The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation. An Easy-to-Use Guide with Clear Rules, Real-World Examples, and Reproducible Quizzes. Tenth Edition. The blue book of grammar and punctuation: an easy-to-use guide with clear rules, ISBN (pbk)—ISBN (pdf)—ISBN . Power up your mind: learn faster, work smarter / Bill Lucas. p. cm. ways in which you can power up your mind and impr.

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The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation Download English Grammar Reference Book: Grammar and Error Correction Guide and Phrasal Verb Book. This website and The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation represent American English rules Take interactively or download and reproduce the quizzes. The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation is a grammar reference and workbook for grammar, punctuation, Order Book Now Download for Kindle.

Who or what passed? The engine, so engine is the subject. If you included the word jet as the subject, lightning will not strike you. But technically, jet is an adjective here and is part of what is known as the complete subject. From the ceiling hung the chandelier. The verb is hung. Now, if you think ceiling is the subject, slow down.

Ask who or what hung. The answer is the chandelier, not the ceiling. Therefore, chandelier is the subject. Sentences can have more than one subject and more than one verb.

Examples: I like cake, and he likes ice cream. Two subjects and two verbs He and I like cake.

Two subjects and one verb She lifts weights and jogs daily. One subject and two verbs Rule 3. Examples: He is trying to leave. To leave was his wish.

The main verb is was. Experienced writers do not use them without good reason. Rule 4. Any request or command, such as Stop! Bring is the verb. Who will do the bringing? The subject you is understood. Basic rule. A singular subject she, Bill, car takes a singular verb is, goes, shines , whereas aplural subject takes a plural verb.

If you know that list is the subject, then you will choose is for the verb. A subject will come before a phrase beginning with of.

This is a key rule for under-standing subjects. The word of is the culprit in many, perhaps most, subject-verb mistakes. Hasty writers, speakers, readers, and listeners might miss the all-too-common mistake inthe following sentence: Incorrect: A bouquet of yellow roses lend color and fragrance to the room. Correct: A bouquet of yellow roses lends. Examples: My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today.

Neither Juan nor Carmen is available. Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations. Rule 3. Examples: Neither the plates nor the serving bowl goes on that shelf. Neither the serving bowl nor the plates go on that shelf.

This rule can lead to bumps in the road. For example, if I is one of two or more subjects,it could lead to this odd sentence: Awkward: Neither she, my friends, nor I am going to the festival.

Better: Neither she, I, nor my friends are going to the festival. OR She, my friends, and I are not going to the festival. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connectedby and. Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation. But note these exceptions: Exceptions: Breaking and entering is against the law.

The bed and breakfast was charming. In those sentences, breaking and entering and bed and breakfast are compound nouns. Rule 5. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by such words as along with, as wellas, besides, not, etc. These words and phrases are not part of the subject.

Ignore them and use asingular verb when the subject is singular. Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking. Rule 6. With words that indicate portions—percent, fraction, majority, some, all, etc.

If the noun after of is singular,use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb. Examples: Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared.

Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared. A third of the city is unemployed.

A third of the people are unemployed. All of the pie is gone. All of the pies are gone. Some of the pie is missing. Some of the pies are missing. The notionthat it is singular only is a myth of unknown origin that appears to have arisen inthe 19th century.

If in context it seems like a singular to you, use a singular verb; if it seems like a plural, use a plural verb. Both are acceptable beyond serious criticism. Rule 7. In sentences beginning with here or there, the true subject follows the verb. Examples: There are four hurdles to jump. There is a high hurdle to jump. Here are the keys. Use a singular verb with distances, periods of time, sums of money, etc. Examples: Three miles is too far to walk.

Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. Ten dollars is a high price to pay. BUT Ten dollars i. Rule 9. Some collective nouns, such as family, couple, staff, audience, etc. Examples: The staff is in a meeting. Staff is acting as a unit. The couple disagree about disciplining their child. The couple refers to two people who are acting as individuals. NOTE Anyone who uses a plural verb with a collective noun must take care to beaccurate—and also consistent.

It must not be done carelessly. Careful speakers and writers would avoid assigning the singular is and the plural they to staff in the same sentence. Consistent: The staff are deciding how they want to vote. Rewriting such sentences is recommended whenever possible. The preceding sentence would read even better as: The staff members are deciding how they want to vote. Rule The sentence demonstrates the subjunctive mood, which isused to express things that are hypothetical, wishful, imaginary, or factually contradictory.

Thesubjunctive mood pairs singular subjects with what we usually think of as plural verbs. Examples: I wish it were Friday.

