Beginning Visual C# is a revised edition of Beginning C# (Wrox Press, ISBN . tutorial of the Visual C# language and object-oriented programming, you will. Book. Language English. Title. Beginning Visual C# Author(S) Karli [et al .] Watson (Author). Publication. Data. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. to run on Windows. Author Peter Wright was so excited about that tool, Visual Basic, that he. Beginning Visual C# Express Edition. From Novice to Pages PDF · How C# Express Helps You Code. Pages PDF.
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Pro Visual C++ for C# Developers. Read more Beginning Visual C# (Wrox Beginning Guides) · Read more. Beginning. C# From Novice to Professional. Christian Gross mpanion For the examples in this book, you'll be using Visual C# Express the culture was changed to German, and it was possible to process 10 Mai, In. Beginning C# an introduction to object oriented programming / Jack .. All the examples in this book were written using Visual Studio ' s C# generics, a feature that has been a part of C# since its release.
This is known as "Encapsulation" in Object Oriented programming terminology. We've overloaded it with two different ways of calling the function. We can either call it passing in no parameters, or call it passing in the make.
Each method returns a string, but the parameters and how the method works internally can be different. In order to overload a method, the method signature must be different.
Why would you overload a method? When you create classes, you don't always know how they might be used up front in your application. Sometimes you don't have all the data readily available to you that you would need to call a method, so you need options on how to call the method. In Visual Basic. NET, you create a Constructor using the New statement: The Constructor gets called whenever the New keyword is used in association with our class, like so: While Constructors are not required, it is a good idea to use constructors to initialize the private property private member values of your new object.
Initialization is the process of taking steps to ensure that your object will function properly by the time the object is used in an application. That means different things based on how you design your object. For example, you may choose to create a connection to a database, or create instances of child objects, or set variables like private fields to default values, etc. Use Constructors to initialize values for a newly created object. Recall from earlier in this chapter that overloading a method means that you can have different implementations of your method based on a different method signature.
I could create another Constructor that allows me to initialize the values as soon as I create an instance of the class: This isn't an easy answer, so try to understand what I'm about to say involves some concepts that are rather advanced and I'm not telling you everything. We sometimes talk about things being in a plastic bubble, maybe you've seen the movie "The Boy in the Plastic Bubble" or watched the Sienfeld episode with the "Bubble Boy".
The bubble protects people with weakened immune systems from the outside world. The Bubble is a totally controlled environment. In a like manner, that is what the.
NET Runtime does for your applications. Protecting an application's allocated memory prevents memory leaks or other bugs from shutting down your application immediately.
To guard against this, the. NET Runtime that searches for object references in your code that are no longer needed. When it finds an unused object it disposes of it, or rather, it removes the object from memory.
As your code is executing, the. NET Runtime will flag those objects that it knows it won't need again, and after a while the Garbage Collector comes through and disposes of all the objects that are flagged for destruction.
Many developers try to help the. NET Runtime by doing the following: When a given procedure finishes processing, the variables that were defined in that procedure go "out of scope" which means that their values are no longer available -- the task is complete and the variables are no longer needed. As the. So, by waiting until the very end of the procedure to add this code as is a common practice in previous versions of Visual Basic: NET Runtime to clean up memory sooner. Although, lets be honest, it really won't make that big of a difference in smaller programs.
However, in large memory-intensive applications or applications where there are a lot of simultaneous users such as a high-traffic web site, you might need to pay attention to this.
But this leads us to a best practice: Don't attempt to help out the process of Garbage Collection by setting objects you are finished with equal to nothing. This is called a Destructor in Object Oriented terminology, and to create a Destructor in Visual Basic, use the Finalize method in your class like so: If this method is present, the. NET Runtime will automatically execute the code in this method for you right before the object is being destroyed.
Why use a Destructor? You may choose to use a destructor if: If the class is to be destroyed, then you need to close the files it current has opened. Not doing so may corrupt the file, or prevent other parts of your application from accessing the file at a later time.
Before I close, there is another, more advanced type of Destructor called Dispose.
