information. [Stephen C. Meyer: Darwin's Doubt (Kindle Locations . www. kaz-news.info (accessed. October. DARWIN'S DOUBT. The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design. About the Book; Stephen C. Meyer · download the Book · Book Preview. In his book, Darwin's Doubt: The Explosive. Origin of Animal Life and the Case for. Intelligent Design{1}, Stephen Meyer quotes. Darwin from the Origin of .

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In Darwin's Doubt, Stephen C. Meyer tells the story of the mystery surrounding this explosion of animal Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. In Darwin's Doubt Stephen C. Meyer tells the story of the mystery ; www. kaz-news.info /releases//pdf/kaz-news.info (accessed October. When Charles Darwin finished The Origin of Species, he thought that he had explained every clue, but one. Though his theory could explain many facts, Darwin.

Meyer tells the story of the mystery surrounding this explosion of animal life—a mystery that has intensified, not only because the expected ancestors of these animals have not been found, but also because scientists have learned more about what it takes to construct an animal. Expanding on the compelling case he presented in his last book, Signature in the Cell, Meyer argues that the theory of intelligent design—which holds that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection—is ultimately the best explanation for the origin of the Cambrian animals.

It seems that the word "pseudoscience" is being tossed around a lot. Meyer does a tremendous job of outlining paper after paper after paper, and he includes the full citations so that any careful reader can check to make sure that nothing is misrepresented or taken out of context. This is exactly what philosophers of science are highly trained to do.

Philosophers of science do sweeping surveys of the work being done in a particular field, document areas of strong disagreement between the prominent scientists in that field, and locate weaknesses in the over-arching theory or theories.

Every time I had a mental red flag as I was reading his commentary on a specific bit of research, he would answer my concern within another page or two. He maintains a very professional and respectful tone throughout, to his great credit.

Ultimately, Meyer has compiled an impressive amount of peer-reviewed research on the Cambrian phenomenon and the related bio-information problem. He has organized it in a way that flows logically from one chapter to the next. I had been led to believe over the years that everything that could be said about the Cambrian Explosion has already been said.

Darwin's Doubt: The Explosive Origin of Animal Life and the Case for Intelligent Design

I was quite happy to believe that the only real discontinuities in the story of life occurred at the origin of life and at the origin of human consciousness. I should have known better; science marches onward, and old arguments get reexamined as new data arises. As such, it represents a solid second volume complementary to his previous work, Signature in the Cell, which focused on the origin of life.

I had come to think that discussing the Cambrian Explosion was misguided because of two arguments: 1 that the explosion was merely an artifact of the fact that organisms before that time did not have hard bones or shells, and 2 that the explosion was short on the geological time scale, but was really quite long on the biological time scale.

Meyer disposes of both of these arguments quite handily. On the first, modern science shows that soft-bodied organisms are well preserved in the strata before, during, and after the Cambrian. An earlier, boneless version could not have had the same body plan at all. On the second objection, Meyer shows that the geological time scale has gotten more compressed over the years, not less; best estimates now are million years, which is quite short geologically.

Unfortunately I am encountering the same issue that many other critical reviewers have mentioned — it takes a significant amount more space to refute a false claim than it does to simply assert it. So rather than go in detail chapter by chapter I will illustrate what I think are the primary distortions and probable misunderstandings.

I took the time to obtain a huge number of the references he cites, and I checked his claims against the originals. As I am an invertebrate zoologist I want to focus on the first section of three in DD.

This still will be a long review! First of all I want to start on a positive.

Meyer is a talented writer and it is unfortunate that his skills have taken him where they did. But, while writing these words in the summer of , I am sitting at the end of a narrow medieval street in Cambridge, England, where more than half a century ago a far- reaching information revolution began in biology.

Tis revolution was launched by an unlikely but now immortal- ized pair of scientists, Francis Crick and James Watson. Since my time as a Ph.


Indeed, since the s, when Watson and Crick frst illuminated the chemical structure and information- bearing properties of DNA, biologists have come to understand that living things, as much as high- tech devices, depend upon digital information information that, in the case of life, is stored in a four- character chemical code embedded within the twisting fgure of a double helix.

Because of the importance of information to living things, it has now become apparent that many distinct information revolutions have oc- curred in the history of life not revolutions of human discovery or in- vention, but revolutions involving dramatic increases in the information present within the living world itself.

Scientists now know that building a living organism requires information, and building a fundamentally new form of life from a simpler form of life requires an immense amount of new information.

Tus, wherever the fossil record testifes to the origin of a completely new form of animal life a pulse of biological innova- tion it also testifes to a signifcant increase in the information content of the biosphere.

In , I wrote a book called Signature in the Cell about the frst infor- mation revolution in the history of life the one that occurred with the origin of the frst life on earth. And molecular biology also revealed that cells employ a complex information- processing system to access and express the infor- mation stored in DNA as they use that information to build the proteins and protein machines that they need to stay alive.

Scientists attempting to explain the origin of life must explain how both information- rich mol- ecules and the cells information- processing system arose.

