I came to Comala because I had been told that my father, a man named Pedro Paramo lived there. It was my mother who told me. And I had promised her that. PEDRO PARAMO. By Juan Rulfo. I came to Comala because I was told that my father, a man called Pedro Paramo, was living there. It was what my mother had. I came to Comala because I had been told that my father, a man named Pedro Paramo lived there. And I had promised her that after she died I would go see him. Little by little I began to build a world around a hope centered on the man called Pedro Paramo, the man who had been my.

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Pedro Paramo - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Rights Reserved. Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd . In the first pages of Juan Rulfo's oracular Pedro Páramo (), Juan Preciado meets. It_Starts_With_Food__Discover_the_Whole30_-_Hartwig, It Starts Pedro Páramo se arrellanó en un pesebre y esperó: —¿Por qué no te sientas?.

Although it is often discussed among the novels of the Mexican Revolution, Pedro P? For Rulfo, unlike other novelists who deal with the revolution, does not investigate or question its nature, its processes, its real effects, or the personages who made it; by neglecting the Revolution he shows it is of no consequence to the world he creates.

Carlos Blanco Aguinaga has said that most of Rulfo's characters do not exist in historical terms; 19 for them, there is no division between pre- and pro-Revolutionary periods, just as there is little difference between life and death.

As suggested earlier, Preciado's journey in many ways parallels Dante's into Hell, but C? As Dante's sinners know nothing of the punishments in circles other than their own, so the residents of C? Donis' unnamed sister lives in concubinage with her brother, and describes herself as a sea of mud, recalling Dante's? Inferno VII, All function imper fectly: Dante's condemned, with mud in their throats, can only approximate complete speech-?

Inferno VII, , while Rulfo's pair of unforgiven sinners can recollect, but can only approximate cogitation or judgment. TC, 7,3 epic motif of the visit to the underworld. In Homer's, Virgil's, Dante's and Ercilla's works, among others, the hero descends into the underworld in order that truth?

Preciado also seeks such information, but this is impossible to obtain in C? Similarly, the epic's representation of the underworld as a place antithetical to the cir cumstances and limitations of quotidian life is destroyed here, for C? Thus there exists no possibility for the sense of relief and accomplishment upon depar ting which characterizes Dante's moving from the City of Dis out into the open skies of Purgatory, Aeneas' leaving the river Styx for the shores of the Tiber, or Ercilla's departing Fit?

The hero's role is here reduced from transcendence to entrapment. Unlike the epic heroes who visit the underworld to observe, question, listen, and then pass on with new understanding, Juan Preciado remains in C?

He is trapped in the underworld in which he sought revelation. The Comalans' immutable suffering links them to the under world figures found by Aeneas and, of course, by Dante. The Comalans are condemned for a major sin of omission? They most resemble Dante's sinners who lived?

The father-figure motif in the worlds of "Pedro Páramo" and "Páscoa Feliz"

Inferno III, 36 , the pusillanimous who disregarded opportunity and missed their callings in life. Like the Comalans, these sinners are fully dead. Virgil explains to Dante that? Inferno III, 46 , since they never really lived? Inferno III, In life these souls never fulfilled their potential, and now neither Heaven nor Hell will receive them. The Comalans suffer a more horrible and unnatural punishment; they are condemned to continue sinning repeatedly, and apparently eter nally, through memory.

Thus the possibilities of redemption and justification central to all epic literature are denied here, and the This content downloaded from Salvation is impossible. Pedro, Peter, the rock of the church, is also Lucifer; C? IV The epic story, particularly of the oral tradition, is known to its audience; it is part of the collective memory and received culture of a given people. The ritual act of retelling the epic reaffirms its importance and its truth. Rulfo's story, too, represents a repetition-the townpeople's retelling of their individual histories, their only activity-but there is no agreement on the validity of the information conveyed.

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The Comalans' ideas conflict and their in terpretations clash, and no single mind filters, interprets, and organizes the presentation of events. Tillyard speaks of the epic writer's own heroic effort, of his? Incident and anecdote are minimized in im portance because the reader learns in the book's first section that Pedro P? The resolution of the? His vague impressions, haltingly ex pressed, are not wrong: the lack of noise and voices, the houses in vaded by weeds, the empty echo of his footfall all make him think the town is dead.

As our interpreter of the Comalan world, with his limited powers of understanding and representation, Juan Preciado counterposes himself to the omniscient, or nearly omniscient, nar This content downloaded from TC, 7,3 rators of the great epic literature. Even first person narrators, like Dante and Ercilla, possess a scope of knowledge, an accumulation of details, and an understanding of the epic project which imparts a sense of omniscience, whether this is truly the case or not.