Sure, they would find it as they routinely troll around the neighborhood on Monday, but you need to get rid of it NOW. In the past, most programmers wrote their programs in a coding style called Procedural Programming.
As programmers used this style or philosophy of how to structure entire applications, its flaws become more glaring. One problem with procedural programming was the over-use of global variables variables that could be used at any time anywhere in your application.
Also, this style lent itself to coding practices that made the code hard to read and debug, and hard to maintain over a number of years. Just like in the real world, you take a blueprint to a contractor, or take the recipe to a baker and they create an instance of that blueprint, resulting in a house or a cookie respectively.
So lets define a class: We talked very briefly about scope in video lesson 4 and 5, and the words private and public have special meaning in terms of scope visibility.
I'll have more to say about it later in this chapter as we look at Properties, Fields and Methods. If you remember back to video lesson 4 we worked with simple value types like strings and integers. Now we are working with more complex reference types, AND we are creating our own custom types! At the moment we use the new keyword, a Car object is created in memory and we store a reference to that new Car in the myCar variable.
This will become more apparent as we talk about Class Constructors a little bit later on. Almost everything you work with in C , whether you know it or not, is a Class. For example, look at the code examples from the previous lessons. There is a lot more to learn, but in this lesson we've introduced Object Oriented Programming and have shown some fundamentals about classes. Fields are simply variables defined within a class, outside the scope of a method a variable, but with scope that extends outside of a given method.
Instead of public fields, use public properties and use private fields as the container for the value and properties as mutators and accessors to the hidden value.
Use an underscore as an prefix to your private field, then use camel casing for the rest of the name. Use pascal case when naming public methods and properties.
Second, it shows the problem with public fields. We can do validation also known as "sanity checks" on values, or filter the value of a field by using a property instead.
Lets change the ElapsedMileage from a public field to a private field: Private member variables should be camel cased and be prefixed with an underscore. And then create a public property called ElapsedMileage: The get retrieves and returns a value to the code that calls it. The set assigns a value more about this in a moment.
Note that the first line of the property statement does nothing by itself; we have to decide which value to return when the get statement is called and what to do with the value that is passed into the parameter of the set statement.
However, we do a little due diligence to make sure that someone didn't enter a bogus amount of miles. Then we use the elapsedMileage field again when someone calls the get statement. So now lets see how these are used in code: It is identical to the code we used when explaining public fields. If we add one more statement: ToString ; … what value do you think will be displayed? That is because of the way that we wrote our set statement to filter out insane numbers like 10 million.
One final point of clarification about the set; consider this line of code that was in the set statement above: So, suppose that we were to change the Drive method from a public method to a private one. We would get an error that says: Show method which allows you to just pass a message to be displayed, or other overloaded versions which allow you to pass in the title for the message box, icons, which buttons are available, and much more.
You can write code that executes when an object is born and when it is about to die. We've talked about instantiating an object from its class definition, which means we take the Class and create an object from it. But we haven't told the entire story.
Introducing Constructors First of all, classes have Constructors, which is a special method that allows you to initialize your fields, or whatever else you may want to do when your object is first created.
In C , you create a Constructor using the same name as the class in the form of a method. For example, this is what the constructor for the Car class would look like: The Constructor gets called whenever the new keyword is used in association with our class. So, by waiting until the very end of the procedure to add this code: Don't attempt to help out the process of Garbage Collection by setting objects you are finished with equal to null.
Introduction This chapter is an overview of the purpose and the parts of the.
Beginning Visual C# Express Edition
Like many geeks, my favorite movie is the Matrix. As the movie starts, you can't quite understand what this mysterious term means to Neo and the others who are trapped inside of it. Then Morpheous explains what the Matrix is, and while you don't understand it all, your mind just expanded to understand the events that have been happening to Neo.
To loosely quote Morpheous, who in turn references Alice in Wonderland: NET by itself is simply a marketing term that describes many different software products and services from Microsoft. The idea is that these products all work seamlessly together and allow businesses to create eCommerce web sites and allow partners to exchange data almost effortlessly.
From a software development perspective, the heart of. NET is the. NET Framework, which is a collection of tools to allow developers to create applications. Tools include: NET Runtime - this is the core component. It protects end-users from malicious code and protects developers from managing the intricacies of dealing with memory like we learned the Garbage Collector does in the previous lesson , the file system, and other lower level functionality.
The Runtime handles those complexities and allows software developers to focus on the functionality of their application instead. In theory, the Runtime could be ported to other operating systems such as Linux so that an application you create for Windows will run on Macs or Linux machines.
This is what Java attempted to do with their virtual machine, which. NET was heavily influenced by. When your programs run, they run "inside" or are controlled by the. Therefore, any computer you want to use your application on must have the. NET Framework installed or else it will not work on that computer.
This is what you will become intimately familiar with. It contains hundreds of classes, each with dozens of properties and methods that allow you to do almost anything you would want to within your program. You won't get very far without using the Class Library -- database access, sending emails, accessing files on a hard drive, creating dynamic web pages -- everything you want to do is made possible through this set of code that you reference within your applications.
NET Language Compilers - These are a set of programs that take the source code you write in a particular language such as Visual Basic.
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The compiler for Visual Basic. NET is vb. The compiler also alerts you to problems compilation errors in your code due to mistakes in typing, incorrect logic, etc. Other utilities - There are over a dozen other tools that come with the.
NET Framework for various purposes.
Many of these you may never need, and some are used behind the scenes by Visual Studio. There are MANY other features of. NET, such as a common type system that allows cross-language interoperability, the inner workings of Assemblies what your application gets compiled into , application domains for isolation of applications and their processes, and many complex topics. NET Framework, you must download and read this book at least twice: This is the VB version: Applied Microsoft.
NET Framework Class library has hundreds, if not thousands, of classes. In order to find the classes you are looking for, and as a result of good Object Oriented design, the classes are divided up into Namespaces. A namespace is a way of segregating classes into common functionality and also allows two classes with the same name to be unique. Furthermore, I'm the only Robert Theron Tabor in Texas, and probably the world, so by adding names that makes my otherwise common name unique.
There are dozens of important namespaces System System. Data System. SqlClient System. IO System. Exception System.
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If we wanted to create a connection to a database, we would have to write the following code: Dim con As System. SqlConnection C: Furthermore, if I wanted to create a command object and a data reader from that same namespace, I'd have to add the next two lines of code: Dim cmd As System.
Building Windows Applications. Windows and Dialogs. Menus and Toolbars. Delegates—Events Internals. Lists and Generics. Files and Streams. Working with XML. Database Programming. The Internet and C Express. Where to Now?
Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction In the s, Microsoft did the impossible and released a programming tool that let everyone write programs to run on Windows. Skip to Main Content. NET Author s: Ying Bai. First published: Print ISBN: About this book A novel approach to developing and applying databases with Visual C.
This invaluable resource features: Author Bios Dr. Bai worked as a senior software engineer in the field of automatic control and testing equipment in Silicon Valley, California, and Columbus, Ohio.
He has a great deal of experience in robotics control, robot calibrations, and related software programming, as well as accurate measurements in industrial and academic fields. In recent years, he has published six books in multi-language interface programming, serial port programming, electronics, fuzzy logic technology, and database programming with Visual Basic.
Beginning Visual C++®
Free Access.Author Ron Jeffries, a leading voice and practitioner in the extreme programming movement, demonstrates how to apply its key concepts—including the use of customer stories, customer acceptance tests, and "Spikes"—and the fundamental techniques of Simple Design, Test-Driven Development, and Refactoring to create practical,. The Class defines the fields, properties, methods and events that an object will have.
First, it shows how to use the. This invaluable resource features:. This is called a Design View. That means different things based on how you design your object. This self-teaching guide comes complete with key points, background information, quizzes at the end of each chapter, and even a final exam.
If this method is present, the. NET Framework as it is about the syntax and grammar of your chosen language. Ideally, you should never use Public Fields, but rather use Public Properties instead.
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