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kaz-news.info 1 Bedini SG The Complete Advanced Handbook Optimizing Mechanical Recovery with a "Low-Drag" Generator Written by. Bedini SG the complete beginner's handbook (Bedini SG The Complete Beginner's Handbook Written by Peter ) Digital Format: PDF File. For anyone interested in the Bedini SG technology, please get a copy of Bedini SG - The Complete Beginner's Handbook. It will answer just about anything you need to kaz-news.info I have read this now a couple times and.
In order to clarify the operation of the "Self-Rotating Energizer" that John Bedini taught Shawnee Baughman how to build, I would first like to describe "what it is" and "what it is not. John has always, from the very first, referred to the device as a "self-rotating energizer" or simply as an "energizer. Electric motors are usually designed to power some other rotating device, like a pump or a compressor.
It's true that it does spin and it does produce a small amount of mechanical energy. But the way it does this is very different than most electric motors and its ability to power other mechanical loads is quite limited. The true purpose of the device is to have a very specific effect on the battery that is powering it, and to keep itself rotating!
This is what it does. So, it is not an electric motor. Secondly, the model that Shawnee Baughman built is sized to simply "demonstrate" certain principles in electrical science.
In this sense, it is a "learning tool" and not a prototype for a "fuel-less power plant" that will power your home. With this in mind, let us begin to understand how the device operates. The Main Coil has some iron rods in the center of its structure and they participate in getting the process started.
With the coil wound "clockwise", this current flow is in the wrong direction to activate the transistor, so the transistor stays OFF during the approach of the magnet.
This means that while the magnet is approaching the Main Coil, the transistor is OFF and no power is being drawn from the 9 volt battery. Mechanical energy is being produced and stored in the wheel, however. When the magnet gets to the position where it is directly above the iron core of the Main Coil, a number of things happen.
First of all, the iron reaches its maximum level of magnetization, which has been rising steadily as the magnet approached. This "change of magnetic flux" is what has been inducing the current in the Trigger Coil loop. So, when the magnetization reaches its peak, the "change" of magnetic flux stops, and therefore, the current flowing in the Trigger Coil loop stops, as well.
At this point, the magnet on the wheel has magnetized the iron in the Main Coil so that it is "attracted" to it. That means that there is an induced magnetic field in the iron with a South Pole facing the wheel and a North Pole facing down. Now, the action really starts. The magnet on the wheel has been attracted to the iron and has stored some momentum, so it slips passed the alignment point with the iron core.
Just as it does this, the magnetic field in the iron starts to drop, and that "change of magnetic flux" induces a current flow in the Trigger Coil loop that is in the opposite direction of what it was before, indicated by the RED ARROWS. The current from the battery now forces the magnetic field in the iron to www.
This North Pole from the Main Coil now pushes the North Pole of the magnet on the wheel away, re-enforcing its established direction of rotation. This process continues until the iron core of the Main Coil reaches its maximum magnetization, based on the current flow from the 9 volt battery.
At that instant, there is no more "change of magnetic flux" and so the induced current flowing in the Trigger Coil loop stops. Meanwhile, the other magnet is approaching the generator coil, and is also being attracted to the small amount of iron there. As that magnet slips past the generator coil, a current is induced that lights up the LED for a single flash.
As the rotor speeds up and these flashes happen more often, the LED appears to be ON all of the time. At this point in the diagram, the cycle is about to begin again, but this is NOT the end of the explanation of the operation of this machine.
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Even www. This is what the science teachers thought, and why they were confused when it ran for closer to 5 days! So, the machine continues to run because the battery is being recharged by a process that has NOT been explained yet. When the transistor turns OFF, and even before the current starts to flow in the trigger winding to dissipate the energy of the collapsing magnetic field, a high voltage spike, consisting of a longitudinal wave of pure potential, travels from the Main Coil winding back to the positive terminal of the 9 volt battery along one wire.
The event is over in a few microseconds, but its effect on the battery is profound. This allows the battery to run the "toy demonstration" for a much longer time than the battery normally would. This phenomenon, first reported by Nikola Tesla in the s, is called "Radiant Energy" and its appearance demonstrates aspects of electrical science that few researchers have understood.
Lucky for us, John Bedini spent 20 years experimenting and teaching himself about this process until he understood it so well he could teach it to a 10 year old school girl. When measured by conventional methods, the "efficiency" of the machine is miserable!
Energy available from the magnetic field collapse is dissipated in the Trigger Coil loop. This puts it "on par" with a gasoline engine, which is terrible! Actually, we'll discuss this in more detail in a later chapter. Not really, as described above. This is where almost everybody misses the boat. The energy gain is not measurable in the performance of the machine using conventional testing procedures.
Chapter Three Optimizing Energy Recovery Actually, "electrical science" is well aware of the little voltage spike that appears in a circuit when an energized coil of wire is disconnected from its source of current. This phenomena is generally considered to be: In this project, we will consider this little voltage spike to be: Except for this one difference concerning the significance and character of the voltage spike event, this project conforms to all other classical electrical engineering and circuit design methods.
So, let's look at the energy recovery methods in this situation as we scale the project up to the next level. When the transistor turned off, the voltage www. This process works fairly well at this size and with these components. But when you start making the Main Coil larger, the voltage spike event starts becoming much more difficult to manage.
Instead of simply spiking the battery, it also tends to start burning out the transistor. In order to allow for these conditions and make larger models, the following changes to the basic circuit must be made. The first change is to switch from the little 9 volt battery to a more powerful 12 volt, rechargeable battery. The next change is to ADD a component that protects the transistor, as a safety precaution, in case the voltage spike is not directed to the proper place.
You see, batteries don't really perform very well when they are being "charged" and "discharged" rapidly and repeatedly. By adding a second battery to the circuit, one battery can now Run the system and the second battery can now be CHARGED by the system at the same time. This allows both batteries to operate at their highest levels of efficiency.
The first diode in the circuit is needed to conduct currents in the trigger coil loop around the transistor when they were produced in the reverse direction. The new Diode must block currents from the second battery from discharging through the Main Coil. It works extremely well, but it also demonstrates an unusual phenomenon. Most Physicists and Electrical Engineers believe that all electricity is the same, and that electricity does NOT exhibit "quality" differences, only differences in quantity.
In order to charge the second battery with a "quality" of electricity that is compatible with other methods of charging, one last modification must be made. Here, we ADD a capacitor and a switch. Now, the voltage spikes from the Main Coil can be collected in the capacitor when the switch is open and periodically delivered to the battery when the switch is temporarily closed.
