Gauge Invariance in Classical Electrodynamics. Article (PDF Available) in Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie 30(no 2,) · December with Reads. RÉSUMÉ. Le concept de l'invariance de jauge dans l'électrodynamique trodynamic gauge invariance: Maxwell's equations must have unique so- lutions . These are theories in which the physical system being dealt with is de- scribed by are invariant with respect to the gauge transformations. .. aflbppdf).
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faits d'expérience, comme par exemple l'invariance de l'échelle de de jauge et de transformation de jauge dans le cadre de la théorie. Institut Non-Linéaire de Nice, Sophia-Antipolis. UMR CNRS. , route the fields are invariant with respect to the gauge trans- formations. .. http://www. kaz-news.info).  Rousseaux G. symétrie de jauge et les équations non linéaires de Yang et Mills dans des invariance to the level of a keystone principle among physical.
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Rousseaux inln. The physically meaningful degrees of freedom then reemerge as being those invariant under a transformation connecting the variables gauge transformation.
Thus, one introduces extra variables to make the description more transparent and brings in at the same time a gauge symmetry to extract the physically relevant content. It is a remarkable occurrence that the road to progress has invariably been towards enlarging the number of variables and introducing a more powerful symmetry rather than conversely aiming at reducing the number of variables and eliminating the symmetry .
We claim that the potentials of Classical Electromagnetism are not indetermined with respect to the so-called gauge transformations. Indeed, these transformations raise paradoxes that imply their rejection.
Nevertheless, the potentials are still indetermined up to a constant. Hence, we where f x, t is the gauge function.
More- In this article, we would like to reexamine the common over, it is often related to the assertion that the poten- belief concerning the assumed indeterminacy of the po- tials are not measurable quantities contrary to the fields.
Indeed, we will show that that is a supplementary equation which is injected in the gauge transformations introduce paradoxes which imply Maxwell equations expressed in function of the electro- their rejection. This point of view was expressed already magnetic potentials in order to supress this indetermi- by the school of De Broglie : by the master himself  or nacy.
It is common to say that these gauge conditions by his followers like Costa De Beauregard  In this context, the choice of a specific gauge condition is motivated from the easiness in calculations compared to another one.
Furthermore, no physical meaning is ascribed fined by the following potentials : to the gauge conditions as the potentials are assumed not to have one The transverse part remains unchanged. Now, we can perform a gauge transformation with this Moreover, the magnetic field depends only on the trans- particular gauge function : verse part.
Introduction to gauge theory
In this case, we observe a magnetic field by definition. We are in front of the first paradox : how can a physi- And, if the vector potential varies in time, it creates an cal quantity here, the vector potential be a function of electric field again by definition : the time integral of the time in a stationary problem? In the case of a capacitor electric field could be considered as a direct measure of for example, the static electric field is created by static the vector potential without the presence of static charges electric charges on the plates of the capacitor.
If one ad- that is of a scalar potential. If not, one can use the super- mits that one can describe this static electric field by position theorem to evaluate first the part of the electric a time-dependent vector potential, one must admit that field associated to the static charge that is the scalar po- the sources charges or currents of this electric field are tential and then the part associated to the current that time-dependent which is not experimentally the case.
The decomposition is Aharonov-Bohm effect .Gauge bosons[ edit ] Surprisingly, gauge symmetry can give a deeper explanation for the existence of interactions, such as the electric and nuclear interactions.
Google Scholar 7. But now suppose that the electrons in the experiment are subject to electric or magnetic fields. Is gauge symmetry an autonomous concept, logically independent of other leading principles of physics? Gauge bosons[ edit ] Surprisingly, gauge symmetry can give a deeper explanation for the existence of interactions, such as the electric and nuclear interactions.
If the cylinder has no bumps, marks, or scratches on it, we cannot tell.