She requested that he raise his hand. However, in the second example, where arequest is being expressed, the subjunctive mood is correct.

Note: The subjunctive mood is losing ground in spoken English but should still be usedin formal speech and writing. An independent clause is a simple sentence. It can stand on its own.

Examples: She is hungry. I am feeling well today. It needs an independent clause to complete a sentence. Dependent clauses often begin with such words as although, since, if, when, and because. Examples: Although she is hungry. Whoever is hungry.

Because I am feeling well. Dependent IndependentAlthough she is hungry, she will give him some of her food. Whatever they decide, I will agree to. There are three types of pronouns: subject for example, he ; object him ; or possessive his.

Subject pronouns are used when the pronoun is the subject of the sentence. I, he, she, we, they, who, whoever, etc. Rule 2. Subject pronouns are also used if they rename the subject. They will follow to be verbs,such as is, are, was, were, am, will be, had been, etc. Examples: It is he. This is she speaking.

It is we who are responsible for the decision to downsize. NOTEIn informal English, most people tend to follow to be verbs with object pronouns like me, her, them. Many English scholars tolerate this distinction between formal and casual English.

Example: It could have been them. Technically correct: It could have been they. Example: It is just me at the door. Technically correct: It is just I at the door. This rule surprises even language watchers: when who refers to a personal pronoun I,you, he, she, we, they , it takes the verb that agrees with that pronoun.

Correct: It is I who am sorry. I am Incorrect: It is I who is sorry. Correct: It is you who are mistaken. Object pronouns are used everywhere else beyond Rules 1 and 2 direct object,indirect object, object of a preposition. Object pronouns include me, him, herself, us, them,themselves, etc. Examples: Jean saw him. Him is the direct object. Give her the book. Her is the indirect object.

The direct object is book. Are you talking to me? Me is the object of the preposition to. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural depending on the subject. If the subject is singular, use a singular verb. Example: He is the only one of those men who is always on time. The word who refers to one. Therefore, use the singular verb is. The word who refers to men. Therefore, use the plural verb are.

In sentences like this last example, many would mistakenly insist that one is the subject,requiring is always on time. But look at it this way: Of those men who are always on time, he is one. Pronouns that are singular I, he, she, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody,someone, somebody, each, either, neither, etc. This rule is frequently over-looked when using the pronouns each, either, and neither, followed by of. Those three pronounsalways take singular verbs.

D.O.W.N.L.O.A.D in [All Format Book] The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: An Easy-to-Use

Do not be misled by what follows of. Examples: Each of the girls sings well. Either of us is capable of doing the job. Neither of them is available to speak right now. Exception: When each follows a noun or pronoun in certain sentences, even experiencedwriters sometimes get tripped up:Incorrect: The women each gave her approval.

Correct: The women each gave their approval.

Incorrect: The words are and there each ends with a silent vowel. Correct: The words are and there each end with a silent vowel. These examples do not contradict Rule 6, because each is not the subject, but rather anadjunct describing the true subject.

To decide whether to use the subject or object pronoun after the words than or as,mentally complete the sentence. If we mentally complete the sentence, we would say Tranh is as smart as she is. Therefore, she is the correct answer. Mentally completing the sentence, we have Zoe is taller than I am. We can interpret this sentence in two ways: Daniel would rather talk to her than to me.

OR Daniel would rather talk to her than I would. The possessive pronouns yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs, and whose never need apostro-phes.

There is no apostrophein oneself. The thermometer reached its highest reading. Keeping oneself ready is important. Example: Joe helped himself. Without them, we might be stuckwith sentences like Joe helped Joe. Correct: I worked myself to the bone. The object myself is the same person as the subject I, performingIncorrect:Correct: the act of working.

My brother and myself did it. Incorrect: My brother and I did it. Please give it to John or myself. Please give it to John or me. You saw me being myself. Myself refers back to me in the act of being. Rule 11a. Avoid they and their with singular pronouns. Incorrect: Someone brought their lunch. Correct: Someone brought her lunch. OR Someone brought his lunch. If the gender is undetermined, you could say Someone brought his or her lunch more onthis option in Rule 11b.

Rule 11b. Singular pronouns must stay singular throughout the sentence. Incorrect: Someone has to do it—and they have to do it well. The problem is that someone is singular, but they is plural. If we change they to he or she,we get a rather clumsy sentence, even if it is technically correct. Technically correct: Someone has to do it—and he or she has to do it well. Replacing an ungrammatical sentence with a poorly written correction is a bad bargain.