When all of these changes are made, it brings us to the quintessential Bedini Mono-Pole Energizer circuit that is extremely similar to the diagram shown in US Patent 6,,, issued in April of So this is the fundamental method of operating the self- rotating energizer and recovering as much of the electricity as possible.
So this covers the section on the recovery of Electrical Energy in the machine. When the circuit is tuned properly, the CHARGE Battery is charging at about the same rate as the RUN Battery is discharging, so the system can run for a long time if the batteries are periodically switched.
But there is more! The rotor of the machine is spinning, and producing some mechanical energy, as well. It is the combined electrical and mechanical energy outputs that exceed the electrical energy input. So, what can be done to the machine to enhance its ability to make even more mechanical energy? As it turns out, there are a number of design features that can be changed to accomplish this. For this Beginner's Manual, I'd like to focus on just two primary features, one is "rotor wheel diameter" and the other is "timing.
When I worked at John's shop in , I tested every model he had with a dynamometer, to measure how much mechanical energy each model produced. Without fail, machines with the same electrical circuits produced more mechanical energy as the rotor wheel's got larger. The best one in the shop at the time was the model with the "bicycle wheel" rotor. The other feature is the "timing. This process will be discussed in detail in Chapter 6.
Chapter Four Electronics for the Bedini SG You may have noticed that the electronic circuits that are a part of this project are expressed in symbolic form. This chapter of the book is for you beginners who are not familiar with the symbols used to produce a representation of the circuit, which is called a "schematic diagram. This chapter will cover just the bare necessities for you to work with this project. If you would like to learn more about electronics, at a beginner's level, I highly recommend the book: Getting Started in Electronics, by Forrest Mims, which you can download from this website: Forrest Mims or by going to site.
OK, let's get started. There are nine different electronic parts that have been used in the circuits discussed in the preceding chapters. They are: The Battery is the source of electric power used by the circuit. While the original Bedini SG built by Shawnee Baughman used a small 9 volt alkaline battery, all of the models you will be working with will use a rechargeable lead-acid type of battery.
These can be sealed, like a "gel-cell" battery, or the more typical type of openable cell batteries, like you may use in your automobile. We recommend that you use the lead-acid type of battery that has openable cells like the one illustrated here. The reason for choosing a battery like this is that they are more difficult to damage when you are learning experimental charging methods.
They are also relatively inexpensive and can run your experimental energizer for between 12 and 24 hours at a time. The symbol shown here is how a battery is indicated in a schematic diagram. The parallel lines indicate the battery plates. The short lines represent the Negative Plates and the long lines represent the Positive Plates of the battery.
The Coil is the component in the circuit that produces a magnetic field when electricity flows through it.
It consists of a plastic coil frame, sometimes called a "spool", one or more lengths of wire wrapped around this frame, and a material in the center of the frame to channel the magnetic field.
The coil frame is quite often in the shape of a "spool" with an open center section. This way, wire may be wound around the outside of the spool and held together by the plastic disks on each end, while the open center may be filled with a material that will channel the magnetic field. Here we see an image of a coil illustrating these features.
Here is the symbol for the Coil element in a schematic diagram. You can see the three features, including the Frame, the Core in the center, and the Wires, which show the turns symbolically as little squiggles. The dots near the top of the coils indicate that these are the same "ends" of the coil for two separate windings.
The Transistor is a "semi-conductor" device that has a complex function to regulate the circuit. Actually, it connects two parts of a circuit so that one part can regulate what the other part is doing. In this case, we are using the Transistor as a "switch" that has no moving parts, something that can turn the electricity ON and OFF when we want it to.
As you can see, it has a square "case" with a mounting hole near one end. It also has three connections coming out that all must connect to the circuit. The symbol to the right shows these three connections, and labels them B, C, and E. These letters stand for the Base, Collector, and Emitter. There are thousands of different types of transistors that perform hundreds of different kinds of functions in different circuits.
The Emitter is connected to the Negative of the Battery, the Collector is connected to the Main Coil, and the Base is connected to the part of the circuit that tells the transistor when to turn ON and when to turn OFF. Exactly "how" the transistor performs these functions is beyond the scope of this tutorial.
You may find that information in the Getting Started in Electronics manual recommended earlier. The Resistor is a passive component that regulates how much electric current moves through that part of the circuit. It has two connections fitted to either end of a cylindrical body. It can be hooked up to the circuit in either direction. Resistors come in hundreds of sizes and are rated for the amount power flowing through them, as well as for their resistance to current flow, which is rated in units called Ohms.
The symbol for the resistor is shown as a wavy line that resembles the teeth of a saw blade. You may be able to see some colored stripes on them. These stripes represent a code which reveals the resistance value of the component. The larger blue resistor is a typical 2 watt device.
Its color code, starting from the right side is blue-yellow-brown-gold. Many electronic components have these tolerances ratings, because it is impossible to mass produce components that have exactly the same values. It acts like a valve that is open to electricity flowing in one direction, but if it tries to go backwards, the valve shuts and prevents the electricity from coming back. Because the diode passes electricity in one direction and blocks it in the other direction, it is very important to install diodes in a circuit correctly.
Whereas Resistors operate the same in both directions, Diodes do not! Diodes usually appear as a small cylinder with a wire coming out of each end.
Diodes will usually show the symbol, or a single stripe at one end of the cylinder, as the examples in the picture shows. One end of the diode is called the "Cathode" C and the other end is called the "Anode" A. Electricity will flow through the device when the Cathode is "more negative" than the Anode, OR if the Anode is "more positive" than the Cathode. The stripe indicates the Cathode end of the Diode. The symbol for the Diode looks like an arrow pointing at a solid line. Remarkably, the direction of flow of electricity through the Diode is in the opposite direction of this arrow.
The reason for this is that the symbol for the Diode was invented when it was believed that electricity flowed from Positive to Negative. After it was discovered that electrons have a Negative charge, and their flow was really from Negative to Positive, it was too late to change the symbol.
So, electron currents flow through the Diode in the opposite direction of the way the arrow is pointing. The Capacitor is a component that stores electricity. Whereas a battery stores electricity in a chemical form, the capacitor stores the electricity as an electrical stress across a material called the "dielectric. Capacitors come in many shapes and sizes, from as small as a little resistor, all the way up to the size of a garbage can. These two capacitors are about one inch in diameter.
The symbol for a Capacitor is two parallel lines facing each other, with wires coming out. These parallel lines represent the "plates" of the capacitor and the space between the lines represents the dielectric material that separates them.
So, a typical capacitor has two contacts and connects to a circuit in two places. Capacitors are rated both for how high a voltage they can store, but also for how much energy they can store, which is called "capacity.
