. As spoons became more specific in their function some forms crossed over into the arena of collectable smallwork and novelty silver.

Especially south of the copper alloy basin there was a substantial distribution of many bones from different animals, notably an entire suckling pig Sus domesticus , ribs of a beaver Castor fiber , a gutted and deboned pike Esox lucius , and two 6 chickens Gallus domesticus. By contrast, the hooped bucket in the West was found to contain some 3, fragments of frog and toad bones Bufo calamita, Bufo bufo, Rana sp.

The chronology of the grave goods can be ascertained by means of the square headed brooches of Schwarzrheindorf type see Fig 16, Plate I.

The closest parallels are stray finds from around Laon Aisne and Marne cf. Koch , , Taf. Key typological features include the relatively large size, the interlace ornamentation on the interior of the head and the oval foot. Another important feature is the pristine condition of the gilding and niello. This allows for a relatively exact dating to period MA 3 in eastern Gaul c. It is certainly among the richest known Merovingian Period female graves along the left bank of the Upper Rhine Fossurier , and graves containing runic inscriptions in general Fischer , Tab.

Fig 4 Spoon after conservation recto. Photograph by Denis Gliksman. It weighs It is easily classified as an instrumentum domesticum cochlearia and the general distribution pattern as grave goods in the Merovingian Period is rather well known Kitzinger , Dannheimer , Kaske , Hauser , Drauschke The spoon itself is therefore not unique in anyway but must be regarded as an integral part of a general phenomenon of acculturation and transformation from the world of the Late Roman Empire to the Germanic successor kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages.

Nor is this the first runic silver spoon to be discovered in a Merovingian Period burial context. A collection of grave goods from the row grave cemetery of Oberflacht, Kr. The Oberflacht runic inscription is difficult to decipher, though, and neither the inscription nor the decontextualized object offer any additional information for the study of the Ichtratzheim spoon.

Hauser argues that group 4 in general derives from Byzantine workshops in the Near East and dates to the late 6th and early 7th century, whereas Drauschke points out that Roman silver spoons were produced in workshops in Italy and the Western Balkans in the 6th century. An earlier 6th century date and a production much closer to Ichtratzheim can therefore not be excluded but is by no means certain. As for the interpretation of the silver spoons in graves, it was previously argued that the presence of this type of spoon as grave goods was a certain sign of Christian belief Dannheimer , This is no longer considered as certain Drauschke , Still, it is not inconceivable that the spoons were given as tokens of remembrance of rites of passage such as baptisms, communions, etc.

The Inscriptions: Transliteration, normalization and translation There are three different inscriptions A-C and two engravings on the spoon see Figs 6—15, Plate I.

Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books

The two engravings are representations of a vine-leaf and a cross, located on each side of the rectangular block between the blade and the handle. Inscription A is located on top of this block and was obviously part of the original design of a spoon. Inscription B is located inside the concave surface of the blade while inscription C is located on the reverse convex surface.

An initial observation is that there was plenty of room for the runic carver to use after the Latin inscription A and the two engravings were in place. The oval shaped spoon blade has a maximum width of 33 mm, and extends some 75 mm from the handle.

But the carver exercised considerable discipline and produced two very symmetrical inscriptions that rarely extended over 12 mm in height and 24 mm in length. In this respect, the runic inscriptions B-C look very different from the crowded inscriptions on contemporary brooches while bearing a certain resemblance to the inscription on wood from Neudingen-Baar grave cf. The overall impression of inscriptions B-C is that they were carved at the same time with only one instrument employed by a single individual.

All runes have been carved top down and in a left-right direction. The carver appears to have been experienced and while perhaps making the occasional unnecessary mistake in haste, nevertheless rapidly corrected faults with relative ease. This suggests an unusual familiarity with runic carving.

There is no evidence of wear or scratches that have worn down inscriptions B and C. These are undoubtedly recent additions to an older object, in contrast to the very worn inscriptions on sword pommels such as Saint-Dizier and Grenay Fischer et al. The individual runes are generally in pristine condition. It cannot, however, be determined if they were applied to the surface immediately before the burial or if they were simply well preserved because the spoon was kept safe in a pouch or purse protecting 12 it from wear.

Engraving 1 Vine-leaf. Height: 10 mm. Maximum width: 6 mm. This symbol is probably related to the function of the spoon as a libation tool tied to the Eucharist and the liturgical use of wine. Engraving 2 Seriffed cross. Height: 8 mm. Width: 6. This symbol is probably related to the liturgical use of the spoon. The cross is by far the deepest engraving and has been carved with a different tool than the one used for engraving 1 and inscription A. Inscription A Total length: 29 mm.

