Apr 3, Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete (ACI ). Reported by volume ; water-cement ratio; water-cementitious ratio; workability. ACI Committee Appendix 4-Heavyweight concrete mix proportioning. Appendix. in ACI Adjustments to concrete mixture proportions or sources require resubmittal to the design professional as detailed in ACI Formats: Printed Document, PDF, ePub, or Kindle Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete ( Reapproved ). 4, Among all available methods, the ACI , the British Road Note Number 4 , and the British DoE [14, 15] methods of mix design are the.
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2-ACI Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavyweight, and Mass ConcreteProcedure for Mix Design. S. Hassiotis (Last updated. acteristics of a concrete mixture is called mix design. . Table , ACI , ACI , and Hover . Adapted from Table , ACI and Hover. Jul 19, American Concrete Institute Method of Mix Design (ACI ) 3. unit volume of concrete as per ACI Maximum size of aggregate Bulk.
According to the FAO report, the world has 1. Ethiopia has the fifth and the first most significant cattle population in the world and Africa respectively.
The total cattle population for the country is estimated about On the other hand, the quantity of animal bone waste has highly increased over time to time due to the dynamic population growth of cattle animals.
It causes severe disposal problem and continues to accumulate at rising rates, which if not adequately managed, the bone will create increasing environmental issues. For that reason, utilization of the bone as a sustainable material in concrete production would help to preserve natural resources and maintain ecological balance.
In Ethiopia, the cost of cement and cement-based construction materials are getting higher from time to time, and there is the gap between demand and supply of cement throughout the country. This rise in cost and demand of cement is mainly due to the production of cement requires huge energy Trials to solve cement shortage only by increasing cement factories have another negative environmental impact due to the emission of CO2 from the factories.
Hence, the key advantages of using such waste materials as alternatives to construction materials are cost reduction of cement-based materials, cost reduction for landfill, saving in energy, and protecting the environment form possible pollution effects. Hence, the aim of this research was to analyze the effects of varying dosage replacement of cement by animal bone powder in the normal concrete strength properties. To achieve the major objective of the research, the specific objectives are organized as follows: 1 To determine the properties of the animal bone powder and bone blended cement at different percent dosage of replacement and to compare with the standard specifications.
Materials and Methodology 2.
Materials Ejected animal bone as a solid waste was collected from Seka waste disposal site of Jimma town which served as the samples of the study. The animal bone washed with tap water to remove dirty inert material from its surface and dried under the sun.
The concrete making materials used in this research are cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, and water. The type of cement was Gambela sand was used in this research study. While, the coarse aggregates extracted from the quarry site of Varnero aggregate crushing site with the maximum size of 20mm.
The water utilized in the concrete mix was drinkable water supplied by the Jimma City Water and Sewerage Authority found in the laboratory area. The target mean strength is determined by considering the ACI The slump, considered 20mm to mm for the C grade concrete, while the maximum size of coarse aggregate fixed at 20mm and the water-cement ratio of 0.
CONCRETE MIX-DESIGN ACI
The volume of concrete materials calculated by using the physical properties of the elements. Table 1 shows some materials for one cubic meter for the C grade concrete. Standard cast iron molds of size 15cm x 15cm x 15cm used in the preparation of Concrete cubes for compressive strength tests.
While, for flexural strength test used a standard cast iron mold of size 50cm x 10cm x 10cm, and a standard cast iron mold of size 10cm diameter x 20cm height for split tensile strength.
Table 1. Depending on aggregate texture and shape, mixing water requirements may vary above or below those shown in the table. Before you can use Tabel 6. Usually, if the concrete is exposed to freeze-thaw, as is the case of concrete placed in foundations, you will need air-entrainment.
For our example, for a slump of 3 inches and a maximum aggregate size of 1 inch, use the air-entrained part of the table to find that you will need lbs of water per cubic yard of concrete. The fine print under the table specifies that the water should be reduced by 25 lbs if you are using well rounded aggregates.
Therefore, in this example we will use lbs of water. STEP 4.
Selection of Water-Cement or Water-cementitious materials ratio. In absence of such data, Table 6. The strength shown in the tables is for test specimens cured for 28 days in laboratory conditions.
Calculation of cement content. Estimation of coarse aggregate content.
The volume of coarse aggregate for one cubic yard of concrete is given in Table 6. For an aggregate size of 1 inch and Fineness Modulus of Sand of 2. Estimation of fine aggregate content. At this point all the ingredients of the concrete have been estimated except the fine aggregates. The ACI committee report allows either the weight method 6.
A Statistical Approach to Optimizing Concrete Mixture Design
The second method is the most accurate and will be summarized here. Absolute Volume f3 Water 1 4. Adjustments for aggregate moisture. The weights that we calculate above are dry weights. Absorbed water does not become part of the mixing water.
However, the free water will add to the water content so we must account for it. The surface water contributed by the coarse aggregate is 1.This, of course, is better than relating the mix design to some test values, which might not represent the actual degree of workability or might not be practical or cannot be used at sites. Some of the references cited here describing such relations are [ 8 , 9 , 13 — 15 , 29 , 30 ].
According to Murdock and Brook [ 19 ], Neville [ 14 ], and El-Rayyes [ 10 ], two of the most necessary and vital conditions to attain economy in the mix design process are the use of locally available materials and the adoption of less restrictive specification requirements.
Then these mixes were carefully adjusted to the required workability and the final mix proportions were obtained. Moreover, the volume of the paste equals the sum of the volumes of water and volume of the cement :.
However, for aggressive exposure conditions, the strength specified by the structural designer should not be less than the minimum design compressive strength recommended for the given exposure condition. Materials OPC from two sources was used in all mixes.
In mathematical form, it is given as follows: where is volume of concrete in its final stage, is volume of air voids in concrete, is volume of solid particles of coarse aggregates, and is volume of mortar which equals the sum of both the volume of the sand particles and the volume of the paste ,. The sites were at Murhib and Quanta projects for Water Authority where the author worked as a material and quality control engineer.
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