Others are not polarized and can be connected to a circuit in either direction. Polarized Capacitors are usually marked with a stripe on the negative terminal or on the side of the label.
Actually, most semi-conductor junctions produce some light when they operate, but LEDs are designed to maximize the light producing function.
The symbol for the LED is the same as for a Diode, except that it also has two little squiggly lines next to it, indicating that light is coming out of the diode. Like all other Diodes, the LED only allows electricity to move through it in one direction. And, like all other Diodes, the LED has a Cathode and an Anode and must be connected to the circuit correctly to operate. The Neon Light is a specialty lighting device where two electrodes are placed near each other in an enclosed space that contains a small amount of Neon gas at very low pressure.
It usually takes about volts to make a neon bulb light up. The symbol for the Neon Light mimics its internal structure, where two parallel electrodes are surrounded by an enclosure. Neon Lights can run on either AC or DC and are rated for both the voltage needed to light them up, as well as for how much power they use, measured in milliwatts. The Switch is any device that allows a temporary contact between two sections of a circuit. Most of us use switches everyday, to turn ON appliances, lights, fans, stove elements and other things.
We even have many automatic switches that turn things ON and OFF based on pre-set conditions, like the thermostat in our house, or the refrigerator and freezer. In the Bedini SG Project, the Switch is used to discharge the Capacitor into the Battery after it has been charged to a certain level by the discharges of the Main Coil.
The generic symbol for a switch is the one shown here, where a wire is interrupted with a section connected to one end and the other end is hovering over the wire.
This represents a break in the wire that can be closed to complete the connection. It shows the same roller wheel and two brush contacts in symbolic form as the top picture shows as a real model. So, anything that works to make a momentary contact, periodically, will discharge the Capacitor into the Battery and keep the system operating.
Reading a Schematic Diagram is pretty easy, once you understand how circuits are laid out. In general, circuits usually have at least three parts. They are best described as Power, Control, and Output.
The Power section of the circuit consists of a "power supply", and the part of the circuit that power is being supplied to. The Control section of the circuit is the part that tells the power section "what to do" and "when to do it. An example of a circuit is a home music system. The Power comes from the wall plug and is converted into the power needed by the circuit. The Control function starts with the music signal stored in the recording and transfers it to the power section.
The Output is the speaker system where you can listen to the music at a controllable volume. So here is the schematic diagram of the simplest form of our project. Notice, I have used the symbols I talked about earlier in this chapter and labeled each component with a simple letter, or letter and number designation. All of the lines that connect between the labeled components represent wires. So, let's review the components of this circuit. B1 is the "first battery" or the battery the system runs on.
It is the beginning of the circuit, and functions as the "primary power supply. B2 is the "second battery" or the battery the system charges. Since this is the end result of the circuit, B2 also represents the Output, and in this case, the actual end of the circuit.
Let's look at the Power Section of this circuit. We have already identified B1 as the power supply, and the beginning of the circuit. So, what does the "power supply" supply power to? In the diagram below, I have highlighted this section of the circuit in RED. Tracing the flow of electron current from the Battery B1 we see that it flows out of the Negative terminal, follows the wire to the Emitter of Transistor T , comes out the Collector of Transistor T , follows the wire up to the bottom of Main Coil MC , flows through Main Coil MC and comes out the top, then follows the wire back to the Positive Terminal of Battery B1.
To the right of the iron core, the coil is shown connected to the diode and capacitor circuit, but also the symbol for a resistor is shown unconnected but close by. The Blue Boxes above the iron core represent a permanent magnet on the wheel, and five possible positions it could be in as it passes the iron core. The N represents the North Pole of the magnet facing the core.
Above the Blue Boxes are a series of Green Arrows, which represent the mechanical force applied to the wheel as the magnet passes the iron core. The Green Arrows point in the direction of the mechanical force, and the size of the Green Arrows represents the relative strength of the mechanical force in that position.
Above the Green Arrows is a Blue Graph which represents the strength of the magnetic field in the iron core. Finally, at the bottom of the image, the Red Graph represents the Voltage Induced in the coil as the magnet moves passed the iron core. Let's go through each of these processes, one by one. The Blue Graph shows the strength of the magnetic field in the iron core as the magnet moves from Position A to Position E.
The magnetic field in the core starts magnetizing slowly when the magnet is in Position A, then as the magnet arrives at Position B, the magnetization rises rapidly and peaks when the magnet is directly over the iron in Position C.
As the magnet moves passed this position, the magnetization of the iron falls off rapidly until the magnet reaches Position D, and continues to weaken as the magnet moves to Position E.
The mechanical force applied to the wheel follows a similar profile with regard to strength, but not with regard to direction, as illustrated by the Green Arrows. So, the force on the wheel when the magnet is in Position A is weak, but it is parallel to the direction the wheel is turning, Red Arrow and it ADDs to the momentum of the rotation. This is a positive motoring force applied to the wheel by the permanent magnet. This positive mechanical force continues to ADD to the rotation of the wheel as the magnet moves through Position B and all the way up to Position C.
Even though the magnet continues to contribute a significant positive force on the wheel in its forward direction, the actual force vector of the attraction of the magnet to the iron core is progressively swinging more and more vertical in its orientation.
When the magnet is in Position C, the magnet is not applying any force on the wheel to either promote or retard its rotation, but its attraction is at its maximum.
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As the magnet moves passed Position C, the mechanical forces on the wheel reverse, and now begin to retard the forward motion of the wheel. So, the entire movement of the magnet past the iron core produces "no net torque" on the wheel, as long as no current is generated in the coil and no Lenz Law forces are produced.
Even if no current is produced in the coil, a voltage is induced in the winding in response to the magnetization of the iron core. This is shown in the Red Graph in the illustration on page So, as the magnetization of the iron core rises rapidly from Position B up to Position C, the Induced Voltage rises rapidly as well. Then, as the magnetization of the iron core starts dropping, this represents a CHANGE in magnetic flux in the opposite direction, and so the Induced Voltage reverses and rapidly rises to its highest negative value.
As the magnetization of the iron core falls rapidly moving toward Position D, the negative voltage of the coil also drops. As the magnet moves to Position E, the iron core loses all of its magnetic field and the Induced Voltage returns to zero, as well. This completes the analysis of the behaviors of the magnetic fields and the mechanical forces they produce.
Now, let's look at what happens when currents are induced in the coil and what changes they produce. Changes of Drag Co-Efficient with Different Loads While standard electric generators produce a linear relationship between electrical loads and mechanical drag forces, this design of generator does www. That is why this design of generator is sometimes referred to as an "indirect induction" generator, because of the buffering effect created by the addition of the stationary iron cores.
