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NEET/AIPMT Biology (Notes and Assignments) PDF

Related Articles. Physics Brain Map: Shubham 4 years ago. Leave a reply Click here to cancel the reply Your email address will not be published. The approach of studying biology has presently become multi-disciplinary and more broad based then before. Today a new name-life science is often used in place of Biology, to cover its wide scope. The study of life science involves the knowledge of other basic sciences, such as physics and chemistry.

Biology A science of exceptions Biology, however, is a science of exceptions. This is because it deals with living organisms which show enormous variation and are capable of changes.

Due to evolution living organism show a number of exceptions. Some important exceptions in biology are as follows Mature RBC of mammals are enucleated except camel and llama Nucleated RBC is present Normally the root of plants are positively geotropic but in mangrove plants Rhizophora negatively geotropic pneumatophores are present.

Ostrich, Emu, Cassowary and Kiwi are birds which cannot fly.

Duckbilled platypus and spiny ant eaters lay eggs like birds but they are mammals cledoic egg Crocodiles and alligators are reptiles having four chambered heart like mammals instead of incomplete four chambered heart of reptiles. Generally mammals have seven cervical vertebrae while sea cow has six and sloth has nine cervical vertebrae.

Fishes have gills for respiration while lung has alveolar sac like lungs. Scope of Biology Biology influences our daily life as well as our future. The development and use of modern medicine depends on the understanding of structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ-systems of the human body. Information about the life-histories of the causative agents of diseases and their relation with man are of much value for prevention and cure of many diseases.

We can also develop the skill to understand the cause of many hereditary diseases and genetic disorders.

Biology helps to understand how organisms interact with nature and the significance of maintaining biodiversity. It helps humans to assess their position in the living world as a part of the earths ecosystems. Anatomy and physiology help people become aware of the structure and function of human body.

A biologist can learn things related to economic uses of plants and animals.

With modern biotechnology scientists have been able to produce genetically modified GM crops. Geneticists, evolutionists and ecologists, independently or collectively, can work to assess the efficacy of biotechnology and bring forth appropriate enlightenment in the modern society. The future directions of biotechnology, conservation of biodiversity maintenance of environment and human welfare are in the hands of biologists.

Biology in Ancient India Cultivation of rice was most likely achieved at Mehergarh about 6, years ago. Our Vedic literature recorded about plants and animals.

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The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories Jivaja Viviparous , e. Jangama mobile , e. Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara those herbivores who frequently visit the river banks. Matsya fish , Janghala wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e. In Vedic time Dhanvantari was regarded as the God of Medicine. Actually, Susruta is one of the earliest scientists who studied human anatomy.

He has described in detail, anatomy based on his studies on dead body. Susruta Samhita is considered as the oldest treatise on surgery. Susruta himself carried out plastic surgery of human nose rhinoplasty.

He used non- poisonous living leeches for preventing clotting of blood in the post-operative case. Susruta also specialized in ophthalmic surgery extraction of cataracts.

He is therefore acknowledged as the Father of Surgery. Charaka was the first physician to present the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity. According to him, a body function because it contains three doshas, namely, bile, phlegm split and wind and illness is caused when the balance among the three doshas in a human body is disturbed.

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Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factore determinimg the sex of a child.

The indigenous system of medicine in india is known as Ayurveda, which is the science of living or longevity. Aristotle: An exceptionally talented person Aristotle relied on observations and contributed much in biology. About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones. Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies. His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern.

Formulated the concept of the Great Chain of Being or Scala Naturae a chain of progressive change in nature. This corresponds to a sort of evolution.

Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them. Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals.

Observed the placenta in dolphins as a means of nourishment to the foetus. Based on this similarity with mammals he classified dolphins with mammals. Emergence of Contemporary Biology The earliest record of scientific approach in biology is that of a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius In this book, he has mentioned that the human body is composed of many complex subsystems each with its own function. Andreas Vesalius is honoured as the Father of Anatomy. William Harvey , a British scientist, first demonstrated that the heart pumps blood and the blood circulates.

His monograph was named as Anatomical exercise on the motion of the Heart and Blood. Robert Hooke , a British scientist, first coined the term cellulae in and this term is synonymous to cells. His book was named Micrographia. In , a Dutch cloth merchant turned into a scientist. Antony van Leeuwenhoek , observed the real living cells with the aid of a simple microscope made by him.

He is regarded as the inventor of simple microscope. He was the first to draw a diagram of bacteria in Aristotles work on classification went unchallenged until when Carolus Linnaeus , a Swedish naturalist, published another book Species plantarum. Also he published another book Systema Naturae in Linnaeus introduced the method of naming of plants and animals known as the Binomial Nomenclature. Aristotles Scala Naturac was the all to explain the cause of diversities of the living things.

Georges Leopold Cuvier , a French palaeontologist, first rejected the traditional Scala Naturae as a unifying concept of evolution.

He was also the first one to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology, the study of fossils, as a branch of biology. Cuvier also made major contributions in comparative anatomy. Jean Baptiste Lamarck , a French naturalist, was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species.

His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Charles Robert Darwin , a British naturalist, is the pioneer in the field of biology in the nineteenth century. His monumental treatise on the Origin of species by means of Natural Selection : The Preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life was published in In , Louis Pasteur , a French scientist, countered the prevailing concept of spontaneous origin of life.

He established the Germ Theory of disease. Gregor Johann Mendel , is regarded as the Father of Genetics.

Darwin: - In his book On the Variation of Animals and Plants and under Domestication , Darwin put forward his own Theory of Pangenesis as the mechanism of inheritance. According to this theory, every organ of the body produces minute hereditary particles called pangenes or gemmules.

Darwin suggested that these gemmules were carried through blood from every organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes. Lamarcks concept of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Darwins theory of Pangenesis were rejected with the discovery of the Theory of Germplasm in by August Weismann , a German Biologist. Waismanns experiment on rate established that the germ sex cells are set apart from the body somatic cells early in the embryonic development and it is only the changes in the germplasm that can affect the characteristics of future generations.

The amniotic fluid contains cells amniocytes of the amniotic membrane and some foetal skin cells.

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The centres for genetic counseling offer amniocentesis on request of women for chromosome analysis. The amniocentesis technique has been developed for detecting foetal abnormalities by analyzing chromosomal defect or aberration of the foetus. With the realization that the test could reveal the sex of the foetus, people are seen to take the test the mostly for knowing the sex of the foetus instead of the possible genetic anomalies.

Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity. For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Spores of B.Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity. Forgot your details? Bacilli - Sing. They strode RNA as a source of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species. Due to evolution living organism show a number of exceptions.