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Graphic design for the Web encompasses a very wide range of decisions read books, take courses, and work closely on a project with a trained graphic de-. Download this book for free at .. The historic role of graphic design for broadsheets and books .. Here are 20 awesome PDF files and e-books that you can use to widen your design knowledge, or at least, brush up on the basics.

There are many different kinds of jobs in this field, and as a beginning designer, plan on staying at your entry position only until you have mastered skills and gained experience. Each of us must satisfy our own values in our career path, as well as learn to satisfy the requirements of the workplace. Try asking yourself these questions: Are there products or points of view you do not want to promote?

Nippon Design Center, Inc. Courtesy of the artist. How important is salary? What will make this career successful for you? What kind of lifestyle do you want for yourself? How hard are you willing to work for it? Where do you want to be in ten years? How will you work to achieve your goals? Design Fields The field of applied design includes industrial design, environmental design, graphic design, and Web and multimedia design.

Industrial design is the design and development of three-dimensional functional objects. Figure shows a strikingly elegant teapot, considered an important landmark in the history of functional design. Machines, tools, kitchen implements, and other products are among the objects shaped by the industrial designer. Package design for these objects is often placed in the category of graphic design because it must be designed and printed flat before assembling.

The industrial designer attempts to simplify the use and manufacture of objects as well as increase their safety and efficiency. Environmental design is a large general category that includes the design of buildings, landscapes, and interiors. Again, the designer attempts to fashion designs that are safe, efficient, and aesthetic.

In the unified, flowing floor plan shown in Figures and , curves and angles and varying levels are used as unifying elements. Graphic design is the design of things people see and read.

The field is constantly expanding. Posters, books, signs, billboards, advertisements, commercials, brochures, Web sites, and motion graphics are what graphic designers create. They attempt to maximize both communication and aesthetic quality. Web and multimedia design are the design of interactive, often motion-based graphics. Multimedia design is information in more than one form. It may include the use of text, audio, graphics, animations, and full-motion video.

Interior and floor plan of the Cohen apartment, Milwaukee. Photo by Jim Threadgill. Figure shows Website pages that use a full range of the visual design skills we will study in future chapters. Buildings, environments, products, Web sites, and written communications will affect us whether they have been carefully and deliberately designed or not.

Design cannot be eliminated. The printed piece will always communicate more than words alone, because it uses a visual language. It may, however, communicate exactly the 8 Graphic Design Basics opposite of the intended message. It can damage the image of a company or cause. Learning to apply the theory of design and information processing to the practice of graphic design will help you achieve the intended communication.

That is the underlying premise of this text. All information is structured to help with this goal. Designers must interface with fields other than their own. They need to address the basic marketing concerns of the client, the concerns of colleagues, such as illustrators or photographers, and the requirements of the printing process.

Some graphic designers do a whole range of work—typography, illustration, photography, corporate identity, logo design, and advertising. Others specialize in only one of these areas. Whatever area of design or illustration you pursue, it is best to follow the design process. This full service design firm offers advertising, design, and active media services. Who is the audience? What constraints are there in format, budget, and time? What is the goal of the project?

The next step is to gather and study all the related materials. Selling this design to a client or an instructor will be easier if it is backed with research and justified from a perspective the client will understand.

In the future, you may work in a large firm or agency where most of the research and information gathering is 9 Chapter 1 Applying the Art of Design done by marketing professionals.

Develop a feeling for contemporary work by studying design annuals, periodicals, and Web sites. Designers also keep a file of anything that is interesting or well done. A personal file of such samples can be useful to look through for ideas to build upon. Subscribe to graphic design magazines and plan to save all the back issues. Looking at how someone else solved a particular problem, however, is part of your education. Designers are expected to build on the work of others. We do not create in a vacuum, but are influenced by the hundreds of samples of good and bad design we are all exposed to every day.