Direct induction generators exhibit a linear relationship between current production and the appearance of mechanical drag or reverse motoring torque. Indirect induction generators exhibit a non-linear relationship between current production and mechanical drag.
As an example, under one set of tests run on the Extra Coil Generator on the Conference Demonstration Model, the following data was collected: Stall Wheel Speed when Generator had Load. Stall Wheel Speed when Generator had 1, Load. This demonstrates that the generator is NOT a "low drag" generator under all circumstances, but that it can produce significant current and low drag under specific conditions. Loading Effects of the Diode and Capacitor Circuit From the data shown above, you can see that the loading effects of lighting 40 LEDs, using the diode and capacitor circuit, only drops the speed of the SG wheel by 5 rpm.
This is a loss of only 1. So, how does this work? This image is a "snapshot" of the timing of current production for charging the capacitor. The diode is connected to the coil so that it clips the trailing voltage peak as the magnet begins to leave Position C. The voltage in the capacitor is drawn down by the load to just below the peak voltage generated by the coil. As the coil voltage rises above the voltage in the capacitor, current flows through the coil, filling the capacitor AND producing a mechanical Lenz Law reaction against the external magnetic field.
The period during which the current flows is defined by the black area indicated on the Induced Voltage graph. The Lenz reaction produced by this current is applied back toward the external magnetic field in exact opposition to the angle by which it is induced.
In this case, it reduces the permanent magnet's attraction to the iron core, which is still mostly vertical in its orientation at this moment. It's just that in this configuration, the geometry does not apply the reverse mechanical force directly against the forward progress of the rotation of the wheel, which is still indicated by the Red Arrow.
Now we can see the genius of John's little circuit. It automatically regulates when current is produced to a select "window of opportunity" where both the voltage and the current generated can be the highest for the least possible mechanical drag. When built properly, this is the quintessential event that the Energizer is designed to produce repeatedly. The design of this machine has been in the public domain for 30 years.
The only reason more people do not understand this technology is that almost no one ever built it and therefore, no one actually observed what it did. Variations on the Design There are dozens of modifications that can be made to this arrangement of components to improve its operation.
This is a short list of some of them: A larger wheel makes the Lenz reaction even more vertical More closely spaced magnets produce more events per revolution A larger capacitor narrows the period of current production A larger flywheel maintains top speed more consistently A well regulated top speed reduces electric motor input So, size definitely enhances all of the benefits of the phenomena being captured here.
OK, let's put all of the pieces together and look at the entire machine, including the largest model of John's original energizer design ever shown in public. So, he knew it worked. The problem was that he didn't know exactly WHY it worked. Tom Bearden suggested an operational theory at the time, which was all they had to go on. So the theory of the "phi-dot current" and the idea that "the battery charged itself" came from that period. John has always said that "there are many different ways to explain this theory" and the simple idea of harnessing a "low-drag" generator is one of them.
Here is the schematic of the "original" circuit and controller that John used. It ran and charged a single 12 volt lead-acid battery. The circuit was a flip-flop timer made from discrete electronic parts that ran the motor from the battery part of the time while the energizer charged a capacitor. Then, the circuit disconnected the motor from the battery and discharged the capacitor into the battery followed by a bunch of spikes directly from the energizer.
At that point, the cycle started again. The timing was asymmetrical and the repetition rate of the flip-flop was changeable. While the motor was turned ON and OFF directly from a transistor, the capacitor was discharged through a mechanical relay contactor. Since the Energizer could charge the capacitor with low drag, running the machine at "top speed" for the motor allowed it to draw the least energy from the battery.
The size of the capacitor was chosen to give the battery a significant reverse current surge to optimize charging and the size of the flywheel was chosen to maintain the highest possible speed during the capacitor discharge phase when the motor wasn't under power. To get the system to work, these various parameters needed to be fussed with a bit to find the best balance, and then the speed at which these phases were switched was the last thing to be fine tuned.
John could always tune his units up, but most others had trouble with this. After John published his book, Jim Watson contacted him, and they had numerous discussions on the phone. Jim wasn't very familiar with electronics, and asked John to develop an even simpler control circuit. That model is shown here. A 12 volt automotive fan motor turns a flywheel with eight Ceramic 8 magnets in it.
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The magnets face eight energizer coils mounted to a base plate using steel bolts as the coil cores. All Energizer coils are connected in series. All of the circuitry, including the capacitor, is in the box to the right, with the mechanical relay visible on top. The two switches allowed the motor to run directly from the battery to get the unit up to speed, and then be put in "run mode" so that the circuit automatically switched the functions as described before.
The basic equivalent circuit is shown here. The switch over the battery turns the unit ON. This connects the battery directly to the motor through the relay when it is OFF.
Also, you will notice that the Energizer is connected to the capacitor through a "full wave bridge" rectifier, whereas a single diode has been discussed before. The FWB simply clips both the forward and trailing www. This doubles the output for a little more drag on the system. With a standard motor and flywheel arrangement, this trade-off works fine. Essentially, all of these pictures and diagrams have been on John's website since , and none of this deviates from the fundamental method that was published in his book titled Bedini's Free Energy Generator.
The Machine that Rocked the Boat Jim Watson was sufficiently impressed with his first model that he decided to build a bigger one. In the run up to the Tesla Centennial Symposium in Colorado Springs that summer, Jim would only tell John that he was working on a "surprise" for the conference.
Jim was an accomplished automobile mechanic, so working on big machines was well within his level of expertise. Here is a picture of what Jim Watson demonstrated for the attendees at the first Tesla Society Conference in the summer of There are almost no clues in the picture as to how big it is.
The only scale that can be reasonably inferred by the image is based on the jumper cable clamp bracketed by the RED marks. If we assume that that clamp is 6 inches long, all other lengths and diameters may be inferred from it. Jumper Cable Clamp: This motor was connected directly to a gear reduction box.
The exact gear reduction ratio is not known, but is presumed to be between 6-to-1 and to The shaft emerging from the gear reduction box is visible and measured as 1. This shaft goes directly to a shaft coupler and mates to the 2. The Flywheel is supported by two large bearings, one on either side, with only the nearest one visible in the picture.
The target speed for the Flywheel is rpm. Its construction is Cast Iron, presumably refurbished from an old steam engine.