There are eight characters, all clearly legible, of which seven are letters. This inscription qualifies the object within the ideological realm of Christianity, cf. This is the oldest inscription on the spoon and it is contemporary with the engravings D-E. The depth of the incised grooves has facilitated subsequent niello ormentation. In conclusion, the engraving pattern of the Latin characters, except the S, looks very standardized perhaps due to the employment of an engraver in the silver workshop itself.

The Latin letters are very symmetrical when compared to the more haphazard Greek letters on the two Sutton Hoo spoons. This suggests that the addition of the cross was there to emphasize symmetry.

The Spoon Theory

M Width: 3 mm, height: 2,5 mm. TT The two identical letters have the same distance between as do the other letters in inscription A, but the graphematic structure creates an optic illusion of a greater distance in between the two. U The Letter is atypical in that it resembles an upside down u-rune.

Rather one would have expected the shaped V or U or the current shape in reverse. However, this one has an asymmetrical shape when compared with the other letters, suggesting that the carver was more familiar the carving of the other letters.

Inscription B Total length: 24 mm, average length of branches: 3mm, average height of staffs: 12 mm. There are six characters, all clearly legible except nr.

This inscription defines the object itself. Fischer , ; Schmidt et al. It has been carved from left to right. The main staff was slightly bent due to the concave surface. Meanwhile the branches are shorter than usual, 2 mm. The presence of a second descending branch at the top can be explained as a possible mistake, where the carver proceeded to carve the second branch first, only to realize that it would meet a first branch at an incorrect position. Thus the carver corrected the error by proceeding more gently with a thinner branch from the top that met a second branch.

This is not surprising as p was an unusual rune and infrequently carved. The otherwise well-experienced carver thus ran into some difficulties. The two lower branches have been carved with more force especially the second one and in some haste, since the branches cross each other.

First, there is a 12 mm high staff with a 4 mm descending branch to the right, second a 3 mm ascending branch connecting to an 11 mm high main staff to its right. The tiny but very visible 0. But in the case of Pforzen, this is admittedly a matter of interpretation, not reading, and has actually nothing to do with the reading of e in the case of Ichtratzheim. The branch protrudes from the staff some 2.

This rune is the least accomplished as the main staffs are in an asymmetrical angle. From the top, 5 mm long shorter staff, there are two 4 mm long branches descending, although the upper does not meet the staff.

The second main staff is 10 mm long but begins in front of the short staff, some 2.

Plate I. Sample of grave goods. OHG laffan s. Krahe and Meid , A problem remains with the ending -a. As such the inscription can be compared to the inscription on the Frienstedt comb extensively discussed by Nedoma in Schmidt et al. A terminus ante quem for the retention of WGmc. As a-apocope already starts in the 5th century, regional and dialectal differences allow us to assume asynchronous developments. There are five characters, all clearly legible except nr. The main staff is 12 mm long and extends from the ridge to the edge.

This has served as a norm for the ensuing runes, because no other staffs extend further down beyond the first one although there would have been plenty of room had the 18 carver wished to proceed in such a more simple fashion. The upper branch is 3. The lower is 2. None of them meet the staff.

Main staff is 12 mm. Distance between pockets: 3.

The branches of the upper pocket measure 2. The lower pocket: 3 and 4 mm although the branches do not intersect.

Main staff: The lower part of the branch extends 5 mm to the right and continues slightly below the main staff. This rune is no longer preserved in its entirety after conservation. At the same time, low-income parents reported that children instilled a sense of hope, purpose, and fulfillment that was missing from their lives Augustine et al. The high social value of children coupled with the low opportunity costs of nonmarital birth and nearly unattainable criteria for marriage lead low-income women to delay marriage but not childbearing Edin et al.

Although this research suggested that wealth was unrelated to whether one has a child, it may be related to whether a child was considered unintended. Lacking sufficient wealth, parents may be more likely to classify their pregnancies as unintended.

Qualitative research on White working class and poor married couples in the s suggested that people in the middle class were socialized to be future-oriented and have a strong sense of selfefficacy, which was, in turn, related to purposive fertility planning and use of contraception Rainwater In contrast, hardships faced by people in lower social classes engendered uncertainty about the future and a sense that one did not have control over life events, which impeded efforts to control fertility.

Indeed, studies have linked low self-efficacy with inconsistent and ineffective contraception among young unmarried women England et al. Qualitative research also found that low-income women with nonmarital births were often ambivalent about their pregnancies, and hesitated to characterize them as completely planned or unplanned.

