Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Gasifier Work. 4. History .. The combustion of biomass in wood stoves and in dustrial boilers has . Download PDF What is a wood gas generator and how does it work? assessments sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA ). FEMA lnteragency Agreement Number: EMWE Work Unit: D . for constructing a simplified version of the WWII wood gas generator; this simple, .

Fema Wood Gas Generator Pdf

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by FEMA. This edition is the first edition by the Biomass Energy Foundation Press . OPERATING AND MAINTAINING YOUR WOOD GAS GENERATOR. File:Construction of a Simplified Wood Gas Generator For Fueling Internal Combustion Engines in a Petroleum kaz-news.info technology assessments sponsored by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). kaz-news.info FEMA Manual- Constructing a Simplified Wood Gas Generator for Fueling Internal.

Structured data Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. The Purpose of this report is to develop detailed, illustrated instructions for the fabrication, installation, and operation of a biomass gasifier unit that is, a "producer gas" generator, also called a "wood gas" generator which is capable of providing emergency fuel for vehicles, such as tractors and trucks, in the event that normal petroleum sources were severely disrupted for an extended period of time.

These instructions are prepared in the format of a manual for use by any mechanic who is reasonably proficient in metal fabrication or engine repair. This report attempts to preserve the knowledge about wood gasification as put into practical use during World War II.

Detailed, step-by-step fabrication procedures are presented for a simplified version of the World War II, Imbert wood gas generator.

File history

This simple, stratified, downdraft gasifier unit can be constructed from materials which would be widely available in the United States in a prolonged petroleum crisis. For example, the body of the unit consists of a galvanized metal garbage can atop a small metal drum; common plumbing fittings are used throughout; and a large, stainless steel mixing bowl is used for the grate.

The entire compact unit was mounted onto the front of a farm tractor and successfully field tested, using wood chips as the only fuel. Photographic documentation of the actual assembly of the unit as well as its operation is included. This image is a work of a Federal Emergency Management Agency employee, taken or made as part of that person's official duties.

As works of the U. Additional media usage information may be found at https: The following page uses this file: The following other wikis use this file: Usage on ja.

When stationary internal combustion engines based on the Otto cycle became available in the s, they began displacing steam engines as prime movers in many works requiring stationary motive power. Adoption accelerated after the Otto engine's patent expired in The potential and practical applicability of gasification to internal combustion engines were well understood from the earliest days of their development.

In , Thaddeus S. Lowe developed and patented the water gas process by which large amounts of hydrogen gas could be generated for residential and commercial use in heating and lighting. Unlike the common coal gas, or coke gas which was used in municipal service, this gas provided a more efficient heating fuel.

During the late 19th century internal combustion engines were commonly fueled by town gas, and during the early 20th century many stationary engines switched to using producer gas created from coke which was substantially cheaper than town gas which was based on the distillation pyrolysis of more expensive coal.

Due to the lack of gasoline from petroleum, older people recalled how to build gasifiers for both wood and coal, and how to convert internal combustion engines to run on gaseous fuel, and wood gas generators were in active production.

The Stratified Downdraft Gasifier

In Great Britain, France, the United States and Germany, large numbers of such generators were constructed or improvised to convert wood and coal into fuel for vehicles. Commercial generators were in production before and after the war for use in special circumstances or in distressed economies.

Germany produced Gazogene units for vehicles including cars, trucks, artillery tractors and even tanks, to preserve the limited supplies of fuel. However, Great Britain continued her use of coal-based town gas until the North Sea natural gas discoveries in the s and s. The gas generator is on the trailer.

When oil prices rose there was renewed interest in wood gas generators. There was also an experimental device to use the Fischer-Tropsch process to convert wood gas to a diesel-like fuel. Design[ edit ] Diagram of a gas generator There is a rich literature on gas-works, town-gas, gas-generation, wood-gas, and producer gas, that is now in the public domain due to its age.

FEMA Gasifier

Wood gas generators often use wood; however, charcoal can also be used as a fuel. It is denser and produces a cleaner gas without the tarry volatiles and excessive water content of wood. It is designed to be rapidly assembled in a true fuel crisis.


This simplified design has distinct benefits over the earlier European units such as easier refueling and construction but is less popular than the earlier Imbert design because of significant new problems, which include a lack of a fixed oxidization zone and allows the oxidization zone to creep to a larger area, causing a drop in temperature; a lower operating temperature leads to tar production and it lacks a true reduction zone further increasing this design's propensity to produce tar.

Tar in the wood gas stream is considered a dirty gas and tar will gum up a motor quickly, possibly leading to stuck valves and rings. A new design known as the Keith gasifier improves on the FEMA unit, incorporating extensive heat recovery and eliminating the tar problem.The presence of char and ash serves to protect the grate from excessive temperatures.

The inert char and ash, which constitute the fourth zone, are normally too cool to cause further reactions; however, since the fourth zone is available to absorb heat or oxygen as conditions change, it serves both as a buffer and as a charcoal storage region.

Inventory of Online Wood Gas Generator Plans

Views View Edit History. The third zone is made up of charcoal from the second zone. The same chemical laws which govern combustion processes also apply to gasification.