Its weight is lbs 46 Kgs. The Energizer wheel is most probably a " thick Aluminum Plate, which rides on the end of the 2. The Ring Magnets are 1. The Ring Magnets are 5. There are 7 Ring Magnets on the wheel. The back plate of the Energizer is also an Aluminum Plate. The coil cores are Steel Bolts connected directly to the plate. There are 8 coils mounted to the plate facing the 7 Ring Magnets on the wheel.
Since the coils are out of phase with each other, each one has its own rectifier feeding the capacitors. There are three capacitors that are about 15,uf each, wired in parallel.
The target voltage of these capacitors at discharge is 50 volts DC. Not shown are the two 12 volt batteries wired in parallel, the control circuit timer and the mechanical relay that provided the switching.
The schematic for the large machine is identical to the schematic for the small machine. The relay system was made of automotive relays, rated for about 50 amps. As the first side of the ring approached the coil, the voltage would swing to a Positive peak.
Then, as the coil was fully aligned with the first side of the ring, the voltage dropped to zero. As the coil entered the center of the ring, it produced the first Negative peak, but then quickly reversed again as it engaged the second side of the ring, producing a second Positive peak. This was followed by a second Negative peak as the second side of the ring magnet left the area of the coil. So, there were four peak voltage events per interaction of each coil with each ring magnet. At rpm, there would be 8.
This produced 1, John reports that the relay timing was set for "once per second" switching, meaning that the machine would run the motor from the battery for one second while the capacitors were being charged. Then the relay would switch, and the machine would run from the flywheel while the capacitors discharged into the battery followed by the rest of the whole second of Energizer impulses going straight to the battery. At the end of the second second, the relay would switch again, and the cycle would repeat.
The motor running at high speed while the very large flywheel ran at lower speed provided a very stable operation to the Energizer and maintained a relatively low power requirement to the motor. In recordings taken from the presentation, the weight of the flywheel was given by Jim Watson as lbs. This makes the machine large, but quite a bit smaller than many have guessed.
So this establishes the size of the machine as closely as possible from the photograph and from other sources. Remarkably, Jim Watson did not let John inspect the machine at close range. Reliable witnesses who visited Jim at his home soon after the conference, did not see the large model there. In fact, no one has reported seeing the machine since its original demonstration in August of No other photographs of it have ever surfaced, either.
Regardless of these multiple appearances, no one was ever able to get him to discuss the machine demonstrated in Apparently, "something" happened that accounts for the machine's disappearance and Jim's silence, but exactly what that is, nobody knows. In some ways, John did not understand all of the interest in Jim's machine.
First, it was nothing more than the exact design he had developed and published earlier that year, except it was bigger. Second, when the unit was running, the relay system was rapidly overwhelmed by arcing and John doubts whether the unit could have run for more than 20 minutes before a complete "meltdown" of the relays. This feature made it an interesting "demonstration," but it was not a practical stand-alone power supply in its present form. It shows a solid-state circuit for charging a capacitor and discharging it into a battery.
One of the operational models of this design used a group of capacitors with a combined capacitance of ,uf, charged to about 25 volts. It was discharged about once a second through six parallel N-channel MosFets into a large 12 volt battery.
In this situation, the initial surge of current into the battery was well over amperes, actually "pegging" every meter and scope probe John put on it.
Even with active cooling, the MosFet devices were burning out within a www. The battery, on the other hand, would move immediately into a "cold boil" condition, and the voltage on a AH battery would jump half a volt every time the capacitor discharged.
The Watson Machine was discharging 45,uf capacitors charged to about 50 volts, once a second into the batteries. That actually represents more Joules per discharge than John's circuit. Doing this across a mechanical relay system rated at 50 amperes just wasn't going to last very long! To this date, no definitive test data has ever been provided concerning the operational performance of the "Watson Machine.
It is reasonable to deduce, however, that the large aluminum plates, the coil cores made from steel bolts, and the extremely simplistic switching limited its performance in significant ways. In spite of these weaknesses, visually, the machine seemed to "self-run" during a short demonstration and appeared quite powerful, with its large flywheel running at top speed and battery gaining in voltage!
Shortly after John got home from this Symposium, he was threatened and told "not to work on these technologies" any longer. These threats he took very seriously and it convinced him to change the course of his work in this field in a number of specific ways.
First, he decided that he would not attend any more of these types of conferences. Second, he decided to keep working on these technologies, but not publish anything more on the "self-running" systems. Third, he decided that he would not build any models that were large enough to be a practical power supply, which he certainly knew how to do.
These decisions remained in place for 20 years, until , when larger systems started being built and tested again, as well as the plans being released for the first "School Girl Motor" project on the internet. John also finally consented to begin appearing at a conference held in his local area in , and more and more accurate information about his discoveries has been released every year since then.
We have looked closely at the Energizer construct, which is a rotating magnet facing a stationary iron core with a coil wrapped around it. But John also did extensive testing of a generator that had the inverse construct; that is, a rotating iron core with a coil wrapped around it moving passed a stationary magnet.
This is the "G-field generator. Kromrey did extensive research and testing on this concept in the s, and received US Patent 3,, on the basic design in March of Here is an image from the patent. The invention is titled "Electric Generator" in the patent. In other reports, Kromrey refers to it as the "Ferromagnetic Generator" and also as the "Molecular Generator.
There is no attempt to officially "claim" that the generator does anything unusual. However, in the body of the patent, experimental data is offered that supports an extremely unusual analysis of the machine.
Here is the image of Figure 6 from the patent, and the paragraphs from the patent text that explain it. It describes a "side by side" test of a standard generator and the new generator with regard to mechanical drag under load. John Bedini's Replications Left completely on his own, John began to replicate the machine and see if he could duplicate the results Kromrey reported. Here is a picture of an early model of the "G-field Generator".
He named it that because Kromrey believed the excess energy was coming from the Gravitational Field. The early models proved that Kromrey was correct about the low drag characteristics of the generator. But there was something else that he A Little Back Story When John first discovered the Kromrey Patent, he knew it might hold the key to what he was looking for. He immediately attempted to contact the inventor in Switzerland. Unfortunately, by the time John did this, Raymond Kromrey had already died.
He was able, however, to track down his surviving widow. John explained to Mrs. Kromrey that he was interested in the generator and wanted to have her permission to do some further research on it. Much to his surprise, he found that Mrs. Kromrey hated the generator and that she was really quite bitter that it had "stolen" her husband from her in his last years. She told John he could do anything he wanted with it and not to contact her again.
It made this deep, harsh growl sound like a Buzz Saw as the magnetic fields were cut. No modifications were ever found to quiet the thing down. In spite of this, John tried to get more people interested in this technology by building and selling dozens of these fully operational models with a partner who eventually screwed him out of most of the money. This was not working out the way John wanted it to!