Expand your visual vocabulary and plan to use that vocabulary to build new designs. Doing this is similar to an author using a word vocabulary developed over time. An author does not have to create a new alphabet or a new language in order to create an original piece of literature.

He or she needs to combine these elements in an original fashion. As part of the research stage, search for a creative approach to your design problem in as many ways as possible. Build your visual and conceptual vocabulary. Try looking up a dictionary definition of your topic. Look in an encyclopedia for additional background. Search the Internet for information on the topic.

Use a thesaurus. Make a word association list of everything you can think of that is associated with your topic. Save personally significant visuals and collectibles. Approach a design as both prose and poetry. Be both logical and intuitive.

Thumbnails are the second step in the design process. They are idea sketches that provide visual evidence of the thinking, searching, and sorting process that leads to final solutions.

Exercising the mind with thumbnail sketches is like exercising any muscle. The more it is exercised, the more powerful it gets. The more you work to develop ideas through small, preliminary sketches, the richer will be the range of solutions available to choose from for the final design.

Never short-cut this stage, because it determines the strength of the final solution. For a student, the thumbnails are more important than the final project, because they demonstrate thinking, experimentation, and growth. Keep these thumbnails. The ideas in them may be of use to you in other projects. Prospective employers may wish to see evidence of the flexibility and tenacity of your thinking Figure Tammy Roemer created the computer generated thumbnail experiments in Figure for an ice drink logo to be placed in her student portfolio.

Thumbnails are usually small because they are meant to be fast and not detailed. Fill a sheet of paper with ideas. The accompanying Web site for this chapter has a blank thumbnail page to fill with concepts. Never reject an idea; just sketch it in and go on. Work through the idea with your pencil or mouse from every perspective you can imagine.

Then try taking one good idea and doing several variations on it. You may also want to cut and paste and recombine existing images for new effects. It may be faster to work at a size determined by existing elements. In that case the thumbnails may become larger or smaller.

Be as neat and precise as is necessary to show the relationship between elements and their general shapes. The stages of thumbnails, roughs, comps, and camera-ready art, however, often blend together when executed on a computer.

The danger with this blending is that, although software may help provide quick, workable solutions, it can be tempting to short-cut the planning stages. Thumbnails are often best done by hand.

They are vital to good design, in whatever size or stage of polish.

They must exhibit flexible, tenacious visual thinking. Figure shows how the pen and ink thumbnails for the cover design of this text investigate a variety of approaches. You may want to talk this choice over with other designers and with the instructor. Later, as a professional designer, you will present the thumbnails to an art director or the roughs to a client for review.

Often, considerable redefining and rethinking occur at these stages. The thumbnail process may begin all over again. On a computer, you may want to do a full-size rough. The purpose is to test whether the original idea works on a larger scale. Take this opportunity to work out small problem areas that you could not deal with or foresee at the thumbnail stage. The type style, the other shapes, the relationship of these elements to the edge of the format, and the color and value distribution can all be refined at this stage.

Figure shows the rough designs presented for the cover of this text. The butterfly-dominated proposals were rejected by the publisher because they seemed too close to the InDesign identity. Comprehensives The comprehensive, or comp, is the fourth step in the design process. It is the piece of art you present to the client for final approval. Although based on the rough, it is much more carefully done. Once again, consult with art directors, editors, or the instructor before choosing the rough idea to refine for your final solution.

The client can judge the design solution from the comp, because it looks much like the finished printed piece. It might include such diverse elements as photographs, computer-generated type, tight electronic illustrations, and a scanned pen-and-ink rendering. These comps will form the basis of your portfolio, which you will continue to develop in future classes Figures and show photographs of three-dimensional comprehensives. In the workplace, the final stage is the printed project.

Compare the final printed cover for this text with its thumbnails and roughs, and consider what choices and changes you might have made. Comps take different forms depending on the media for which they are intended. Television and film ideas are presented as storyboards, with key scenes drawn in simplified and stylized fashion, or as abbreviated animation. The three-dimensional comp for a package design may be presented in multiples in order to demonstrate the stacking display possibilities of the package.