Preciado, on the other hand, knows little more about this strange world of C? Preciado's narration occupies barely one-fifth of the whole narrative; the rest is simply conversation or monologue overheard by him, or is information presented imper sonally.

Preciado tries to organize his material, beginning from the outset of his adventure,? Aristotelian components of a plot. Nor can we say that the story is? This, then, is a story without limits, and any boundaries set on it are not dictated by the resolution of the community's problems, or by the artistic conception of the narrator, but are those of an editor or the author himself , who simply ends the text at a convenient point.

In the epic, the past is used to illuminate the present: by its convention the Aeneid exists to explain the struggle to found Rome. Rejecting the Homeric example of beginning in the middle of the story, and the linear construction of certain Renaissance epics e. Ercilla's La Araucana , Rulfo's work be gins post terminum, after the action has taken place, and exists only in fragmentary recollection of a people which has all but died out.

The confusion of chronology and sequence renders mean ingless Pedro Paramo's use of the standard epical of foreshadow ing. In the epic this artifice, by which uncertain future cir cumstances are clarified, is used both to help the epic hero better understand his mission, and to convince the reader of the veracity of the text itself. By predicting what is later to come true come true in the epic story, or in history-that is, the reader's or listener's received extra-literary knowledge , the epic confirms itself and the validity of its information.

In other instances its effect is undercut because the infor mation content of the foreshadowing is never fully revealed, or it is not revealed until after the incident which it adumbrates has been recounted. The revelations have little meaning for characters or readers; rather, they emphasize the story's lack of traditional ar tistic shaping, its haphazard presentation. On its surface, Preciado's quest seems to follow epic patterns: he must leave his home, journey to unknown territory, seek out strangers and discover their secrets in order to learn about himself, his background and his people.

But the predominant idea in Pedro P? When Preciado says? Preciado speaks out of fear; he wants to move back to the world of living, but it is too late.

Although he is far more ambitious than they, Pedro Paramo is as unheroic as the other Comalans. Instead of leading his subjects, Pedro P?

He kills Comalans ac tively, in retribution for his father's murder, and passively?? As motives are confused, results lose their meaning. Pedro's father Lucas dies by mistake; his killers were seeking another man.

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Later, Pedro P? In retaliation he kills off the entire town. That is, in a reversal of the epic's affirmation of human life, Pedro P? In another ironic distortion of purposeful heroism, Pedro P?

The archetypal myth of the son's rising up against the father to usurp power and to restore vigorous leadership is totally lost. Pedro Paramo's end and the text's are one and the This content downloaded from TC, 7,3 same. The cornerstone of C? The phrase is a more emphatic version of Dante's description of his own passing over to the realm of death:? Inferno V, which probably derives from St. John the Divine's description of a similar experience in the Book of Revelation: And I fell at his feet as one dead?

Reve lation For Dante and St. John this swoon is a false death, and marks a liberation, an initiation which permits access to knowledge of the eschatological disposition of the world?

Pedro Paramo's fall is more final-he returns to the original, inert substance implied by his name. But C? Like the epic heroes, Preciado submits to tests-some of them physical but for the most part tests of belief and understanding. But since he undergoes these tests without really comprehending them, he can neither succeed nor fail; he does not understand the possible rewards which hang in the balance. He is as fearful of leaving the town as he is of staying in it, so he dies-he does not even know how-before he can decide his own fate.

In its futility, his death recalls the other deaths in the story. As the Comalans perceive no mission or objective that justifies and vindicates death, there can be no sense of a life sacrificed to an ideal, or a death with meaning. So alive. How I wished she were here, so I could say, "You were mistaken about the house.

You told me the wrong place. You sent me 'south of nowhere,' to an abandoned village. Looking for someone who's no longer alive.

I lifted my hand to knock, but there was nothing there. My hand met only empty space, as if the wind had blown open the door. A woman stood there. She said, "Come in. So I stayed in Comala. The man with the burros had gone on his way. Before leaving, he'd said: "I still have a way to go, yonder where you see that band of hills.

My house is there. If you want to come, you will be welcome.

For now, if you want to stay here, then stay. You got nothing to lose by taking a look around, you may find someone who's still among the living. That was why I had come. Tell her I sent you. But he was too far for me to hear his last name. I am Eduviges Dyada. Come in. Everything was ready, she said, motioning for me to follow her through a long series of dark, seemingly empty, rooms.