The Electrical Engineering Department of one University on the East Coast downloadd one of the generators, and then another nine, and tested them extensively. When pressed to give him some test data, they only told John two things; one, that they could "not teach this science to their students", and two, that, Kromrey knew the generator had very low drag under short circuit loads, but he had never attempted to take the output and use it to charge a battery, and he had definitely not thought of using the output to run the drive motor to make the system "self-run.
The other difficulty the Kromrey Generator had was that the electricity was generated on the rotor, which meant that the power could only be taken out of the machine using brushes or sliding contacts. Both commutators and brushes or AC slip-rings and brushes are stipulated in the patent.
Some of these features are illustrated in the image to the right, where we are looking at the generator in a side view. In Position A, we can see the rotor is aligned with the stator magnet, and is therefore magnetized to its maximum degree. The dot in the middle of the rotor piece represents the axle around which the rotor will pivot and the little Red Arrow indicates the direction of rotation. In Position B, the rotor has moved out of alignment with the stator magnet as it rotates in a clockwise direction.
However, as the rotor proceeds from Position B around to Position D, the rotor is far enough away from the stator that no external magnetic forces can attract it in either direction. Upon careful examination, it becomes obvious that the lower the impedance of the load, the higher the current production on the rotor, the slower the magnetic field decays and the longer the magnetic field persists, all the while producing no interaction with the stator.
Herein lies one of the reasons Kromrey called this the "Ferromagnetic Generator. It also meant that the rotor didn't need to be re-magnetized as often to continue to produce current, essentially allowing it to produce full power at lower speeds, which is exactly what Kromrey reported.
And there is one more interesting feature. You may recall the discussion in the SG Intermediate Handbook where the Inertial Properties of electricity are discussed. Here, in the Kromrey generator, the rotor arms and the output coils are subjected to a very significant centrifugal force during operation and the winding of these coils is apparently designed to take advantage of this. Here is a close-up taken from Figure 6, also seen on page Notice how the four sections of the rotor coils are wound and how they are connected together.
In it he discusses his theories about how the generator worked and where the excess energy was coming from. But most importantly, he publishes some test data and summarizes its performance Here is a list of some of the claims: Transforms the acceleration due to a permanent magnetic field into electrical energy Has negligible braking effect under short circuit conditions Able to produce maximum power into extremely low impedance loads without overheating Able to produce stable power levels over a wide range of speeds This graph is from Kromrey's report.
It illustrates the unusual, non-linear speed and power curve of the machine. It shows that the new electric generator was able to produce watts at about rpm, were the classical generator could only produce about watts. It also shows the new generator reached maximum output of watts at about rpm and continued to produce watts all the way up to about rpm and beyond.
It's ability to produce electricity without mechanical drag was discovered in the s and re-verified by John Bedini in the early s. But the machine was really loud when running, and it required the complication of sliding contacts to get the power out.
John was looking for something better. At minimum, he wanted a generator that had low drag, but also one that ran quietly, and didn't need brush contacts. By June of , when he published Bedini's Free Energy Generator, the Energizer design shown in the book accomplished all of these goals. Oh Yes, and This The last little "detail" about the Kromrey Generator that has been generally overlooked is the fact that it produces a different "quality" of electricity than classical generators.
This, of course, is not supposed to exist, but John documented this fact on countless occasions. During a demonstration of a large machine in Los Angeles to a group of VIP guests in a hotel conference room, John was able to light watts of light bulbs from the machine across insanely small, 30 gauge wire without any heating effects. The input electric motor was drawing watts from a metered supply.
The phenomena was deemed "so incredible" that most of the engineers present simply started looking for the "real wires" buried under the carpet! Of course, there weren't any, but the demonstration was so far outside the classical "world view" of the electrical engineers, that no one believed what they saw, and all of the potential investors were dissuaded from getting involved.
This put him in contact with a wide variety of other electrical engineers and electronic circuit designers living in the Los Angeles area, and elsewhere. One such colleague was a brilliant engineer named Ron Cole. Ron was the person who introduced John to Ed Gray back in As they got to know each other better, they found they had many of the same interests, and in later years, they would work together on projects into the wee hours of the night. Early on, both Ron and John knew that Ed Gray's motor was able to run, produce significant mechanical energy, and keep its batteries charged all at the same time.
But Gray's system was impossibly complicated and needed very high voltages to accomplish its feats. This set them both out on a quest to find a "simpler way" to accomplish the same end result. The discovery and experimentation with the Kromrey Generator convinced them that there was a "low voltage" path to understanding the self-running electro-mechanical machine.
After this was established, it was just a matter of running enough experiments to find the best way. But Ron worked for a big corporation, and could not afford to be openly associated with a radical technology like this. So for the most part, he worked with John privately, and it was a very creative collaboration. John has been putting Tom Bearden's name on these drawings to honor his work in testing the designs and offering theoretical ideas, but Tom really didn't help John design any of these devices.
This was the first variation of the "G-field Generator" where they tried to get away from the sliding contacts and put the coils in the stator again. This image is dated June, , which is exactly when John published his book. But this design was not in the book. Here we see one of the early models of this configuration, built by Ron Cole at his shop. Test results on this type of machine were very good, and demonstrated many of the same performance benefits that Kromrey's design did.
With one exception. This generator showed the standard "reverse drag profile" of most other switched reluctance generators. That is, it shows maximum drag under "open circuit" conditions and minimum drag under "short circuit" conditions, where the "sweet spot" is a very low impedance load. Test 1: No Load open circuit Input Power This is understandable, since they do not specify the speed of the generator during the various test results or the specific output circuit showing a rectified output driving a resistive load.
But there is other evidence that this design behaved with extremely low drag under low impedance loading conditions, including battery charging. Two Battery Systems This image, dated , shows a Kromrey style generator charging a second battery while the drive motor is run from the first battery.
The excess mechanical energy is then geared down for use by an external mechanical load. In this image, dated , we see that this configuration is now being referred to as the "G-flux Energizer. So, by , we see significant improvements to the Self-running Energizer circuit disclosed in the book which only used one battery. The drawing above shows a two pole rotor but specifically stipulates an eight pole rotor. This arrangement was tested on a wide variety of systems over the years, such as in this model.
Switching Circuits and Motor Control While John was focusing on simplification, and the single-sided, self-triggered circuit that evolved into the SG circuit we know today, Ron was interested in using these configurations to produce more mechanical energy, like a standard electric motors does. Here is an example of one of the compound, self-rotating Energizer designs from this period.