A publication such as an annual report or a newsletter is usually represented by the cover and certain key pages in the layout design. A Web site is presented to the client with a flow chart and key pages completed. A rough or a comp can be sent to a client for approval via CD, e-mail, or fax. Presentation Practice selling the concept verbally before presenting it. Discuss your design enthusiastically in terms the client or art director can understand.

Be prepared, however, to listen and to compromise. If revisions are called for, note them carefully. In this text, you will often be asked to write a brief presentation that will accompany your visual solution. Class critiques will give you an opportunity to practice your verbal presentation skills and your listening skills.

Ready for Press Once accepted, the job is now ready for production. The comprehensive shown to Computergenerated rough designs for the cover of this text. CD comprehensive. Inkjet prints with folding insert and plastic holder makes this student portfolio piece look very professional.

Everything must be sent to the printer ready for press. The file must be cleanly prepared, with all links and fonts included. The disk or e-mail that contains the file must be carefully prepared. Base the designs you create on a sound knowledge of the reproduction and printing process introduced later in this text. The first chapters focus on building concepts and understanding design structure, while later chapters discuss the reproduction process. You need to practice building a strong design before focusing on how to reproduce it.

Begin your very first project with a respect for precision, accuracy, and cleanliness. There can be no compromise with perfection in this line of work. Many designers are responsible for selecting and communicating with a printer. Often the work must be bid on by two or three printers, giving each an opportunity to estimate costs. Selecting printing firms to bid for the work is often based on prior experience with the firms.

A three-dimensional comprehensive of the Artico product developed from the thumbnails shown in Figure Quality in printers, like quality in designers, varies. Finding a good printer and establishing an easy working relationship is important. A good printer can be an excellent reference for answering tricky production questions and suggesting alternate solutions to an expensive design.

What suits one person may feel like a limitation or undue pressure to another. You will want to have an idea of what the opportunities are before beginning your job search after college. Design Studios Clients with various needs and backgrounds may seek the assistance of a design studio. The studio will have designers, production artists, account service representatives, and often illustrators and photographers on staff or on call. Design studios hire freelance creative help when their regular staff is too busy or lacks specific skills to handle a project.

Designers working in a studio generally have other artists around to discuss and share ideas. Clients consist primarily of various advertising agencies and large and small companies or institutions. The graphic design work prepared for these clients includes brochures, mailers, illustration and photography, catalogs, display materials, Web sites, and promotional videos.

Studios vary in size and in their client roster. Small studios with only a couple of designers who have good skills and equipment can provide full-service design. Larger studios can provide room for advancement and a stimulating creative environment. Many in-house design operations offer services free to the other departments within the company.

Individual designers may work closely with the client or receive all information and instructions funneled through an art director. An in-house design organization may lack the variety of other artists and the challenge of interpreting and representing various clients that a design studio provides.

However, an advantage to working in an in-house operation is the opportunity to get to know one company in depth by developing a relationship with it and its various departments. Oftentimes the deadline pressure is less and the job security better than in a studio. It is sometimes possible to develop a corporate career by moving up within the organization. The growth of computer software has caused a boom in in-house design as more and more companies find it possible to meet many of their publication needs themselves.

Printing Companies Many positions for designers exist at local printing companies. These companies sometimes have their own in-house design departments or hire graduates to do prepress work. A printing company can be an excellent place to gain valuable experience in the technical aspects of reproduction.

These in-house designers serve the particular needs of institutions ranging from hospitals, banks, newspapers, insurance companies, publishers, and colleges and universities to large and small manufacturing concerns.

In-house design organizations vary greatly according to the type of product or service their institution provides. Individual designers may keep track of their hours if the design department bills its time to Ideas and sales are the cornerstones of the advertising agency.