But no. As soon as my eyes grew used to the darkness and the thin thread of light following us, I saw shadows looming on either side, and sensed that we were walking down a narrow passageway opened between bulky shapes. As people went away, they chose my house to store their belongings, but not one of them has ever come back to claim them. The room I kept for you is here at the back.

I keep it cleaned out in case anyone comes. So you're her son? But how did you know? Today, in fact. That you would be coming today. My mother? Your mother. But Eduviges left me no time for thinking.

The room had no doors, except for the one we had entered. She lighted the candle, and I could see the room was completely empty.

You must be tired from your journey, and weariness makes a good mattress. I'll fix you up a bed first thing in the morning. You can't expect me to have things ready on the spur of the moment. A person needs some warning, and I didn't get word from your mother until just now. I was no longer in my right mind; I remember that I held myself up against the walls as if I were walking with my hands. And the whispering seemed to have come from the walls as if they were filtered between cracks and breaks in the plaster.

I went beyond it, according to my calculations, and I found nothing. You must be dead. He is the son of Pedro Paramo who has come to her house look- ing for an answer, because he is afraid that he might be perceived as in- sane if he asks someone else, and the answer he receives from Eduviges is that he is dead. Later in the novel Preciado perceives that the rumours, echoes, noises and voices of Comala have ended his life.

Schizophrenic individu- als often describe themselves as feeling dead yet hyper-alert -- a sort of corpse with insomnia. A corpse with insomnia accurately describes Preciado at the end of his nar- ration, since he perceives himself as a corpse in a coffin, conversing with others buried nearby.

Given the symptoms that he describes throughout his narration, we can only conclude that he is suffering from hallucinations and delusions.

From the first reading of the nov- el, it is evident that Susana is ill. We mainly view Susana through the filter of the omniscient narrator.

Estoy muy desvelada.

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And as Dorotea is inverted in his mind to Doroteo, Preciado inverts into Susana. You must have dreamt it.

Because I am dead. Su sombra corrida hacia el techo, larga, desdo- blada. Uno oye. Ruidos callados. Given these fragmented images and thematic ties i. Her shadow ran up to the ceiling, long, unfolded. You can hear the clear water coming off the stone, falling over the bucket.

You can hear…hear whispers, feet dragged along the floor, walking, coming and going. Muffled noises. And here, that woman standing in the doorway, her body blocking the arrival of day, letting fragments of the sky in through her arms, and under her feet trickles of light; a light that was sprin- kled as if the floor beneath her were flooded in tears.

We may surmise that the concurrent narrations display outwardly what Preciado states to the readers: that his head is full of noises and voices. For the reader to experience the symptoms of a schizophrenic episode there would need to be voices speaking independently of one another, perhaps simultaneously. Madness is inverted in the novel, arising in the first person narration of Preciado and afterwards in the character of Susana, as if to signify the presence of the same mad character in both parts of the novel, inverted in gender.

Aunque mi nombre sea Dorotea. One voice that intrudes constantly into the dialogues of Preciado is that of Dolores Preciado. Preciado conceives of Comala as sad, deserted, bereft of life, and hellish. You said your name is Doroteo? Ver subir y bajar el horizonte con el viento que mueve las espigas, el rizar de la tarde con una lluvia de triples rizos. El color de la tierra, el olor de la alfalfa y del pan. But it has entered the conversation nevertheless and becomes audibly perceptible, amongst the real or living or supposedly living voices.

Junto a tu gente. En las lomas verdes. This is one of many examples. It could be relegated to the simple act of daydreaming, but for the notion that this is a novel composed of voices, fragmentation, alienation, and schizophre- nia. The color of the land, the smell of al- falfa and bread. It was lost beyond the earth.

In the green hills. When we flew kites in the windy season.I squeezed her hands as a sign I would do it. Realidad y estilo de Juan Rulfo,? If, as Thornton says, Joyce wants modern man to see that he is not alone, that cultural history offers him references, touchstones and guides to life, then Rulfo demonstrates just the opposite-the Comalans, and peoples like them, can have no such ties.

The temporal purgatory is ending. In so doing, it has exploited the reader's expectations of, and perhaps nostalgia for, archetypal situations and conflicts, and heroic acts worthy of glorification. Lewis, J. Virgil explains to Dante that? Their partial and fragmentary reconstructions of the past through individual memory in no way constitute a system of collection, evaluation and interpretation which could be called an intelligible, synthetic history.

That's how it was with you, wasn't it?