The better option is to rewrite. Rewritten: Someone has to do it—and has to do it well. Many writers abhor the he or she solution.

Following are more examples of why rewritingis a better idea than using he or she or him or her to make sentences grammatical. Incorrect: No one realizes when their time is up. Correct but awkward: No one realizes when his or her time is up. Rewritten: None realize when their time is up. Incorrect: If you see anyone on the trail, tell them to be careful. Correct but awkward: If you see anyone on the trail, tell him or her to be careful. Rewritten: Tell anyone you see on the trail to be careful.

Incorrect: Her and her friend came over. Correct: She and her friend came over. Correct: I invited him and his wife. Incorrect: Bill asked my sister and I. Correct: Bill asked my sister and me. Whenever and or or links an object pronoun her, me and a subject pronoun he, I , one of those pronouns will always be wrong. Incorrect: Her and I went home. Correct: She and I went home. She went and I went.

WHO VS. He wrote the letter. Therefore, who is correct. Should I vote for him? Therefore, whom is correct. He pulled that prank.

The book was about him. At its worst, the use of whom becomes a form of one-upmanship some employto appear sophisticated. The following is an example of the pseudo-sophisticated whom. Incorrect: a woman whom I think is a geniusCorrect: In this case whom is not the object of I think. Put I think at the end and witness the folly: a woman whom is a genius, I think. The presence of whoever or whomever indicates a dependent clause.

Use whoever orwhomever to agree with the verb in that dependent clause, regardless of the rest of the sentence. Therefore, whoever is correct. You recommend him.

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Therefore, whomever is correct. Examples: Whoever is elected will serve a four-year term. Whoever is the subject of is elected. The clause whoever is elected is the subject of will serve.

The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation (11th Edition)

Whomever you elect will serve a four-year term. Whomever is the object of elect. Whomever you elect is the subject of will serve. Who and sometimes that refer to people.

Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation (11th edition)

That and which refer to groups or things. Examples: Anya is the one who rescued the bird. She belongs to a great organization, which specializes in saving endangered species. Rule 2a. That introduces what is called an essential clause. Essential clauses add informationthat is vital to the point of the sentence. We would not know the type of products being discussed without the that clause.

Rule 2b. Which introduces a nonessential clause, which adds supplementary information. Therefore, which begins a nonessential clause containing additional, but not essential, information. NOTEEssential clauses do not have commas introducing or surrounding them, whereas nonessential clauses are introduced or surrounded by commas. If that has already appeared in a sentence, writers sometimes use which to introduce thenext clause, whether it is essential or nonessential.

This is done to avoid awkward formations. NOTE The distinction between that and which, though a useful guideline, is widelydisregarded: Which is routinely used in place of that, even by great writers and journalists, perhaps because it sounds more elegant. Adjectives may come before the word they modify. Examples: That is a cute puppy. She likes a high school senior.

Adjectives may also follow the word they modify: Examples: That puppy looks cute. The technology is state-of-the-art.

Many adverbs end in -ly, but many do not. Generally, if a word can have -ly added toits adjective form, place it there to form an adverb. How does she think? Quick is an adjective describing thinker, so no -ly is attached. Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has -ly attached to it. Badly describes how we performed, so -ly is added. Adverbs that answer the question how sometimes cause grammatical problems. It canbe a challenge to determine if -ly should be attached.

Avoid the trap of -ly with linking verbs,such as taste, smell, look, feel, etc. Adverbs are often misplaced in suchsentences, which require adjectives instead. Do the roses actively smell with noses? No; in this case, smell is a linking verb—which requires an adjective to modify roses—so no -ly. I can always learn more when it comes to writing especially after being out of school for a few decades. She discusses nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, punctuation, numbers, and basic grammar rules such as capitalization.

These are not written in a boring manner. In fact, these are formatted on the pages in an easy to read manner and attractive to the eye. What really makes this a great book to use as a reference? It is laid out easy, written in an easy to read way, and has quizzes in the back to help you test your knowledge. This means it is not just great for writers, but for students, GED students, homeschooling students, and the office.

The only thing you have to beware is that this book is not the complete book to have. If you are needing to write in a certain style for example, Chicago Manual of Style , you need to get that book as a reference as the rules in the Blue Book might not agree with other styles.

This is a book for basic writing only.Full sentence: After the show ended, we had coffee. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Passive voice Even better: Please make some revisions. Her otherbook is Enough Is Enough! You look like your mother does. Correct: She and I went home. How does she think? He married Jane Straus in Following are more examples of why rewritingis a better idea than using he or she or him or her to make sentences grammatical.

Active: Barry hit the ball.