These studies highlight the salience of our central research question, which examines whether wealth is associated with conventional quantitative measures of pregnancy intentions among a large nationally representative birth cohort sample of women. Finally, from an economic perspective, women with little to no wealth have a weaker economic safety net to buffer periods of unemployment or economic hardship, which may compromise their ability to download and consistently use effective contraception Dehlendorf et al.

Without a silver spoon

Lacking sufficient wealth, such as a savings account, may also be a barrier to obtaining an abortion. Abortions are expensive and the vast majority are paid for out-of-pocket Boonstra et al. If the cost of an abortion is prohibitive, less affluent women with unintended pregnancies may be more likely to carry them to term. Prior Research on Economic Resources and Unintended Childbearing Empirical studies that have examined economic disparities in unintended fertility have relied on measures of family income expressed as a percentage of the federal poverty threshold e.

There are clear economic disparities in unintended fertility according to this measure. In , poor women were twice as likely to have an unintended pregnancy compared to women above the poverty threshold Finer and Zolna Poor women were not only more likely to have unintended pregnancies, they were also less likely to terminate them, resulting in even wider economic disparities in unintended births Finer and Zolna , Descriptive statistics may therefore overstate the role of income in unintended fertility.

Indeed, multivariable regression estimates that controlled for characteristics such as race, age, education, religious affiliation, family background, and cognitive test scores, found that income and poverty status were statistically nonsignificant or very weak predictors of unintended fertility Abma and Mott ; Kost and Forrest ; Musick et al.

Why is income a poor predictor of unintended fertility? It is possible that other characteristics, such as education or marital status, are more influential.

Another potential explanation is that income is an incomplete measure of the economic and cultural resources that are related to pregnancy intentions. Income measures the flow of money into a household, but cannot provide a comprehensive picture of overall social status and financial wellbeing.

In contrast, wealth represents a bundle of both capital and non-material resources.

In addition to economic capital, wealth confers important social resources, such as access to social status, political power, selective educational institutions, and high-quality health care Oliver and Shapiro Wealth provides an important safety net that can help families cope in times of crisis, such as job layoffs and medical emergencies McKernan et al. It can be invested in education, further strengthening long-term career and earning potential Keister and Moller Wealth may also capture intergenerational legacies of affluence that are not fully measured by income and education Charles and Hurst This is reflected in large and persistent racial wealth disparities in the US.

Black families own five cents for every median dollar of wealth that a White family owns Tippet et al. Across the income distribution, Black and Latino households hold less wealth than White households. For Black women, educational attainment and marital status have contributed very little to reducing the wealth gap with White women Addo and Lichter ; Zaw et al.

Wealth may therefore provide a more complete measure of current and future household economic and social resources than income. Although income and wealth are related, they are not tightly correlated Keister and Moller Wealth is a measure of real assets, such as homes and businesses, financial assets, such as savings accounts, bonds, stocks, mutual funds, and retirement accounts, and liabilities, such as mortgages and consumer debts.

Wealth can be negative, indicating that debts are larger than assets, or it can be positive, indicating that assets are larger than debts. The relationship between income and wealth also changes across the wealth distribution Barsky et al. In other words, low-income households are more likely to have zero or negative wealth, indicating a strong association between income and wealth at the lower end of the wealth distribution. Wealth therefore provides a unique perspective on the household economic context.

Many of these racial and ethnic differences in unintended childbearing were attributed to marital status, age at birth, parity, and education, however. After accounting for these factors, Black women still had more unintended births than White mothers, but Latina and White mothers had statistically equivalent rates of unintended childbearing Guzman et al. What accounts for racial disparities in unintended childbearing?From a runologi- cal perspective, this is one of the most important discoveries in recent times because it contains the oldest known case of a linguistically meaningful runic inscription using the rare p-rune and some very archaic linguistic forms.

The Oberflacht runic inscription is difficult to decipher, though, and neither the inscription nor the decontextualized object offer any additional information for the study of the Ichtratzheim spoon. Thus, centuries after these had fallen into disrepair, the Niederfeld row-grave cemetery was established in Ichtratzheim Fossurier , Kroonen, G.

Born Without a Silver Spoon: Race, Wealth, and Unintended Childbearing

After accounting for these factors, Black women still had more unintended births than White mothers, but Latina and White mothers had statistically equivalent rates of unintended childbearing Guzman et al. It has been a code word for what I can and cannot do. Fischer , ; Schmidt et al. An earlier 6th century date and a production much closer to Ichtratzheim can therefore not be excluded but is by no means certain.