It is designed to both motor and generate, but has both North and South magnetic poles, so the double-sided switching circuits were required. This image is dated Aug 23, It also stipulates eight poles on the rotor, as well as a "hall effect" device on the left end of the shaft, with its own small magnets, to control the motor timing. This image shows a model of this topology built by John in about It used early NEO magnets, listed as "iron boron" magnets in the drawing, and fairly wide air-gaps between the rotors and the coils.
It had both motor and generator coils on the same cores in the stators. Unlike the drawing, this model had a separate "trigger coil" mounted in the upper right hand corner, shown with the very fine magnet wire coming out of it. This circuit shows only a single battery supply with the inductive recovery collected through a full-wave bridge rectifier and stored on a capacitor, which is then optionally offered to an external load or back to the primary supply.
The point of the circuit was not to define all of the recovery options, but to clearly define the drive coil design for a bi-polar configuration with full disconnect and full reversal of the coils during operation.
The Bedini "Window Motors" used this circuit, as well.
Mind you, electronic commutation of this type was not used in commercial motors for another 20 years, so this was very sophisticated stuff for Ron and John also developed a single-sided drive circuit that John has used in various models of his "Monopole" motors since this time. In this image, we see a classic twin coil design, set to run in the "forced repulsion mode" using the single sided Bedini-Cole switch, seen mounted on the black plate in the lower right.
The Hall Effect device is triggered by a second set of smaller magnets mounted in the small white wheel on the shaft. And here is another version of the double-sided switch triggered by magnetic reeds. This "Neutral Line Motor" designed by John and built in could reach 11, rpm. The circuits that John has had on his website are just a "sample" of the many circuits that were built and tested.
Musical Seismograph – Demo of The Tesla Converter [REVIEW]
The design was extremely compact and it allowed high flux densities in the coil cores from low flux density ceramic magnets. It was also universal in its application, working equally well as a high torque motor with inductive recovery or as a low drag energizer powering low impedance loads, or both. It could operate as a repulsion motor using the Bi-Polar Switch or as an attraction motor with single sided switching, like an SG.
This one configuration could do it all. And this shows another talent that Ron Cole had, besides being a brilliant circuit designer and engineer. He was also a gifted illustrator.
It should be fairly clear by now that this technology was developed to a very high level through the s, but because of the threats John received in , they were very careful about who they let know. When Ron Cole died, all of his working models and files were confiscated by NBC because his contract stated that anything he developed during his period of employment belonged to them. At this point, he had all but given up on ever trying to bring this technology out as a product.
At the same time, he decided to start building small models of many of the variations of the systems that had been developed in the s. This is the period where John perfected the simple little circuit that can allow a toy motor to run an intolerably long time on a single 9 volt battery.
Dozens of models were made with this circuit using both plastic and wood. Here is but a small sample of the working models in John's Museum! Shawnee Baughman built her Science Fair project motor during the school year and John had the plans for that circuit posted on the Keelynet website by March of All of the electrical engineers and supposed "smart guys" who frequented the site dismissed the plans as "meaningless.
He simply could not understand why no one was willing to even look at this technology. He was shown everything that was there. Since Sterling wanted to be the one who broke the "Free Energy" story to the world, he asked John if he could publish a set of plans and a parts list, so people could build one themselves.
Since John had already done that with Keelynet, he agreed to issue an up-dated set of plans for Sterling. Here is an image of the schematic and parts list given to Sterling for the "one transistor" circuit in September of This new set of plans had two differences over the Keelynet circuit. First, he called it the "School Girl Motor" to purposely insult all of the supposed smart guys who had not looked at it before, and second, he used the two battery system where the motor ran from one battery and charged the second battery directly from the recovered energy.
Sterling also started a discussion forum on Yahoo Groups so people building the project could communicate with each other. But the "cat was out of the bag" so to speak, and people from all around the world started reporting good results and wanting to learn more. By , the discussion threads were turned over to Rick Friedrich to moderate, eventually being turned over to John in The discussion threads were a major advancement over the earlier period of "no publicity," but they produced a lot of confusion, because so many people were posting on how they thought the circuits worked.
Finally, the effort was made to explain John's discoveries in a definitive series called the Bedini SG Handbook Series, of which this is the last volume. That changed on November 13th, , when John unveiled his "Ferris Wheel" machine to an audience of over attendees at the first Bedini Technology conference in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
This picture was taken by one of the participants from the back of the room. The 14 foot diameter "Ferris Wheel" machine can be seen in the distance. It was designed to demonstrate John's technology to the crowd in a dramatic manner. Beyond that, it has Courtesy of sandysanfords. It was shown again at the conference, after which, it has never been fully assembled. The problem was that when fully assembled, the machine was 6 inches taller than the large bay doors at John's shop.
It was a lot of work to rebuild the top section of the wheel and since no more tests were run on it, it was never reassembled. It stayed partially disassembled at John's shop through , and was finally moved into storage when John down-sized his shop in It remains partially disassembled, but potentially operational today. The machine had three large coils of wire on the bottom and was operated in "full power mode" with the bi-polar "Bedini-Cole Switch" like the one shown on page The only difference was that the components in the switch were modified to operate a very low impedance circuit.
The input was 36 volts three 12 volt batteries in series and the output was the same. The batteries boiled continuously during operation, and John never ran it for more than 30 minutes at a time in full power mode. The batteries were too small to be charged that hard.
Although John has not revealed the entire schematic for the Ferris Wheel machine, there is quite a bit of data on the internet. Here is one drawing that is posted on a discussion thread dedicated to this machine. It shows how the magnets on the wheel interface with the three coils, www. For more information on the technical details of the Ferris Wheel machine, go here: This book would not be complete without mentioning the significance of the role of the battery in all of John's systems.
To date, John has built and demonstrated machines and circuits that "self-run" using one battery, two batteries, three batteries, and four batteries. All of the systems he has demonstrated have at least one battery. The battery is a central component in all of John's work. In John's book Bedini's Free Energy Generator, he shows the method of building a self-running machine using one battery. This process draws energy from the battery to drive an ordinary direct induction DC motor to produce mechanical energy.
This mechanical energy is used to sustain the rotation of a flywheel stored momentum and an Energizer low drag generator that is used to charge a capacitor stored electrical charge while dissipating very little of the mechanical energy. Ordinary DC traction motors of this type use their internally generated http: This means that the faster it turns, the less current it draws.
So, the system works better as the motor approaches its "top speed. The "sweet spot" for this machine is a very low friction mechanism! Mechanically, it must be perfectly aligned and fitted with free-running bearings so that it is capable of reaching its highest possible speed for the lowest expenditure of mechanical force.