It is dominated by people who deal in words.

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Account executives bring in the jobs and develop the advertising concepts with the creative director. The creative director, designer, and copywriter execute the concepts, although the number of people involved and the exact tasks performed vary from agency to agency. Projects cover all forms of print and multimedia advertising, from film and video work to packaging, display, print ads, billboards, and Web sites. A good creative director is versatile. He or 15 Chapter 1 Applying the Art of Design she is skilled at conceptualizing and presenting ideas verbally and visually as well as directing others and organizing assignments.

More money is spent on advertising than on any other area of graphic design, which is reflected in the salary a designer can expect to earn in this field. Freelance Working as a freelance artist allows a maximum amount of freedom, but it calls for certain business-related skills. Personal promotion, networking, and a constant vigilance to find new customers will help establish a freelance career.

Good organizational skills in billing and record keeping, along with talent and hard work, keep a freelance business going. Computers, modems, and fax machines make it possible to live outside a metropolitan area and still maintain client contact, once it is established. One of the drawbacks to a freelance career is the lack of company benefits. Health insurance and retirement benefits are not part of the package. It can also be comparatively lonely though creatively fulfilling work.

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New Media Web-site creation calls for design skills with page layout, logo design, scripting, Digital Focus Graphic designers work at an array of jobs, using a variety of software to prepare their files. Opinions differ on how best to prepare a student for this field.

Some academic programs separate their software instruction from their classes in graphic design concepts but teach them concurrently. Other programs begin the first classes with nondigital techniques, intending to build strong design skills through concentrating on principles before spending time on software rendering skills. Some programs integrate the two from the beginning, in all classes, believing they are best and most efficiently learned together.

Many companies now use the Internet to communicate with prospective clients, and designers play an important part in facilitating this informational and persuasive communication. Motion graphics and interactive and multimedia design are also exciting and rewarding new career directions.

Every situation is unique, and this chapter provides only a generalized description of the types of situations in which a designer can find employment. Many, many variations occur within the categories described.

It involves visualizing the completed job, although the actual finished product will not be done by hand. Or it may be shown on a Web site or via another electronic mode of presentation. It involves meeting personal design standards as well as the needs of the client and the audience.

It calls for organization and self-discipline to meet the constant deadline pressure. In the classroom, students generally get one project at a time and a generous length of time to complete it. The emphasis in school is on learning. On the job, however, designers work on several projects at once and must uphold design standards while concentrating on time and money issues.

A good education in design fundamentals that stresses theory and creative development as well as production techniques is important in this environment. Designers must constantly update their education and stay current with new technologies. Technology has made major changes in the design field in recent years, and greater changes are on the way see Chapter 2. Your final challenge is to take a responsible stance in the world. Traditionally, it has been the fine artist who has set new visual trends and opened fresh creative ways to see ourselves.

The designer now also plays this role see Figure by wellestablished designer McRay Magleby. One of the issues facing contemporary design is the impact of our printed product on the environment. Recycled paper products are part of an attempt to lessen the negative impact of printed materials on the environment. Online graphics are also helping. The aesthetic qualities of design affect our lives in many ways, but the total effect of a design solution has numerous varied and important impacts on our lives.

As designers, we are continually in the process of redefining our field. We need to examine how our culture and others function, and how our perceptions and our values shape, and are shaped by, the world around us. Figure , by freelance illustrator Diane Fenster, examines our various perceptions.

Wave of Peace poster design. Fenster was the first artist to be inducted into the Adobe Photoshop Hall of Fame, in September Exercise Research the types of employment opportunities in your geographic area. Find samples of a design firm, an in-house facility, and an advertising agency. Arrange a field trip to one of each. If no such opportunities exist in your area, do the research on the Internet.

Write a brief report, sharing the information with your classmates. In fact, they are closely related. Design is affected by the fine arts as well as by scientists, psychologists, and the development of new technologies.

The study of design history is a relatively new discipline, but it can provide inspiration and insight into the future of design. The history of art and design provides a great deal of inspiration to contemporary designers. Whatever the origin, the explosive development during the last decade of the 19th century is a good beginning point for study. Fine art and design often inspire one another. The Industrial Revolution brought about new attitudes and inventions, both of which contributed to the sudden growth of graphic design.

It was a period of rapid industrial growth, when machines and large-scale production replaced hand tools. It began in the mid- to late s in England and spread to other countries in the s.

During this period, lasting in the United States and Europe through most of the s, nations shifted from an agricultural to a manufacturing base. A spirit of innovation and progress gave rise to a new interest in providing information to an entire culture rather than only to an affluent elite. The growth of population centers, industry, and a money-based economy all increased the need for the dissemination of information. Advertising flourished during this exciting time, and great strides were made in printing.

The first photographic metal engraving was invented in ; the first halftone screen was made in Pastilles Poncelet. Color lithograph, Milwaukee Art Museum Collection, gift of Mr. Richard E. Color process work was first successfully printed in The first automated steam press for lithography was designed around , and the first offset press in Advancement in stone lithography color prints in the s encouraged artists to work directly on the stone for multiple reproductions of large-scale posters.

They were freed from the stiff, geometric confines of the letterpress. Stone lithography involves drawing the image on a stone by using a greasy black lithographic pencil. Plates are made for each color. The resulting burst of sensual and decorative images in the advertising posters of the time is classified as art nouveau. Toulouse-Lautrec was primarily a painter and printmaker who produced only about 32 posters as well as music and book jacket designs. Mucha designed furniture, carpets, jewelry, and posters for the famous actress Sarah Bernhardt.

He produced over a thousand posters, some of them close to seven feet Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Divan Japonais Japanese Settee. Lithograph, printed in color, composition: Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Fund. This size was achieved by joining sections mounted on walls. Posters brought art out of the galleries and into the streets and homes of the working class.

Art nouveau became an international style that spanned the period from to Its organic, decorative quality stressed the invention of original forms that were often inspired by nature. These forms and shapes were applied not only to graphic design but also to product design and crafts. Its influence has lasted much longer than the official dates for the period.

All of the functional arts grew during this time. In the United States, Louis Tiffany created stained glass windows, lamps, and glassware. The illustrations in Figures and show early advertising design in the United States flourishing in the form of trade cards. Scottish archi Trade card. Nineteenth century. Wisconsin Historical Society Iconographic Collection. An English artist whose work is an important example of art nouveau style is Aubrey Beardsley.

A prolific artist with an enduring reputation, Beardsley died at age Parrish worked as an illustrator for the first three decades of the 20th century, creating book, magazine, and advertising illustrations inspired by art nouveau.

The legacy of art nouveau is not only its stylistic surface treatments Figure but also its concern with the interrelationship of materials, processes, and philosophy. Not all reactions to the Industrial Revolution embraced progress. William Morris founded the Kelmscott Press in against what he regarded as the massproduced, inferior, inhuman product of the machine.

Styles of past eras were being copied in art schools and factories with an emphasis on quantity over quality. He and the writer-philosopher John Ruskin wished to renew an appreciation for handcrafted, Image not available due to copyright restrictions Aubrey Beardsley. Pen-and-ink drawing for an illustration in Salome. The British Museum. Morris worked in many different media, including fabric, rugs, wallpaper, furniture, and typography. His highly stylized hand-printed books and hand-woven tapestries are wonderful examples of English art nouveau.

Morris was a key figure in the English arts and crafts movement. This movement originated in England around the middle of the 19th century and its influence spread to continental Europe and the United States. It rejected the heavy ornamentation of the Victorian style in favor of good craftsmanship and clean design. An intensely romantic idealist, Morris was deeply concerned with the ethics of art.