Te type of information present in living cells that is, specifed in- formation in which the sequence of characters matters to the function of the sequence as a whole has generated an acute mystery. No undirected physical or chemical process has demonstrated the capacity to produce specifed information starting from purely physical or chemical precur- sors. For this reason, chemical evolutionary theories have failed to solve the mystery of the origin of frst life a claim that few mainstream evolu- tionary theorists now dispute.

In Signature in the Cell, I not only reported the well- known impasse in origin- of- life studies; I also made an afrmative case for the theory of intelligent design. Although we dont know of a material cause that gener- ates functioning digital code from physical or chemical precursors, we do know based upon our uniform and repeated experience of one type of cause that has demonstrated the power to produce this type of informa- tion.

Tat cause is intelligence or mind. As information theorist Henry Quastler observed, Te creation of information is habitually associated with conscious activity.

Whenever we fnd functional information whether embedded in a radio signal, carved in a stone monument, etched on a magnetic disc, or produced by an origin- of- life scientist attempting to engineer a self- replicating molecule and we trace that information back to its ultimate source, invariably we come to a mind, not merely a material process.

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For this reason, the discovery of digital information in even the simplest living cells indicates the prior activity of a designing intelligence at work in the origin of the frst life. My book proved controversial, but in an unexpected way. Tough I clearly stated that I was writing about the origin of the frst life and about theories of chemical evolution that attempt to explain it from simpler pre- existing chemicals, many critics responded as if I had written another book altogether.

Instead, most criticized the book as if it had presented a critique of the standard neo- Darwinian theories of biological evolution theories that attempt to account for the origin of new forms of life from simpler preexisting forms of life. Tus, to refute my claim that no chemical evolutionary processes had demonstrated the power to explain the ultimate origin of information in the DNA or RNA necessary to produce life from simpler preexisting chemicals in the frst place, many critics cited processes at work in already living organisms in particular, the process of natural selection acting on random mutations in already existing sections of information- rich DNA.

In other words, these critics cited an undirected process that acts on preexistent information- rich DNA to refute my argument about the failure of undirected material processes to produce information in DNA in the frst place. Other discussions of the book cited the mammalian immune system as an example of the power of natural selection and mutation to generate new biological information, even though the mammalian immune system can only perform the marvels it does because its mammalian hosts are already alive, and even though the mammalian immune system depends upon an elaborately preprogrammed form of adaptive capacity rich in genetic information one that arose long afer the origin of the frst life.

Another critic steadfastly maintained that Meyers main argument concerns the inability of random mutation and selection to add information to [pre- existing] DNA and attempted to refute the books presumed critique of the neo- Darwinian mechanism of biological evolution accordingly.

I found this all a bit surreal, as if I had wandered into a lost chapter from a Kafa novel. To imply other wise, as many of my critics did, was simply to erect a straw man. To those unfamiliar with the particular problems faced by scientists trying to explain the origin of life, it might not seem obvious why invok- ing natural selection does not help to explain the origin of the frst life.

Afer all, if natural selection and random mutations can generate new in- formation in living organisms, why can it also not do so in a prebiotic environment?

But the distinction between a biological and prebiotic con- text was crucially important to my argument. Natural selection assumes the existence of living organisms with a capacity to reproduce. Yet self- replication in all extant cells depends upon information- rich proteins and nucleic acids DNA and RNA , and the origin of such information- rich molecules is precisely what origin- of- life research needs to explain.

Tats why Teodosius Dobzhansky, one of the founders of the modern neo- Darwinian synthesis, can state fatly, Pre- biological natural selection is a contradiction in terms.

Or, as Nobel Prizewinning molecular biologist and origin- of- life researcher Chris tian de Duve explains, theories of pre- biotic natural selection fail because they need information which implies they have to presuppose what is to be explained in the frst place. All this notwithstanding, I have long been aware of strong reasons for doubting that mutation and selection can add enough new informa- tion of the right kind to account for large- scale, or macroevolutionary, innovations the various information revolutions that have occurred afer the origin of life.

For this reason, I have found it increasingly te- dious to have to concede, if only for the sake of argument, the substance of claims I think likely to be false. And so the repeated prodding of my critics has paid of.

Even though I did not write the book or make the argument that many of my critics cri- tiqued in responding to Signature in the Cell, I have decided to write that book. And this is that book. Of course, it might have seemed a safer course to leave well enough alone. Why press a point you never made in the frst place? Because despite the widespread impression to the contrary conveyed by textbooks, the popular media, and spokespersons for ofcial science the orthodox neo- Darwinian theory of biological evolution has reached an impasse nearly as acute as the one faced by chemical evolutionary theory.

Leading fgures in several subdisciplines of biology cell biol- ogy, developmental biology, molecular biology, paleontology, and even evolutionary biology now openly criticize key tenets of the modern ver- sion of Darwinian theory in the peer- reviewed technical literature.Part Tree, Afer Darwin, What?

National Museum of Natural Science , , Figure And indeed they are, depending on how one defnes evolution. Search Inside Yourself: For this reason, chemical evolutionary theories have failed to solve the mystery of the origin of frst life a claim that few mainstream evolu- tionary theorists now dispute.