As the speed rises, the motor draws less and less electrical energy from the battery, while the Energizer is able to put more and more back in from the capacitor discharges. At a critical speed, the system starts putting more energy into the battery than it is taking out and it moves into "self-running" mode. The machine has three energy storage components in it. They are the Flywheel, the Capacitor, and the Battery. During "self-running" mode, all three energy storage components reach maximum capacity.
The Flywheel maintains maximum speed, whether the electric motor is running at the moment or not. The Capacitor is constantly charged by impulses from the Energizer in a way that removes almost no momentum from the Flywheel. The battery is the primary energy reservoir of the system. It has the energy to start the system and get it up to operating speeds, and it has the capacity to absorb all of the excess energy produced by the system. To make a home power plant out of a system like this, just put more and more batteries in parallel with the first, and use a switching process that won't burn itself out.
After that, just "let it run" For the most part, it wasn't their fault. The problem was the battery. The fact is, batteries do not like to be "charged and discharged" simultaneously or even sequentially, in rapid succession. It has to do with the energy required to constantly overcome the inertial momentum stored in moving the large lead ions back and forth in the electrolyte. To get around this "inertial mass" loss mechanism at the molecular level, John developed his two battery systems, where one battery runs the machine and the other battery is charged for a number of hours, and then they are switched only once or twice a day.
This worked much better, but still most people could not get it to work. Most of the reasons experimenters have gotten bad results with the two battery systems are covered in detail in the Bedini SG Intermediate Handbook. And this brings us to the consideration of the three battery systems. For the most part, the three battery system was presented as a method to explain why the four battery system worked.
In the last few years, however, a couple of skilled experimenters have found that it has a number of specific merits, all by itself. This diagram has been on John's website since and shows a method whereby a dead battery can be charged while running a "low resistance load", like an electric motor turning an Energizer, for example!
This method allows an ordinary electric motor to operate while the current is conserved to charge a battery at the same time. This is where most "self-respecting" scientists lose interest.
As long as you believe that the load "consumes" electricity, you will not investigate reports that it is being "conserved" at the same time as it is being used. To learn more about these developments, check out this discussion thread with more than posts: This drawing has been on John's website since , and his work with circuits like this dates back to First introduced to these ideas by Ronald Brandt, this circuit topology John eventually named the "Tesla Switch.
When switched abruptly between these two states, the load operates on a "cold form" of electricity without discharging the batteries. John was interested in this phenomena because it elicited the expression of the same kind of "modified electricity" that he so clearly demonstrated with his tests on the Kromrey Generator. Benitez, a Civil Engineer living in Guadalajara, Mexico. Here is the primary image from that patent. It shows four batteries being connected sequentially in series or parallel, and loads being operated from the fluctuations of current between the Negative Terminals.
The Benitez Patent descriptions clearly disclose the method, but the patent does not mention the change in the "quality" of the electricity. Ronald Brandt was the first to clearly state that the currents moving in this system had "unusual properties" and John Bedini is absolutely the first person in history to get a system like this operating with purely solid-state switching.
Here is a picture of John showing this first solid-state demonstrator at the Tesla Centennial Symposium. Whether Ronald Brandt rediscovered this method through experimentation, or somehow knew of the prior work of Benitez, is not known. What is known is that he introduced John to it.
Courtesy of Sky Fabin Productions www. While at first glance, the one and two battery systems seem to be dependent on the low drag performance of the Energizer style of generator, this is NOT what John was interested in!!!
John was interested in the various methods of eliciting the modified forms of electricity, and their effects on the batteries. Once you grasp the significance of the "cold form" of electric currents that blatantly appear in both the Kromrey Generator and the "Four Battery Switch", the more easily you can comprehend why Tom Bearden theorized ideas of the "Phi-dot" current and the idea that "the battery charges itself.
In these early days, the experiments were running way ahead of the explanations. They were grasping to develop a language with which to describe these discoveries, and Tom Bearden was the only one who volunteered to rise to the challenge. But outside of the inner circle, where the evidence of these realities was firmly established, there was nearly unanimous rejection of these ideas! Voltage and current are two separate and distinct aspects of "electricity. When voltage appears without current, the presentation is a "cold form" of electricity, most notably recognized as the spike produced by the discharge of an inductor into a high impedance load.
This is the so-called "Radiant Energy" produced by the SG circuits. Current without voltage is generated by the fluctuation of potentials in a low impedance circuit when the current is interrupted abruptly and the reflection of this fluctuation appears across a very low impedance load between two negative terminals. Ohm's Law does not describe their behavior within a circuit. Classical measurements on these modified forms of electricity are routinely inaccurate.
Regardless of these measurement issues, these forms of electricity can and do perform real WORK in external circuits. Only when voltage and current appear together do we have the standard presentation of electricity we have been incorrectly told is the "only one.
By contrast, "cold electricity" effects appear at both ends of the spectrum, where either voltage or current appear without the other. If there is such a thing, THIS is one of the real secrets of free energy. Any circuit or machine that allows these conditions to manifest, will exhibit positive results in the real world that are difficult to quantify by measurement methods accepted by standard science!
In the designs that close the magnetic fields down to closed loops, it is possible to produce more mechanical energy stronger motoring effects and what appears to be a higher "efficiency" generators, but the appearance of the modified forms of electricity is greatly reduced. Conversely, when the magnetic fields are produced in structures that have large air-gaps in their return path, such as a coil of wire energized by a permanent magnet from only one end, a maximum of these modified forms of electricity are encouraged to show up, especially when combined with abrupt switching techniques.
From a classical point of view, these structures are considered to be "very inefficient" and they exhibit a very low "power to weight" ratio, and are written off as if they are useless and archaic. From John's point of view, they are the simplest way to effectively gather this "cold form" of energy from the environment, or as Kromrey first said, from the gravitational field.Needless to say, during that time, we have seen countless experiments performed by John that are nothing short of breathtaking.
John has always, from the very first, referred to the device as a "self-rotating energizer" or simply as an "energizer. Theories have been advanced by dozens of people all over the internet regarding their ideas about how the machine works. Electric motors are usually designed to power some other rotating device, like a pump or a compressor.
Reversing the direction of the current flow in either case will also reversethe polarity of the magnetic field. Because the diode passes electricity in one direction and blocks it in the other direction, it is very important to install diodes in a circuit correctly.
You will be walked through the history and chronology of the various capacitive discharge methods that John Bedini has used over the years. If thousands of skilled techies study it and experiment to learn the science that John Bedini has been trying to gift to the world, we can have a vastly better future.