He equated bad design with a faulty ethical system. He is credited, along with the Bauhaus, with bringing about a renewal of Image not available due to copyright restrictions the standards of craftsmanship Figure His work was an inspiration to European modernists who, in turn, greatly influenced American art of the 20th century. In Albert Einstein made public his theory of relativity and altered our ideas of space and time.

They became interrelated variables instead of isolated absolutes. Confection Kehl, Marque: PKZ, Winterthur Untertor 2. Lithograph, printed in color, Gift of Peter Muller-Munk.

H Sexuality also was no longer safely reserved for the bedroom but appeared in various symbols in everyday life. The accepted boundaries of reality began to shift.

See the accompanying Web site for links that explore these ideas. The philosophy of existentialism further undermined faith in absolutes by suggesting that there is no single correct answer or moral action. Instead we are individually responsible for shaping meaning. This philosophy argues that humans define themselves by the choices and actions they freely and consciously make. Subjectivity rules over absolutes.

Meanwhile, travel and the growth of a communications network made it possible for us to hear of cultures with different 24 Graphic Design Basics lifestyles, beliefs, and perceptions. This communications explosion continues to be one of the most important influences on society today. As designers we play an important part in its development. Art and design reflect society and help shape it. Pointing the way to cubism, it emphasized the flat surface of the canvas and resembled the symbolic, patterned figures of African art.

The relationship between the figures and the picture plane itself was ambiguous. As cubism developed, shapes became increasingly abstracted, showing objects from multiple points of view, with transparent overlapping.

Such shapes denied an absolute, inviolate place in space for any single object. In these respects, cubism influenced the subsequent development of 20th-century design.

Nature was no longer the only form of reality to depict. The human mind itself played a part in structuring reality, and subjectivity ruled over absolutes. The cubist practice of integrating letterforms into paintings influenced the typography of subsequent art and design movements. In Germany, Friedrich Nietzsche and the nihilist rebellion contributed to the expressionist movement, which appeared around The nihilists championed the independence of the individual, questioning the validity of all forms of preconceived ideas and social norms.

The expressionist movement aspired to show subjective emotions and responses rather than objective reality. The idea that art is primarily self-expression led to a dramatic non-naturalistic art, typified by Oskar Kokoschka and Ernst Kirchner Figure Led by Henri Matisse and similar in look to expressionism, with its open disregard of the forms of nature, fauvism favored wildly expressive, subjective, and non-local colors.

Fauvism ended around , while expressionism ended around Neoexpressionism, influenced by the expressionists and the fauves, shows up today in contemporary illustration. The concept of local color versus arbitrary color continues to contribute to contemporary art and design. Ehrenfels suggested that the parts interact to form a new whole. Our perception of an object is influenced by the arrangement of objects around it.

This work pointed the way to another new idea. Reality could be seen as dependent on context rather than as absolute. This is an important part of our contemporary understanding of design and visual perception. In at the Frankfurt Institute of Psychology, Max Wertheimer, an admirer of Ehrenfels, began research on apparent movement, which is the basis for the motion picture. He asked why we perceive some images as belonging together and others as not. He arrived at the Gestalt principle of unit forming, which describes how we organize and interpret patterns from our environment.

Simply put, things that are similar will be perceptually grouped together. For a more detailed description of unit-forming factors, see Chapter 5. See the accompanying Web site for links to investigate these ideas. Germany also gave birth to Peter Behrens, a pictorial and graphic artist who moved into architecture. He was an artist of the Deutsche Werkbund, founded in Inspired by William Morris and the English arts and crafts movement, the Werkbund artists believed in examining the moral questions inherent in art and Pablo Picasso.

Printing developments New and faster printing presses presented new demands on other elements in the printing process, such as the type used to print, the stock printed on and the way whole pages were prepared for print.

Printing press The printing press underwent dramatic changes following the Industrial Revolution. Wood was replaced by cast iron, which resulted in increased printing pressure and a greater print area. