Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Kathleen Stassen Berger completed her undergraduate education at Stanford University and Radcliffe College, earned her. Developing Person Through the Life Span eBook & Studyguide by Professor Kathleen Stassen Berger, , available at Book. View all copies of The Developing Person Through the Life Span & eBook from US$ "The seventh edition comes with significant revision of cognitive development throughout childhood, revised and updated chapters on adolescence, and more attention to emerging and early.
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Get this from a library! Developing Person Through the Life Span. [Kathleen Stassen Berger]. The Developing Person Through the Life Span as DevelopmentPortal, the interactive eBook, and the Video Tool Kit for Human Development. The Developing Person Through the Life Span, Sixth Edition presents theory, research, practical examples, and policy issues in a way that inspires students to .
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View all copies of this ISBN edition: Synopsis About this title "The seventh edition comes with significant revision of cognitive development throughout childhood, revised and updated chapters on adolescence, and more attention to emerging and early adulthood.
About the Author: The students Kathleen Berger teaches every year come from diverse ethnic, economic, and educational backgrounds representing a wide range of interests and consistently honor her with the highest teaching evaluations.
Developing Person Through the Life Span
Berger s developmental texts are currently being used at nearly colleges and universities in a dozen countries and in five languages. Kathleen s research interests include adolescent identity, sibling relationships, and bullying.
As the mother of four daughters, as well as a new grandmother, she brings to her teaching and writing ample firsthand experience with human development. download Used View Book. These experimental observations are not compatible with a single hit mechanism which is the basis for the microdosimetric justification of the linear-non threshold dose response hypothesis.
Early data on mutations in fruit flies were very influential in adoption of the LNT model. These data actually indicated a threshold but was misrepresented as supporting the LNT model. A threshold for radiation-induced mutations has also been observed in mice, 42 — 46 human-hamster hybrid cells, 47 and human cells.
These observations challenge the relative importance that initial mutations play in radiation-induced cancer, 50 and further, Genomic instability and the ability to modify responses after the radiation exposure both challenge the linear relationship between initial DNA damage and cancer frequency. If the resulting sum of radiation plus spontaneous DNA damage after radiation exposure is less than the level of damage that existed prior to radiation exposure, it is entirely reasonable and biologically plausible that radiation risks are not increased consistent with a threshold or may even be decreased consistent with hormesis.
Within limitations imposed by statistical power, the available and extensive epidemiological data are broadly consistent with a linear dose-response for radiation cancer risk at moderate and low doses.
However, radiation in general is a weak carcinogen, 51 , 52 and the evidence that LDDR radiation exposure in particular increases cancer risk is lacking. International expert advisory bodies have repeatedly cautioned against application of the LNT model to calculate hypothetical risks from LDDR exposures.
Collective effective dose is not intended as a tool for epidemiological studies, and it is inappropriate to use it in risk projections.
Developing Person Through the Life Span eBook & Studyguide
This is because the assumptions implicit in the calculation of collective effective dose e. Specifically, the computation of cancer deaths based on collective effective doses involving trivial exposures to large populations is not reasonable and should be avoided.
Such computations based on collective effective dose were never intended, are biologically and statistically very uncertain, presuppose a number of caveats that tend not to be repeated when estimates are quoted out of context, and are an incorrect use of this protection quantity.
Because they multiply very small doses by large populations to predict excess cancer incidence or mortality, these tools conflict with the scientific guidance provided by other governmental or scientific organizations and professional societies.
The impact to the United States is real, resulting in enormous cleanup costs that show no demonstrable benefit to society, creates a social stigma on affected communities, and foments fear among the public, causing unnecessary harm by promoting ill-advised decision-making. For example, USEPA states, …overall, if each person in a group of 10, people exposed to 1 rem of ionizing radiation, in small doses over a life time, we would expect 5 or 6 more people to die of cancer than would otherwise.
In this group of 10, people, we can expect about 2, to die of cancer from all non-radiation causes.
The accumulated exposure to 1 rem of radiation, would increase that number to about or The USEPA cannot endorse basing radiation protection on poorly supported and highly speculative proposals for dose thresholds or doubtful notions concerning protective effects from low-level ionizing radiation.
Accordingly, we would urge the NRC to deny the petition. These include the U.
Again and again, these bodies have endorsed LNT as a reasonable approach to regulating exposures to low dose radiation. One exception was a French National Academy Report, which found low-dose radio biological effects in vitro indicative of nonlinearity in the dose response.
This is an academic point because there is in fact no consensus in favor of the LNT model among individual scientists, professional societies, expert advisory bodies, US regulators, nor even within USEPA itself.
As acknowledged earlier, contradictory recommendations were issued by the French National Academies of Science and Medicine, 60 and evidence supporting the French conclusions has grown in the recent years.
The French report contradicts the claim of consensus among expert advisory bodies in support of the LNT model. At radiation exposures in the range of natural background, it is difficult to distinguish radiation-induced changes in risk from the baseline. It is important to note that since the SAB last took up this issue and advised USEPA to explicitly monitor developments on these topics, the NCRP has issued comprehensive reports on uncertainties in the measurement and dosimetry of external radiation, 61 internal radiation dose, 62 and in the estimation of radiation risks.
In the absence of more conclusive data, scientists have assumed that even the smallest radiation exposure carries a risk. Although we recommended as far back as that the two agencies take the lead in pursuing an interagency consensus on acceptable radiation risks to the public, they continue to disagree on two major regulatory applications: 1 the proposed disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository at Yucca Mountain and 2 the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities.
As recently as , the GAO again recommended the DOE take the lead on reestablishing and coordinating federal research on the topic of low-dose radiation effects. For example, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society has stated, There is insufficient epidemiological evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for effective doses of less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year above the background level of exposure and further,…no inference may be drawn concerning the risk to health or risk of fatality of an individual from an effective dose below 10 mSv in a year.
For individual doses less than some tens of millisieverts in a year, risk inferences are unreliable and carry a large uncertainty that includes the possibility of zero risk. However, below levels of about mSv above background from all sources combined, the observed radiation effects in people are not statistically different from zero.
Scientists evaluate and estimate radiation risk using several assumptions that, taken together, may lead to a range of hypothetical health risk estimates for any given exposure scenario. For radiation protection purposes and for setting radiation exposure limits, current standards and practices are based on the questionable premise that any radiation dose, no matter how small, could result in detrimental health effects such as cancer or heritable genetic damage.
However, because of statistical uncertainties in biological response at or near background levels, the LNT hypothesis cannot provide reliable projections of future cancer incidence from low-level radiation exposures NCRP Learn more about site Prime.
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Deals and Shenanigans. Her students—who come from many ethnic, economic, and educational backgrounds and who have a wide range of ages and interests—consistently honor her with the highest teaching evaluations.
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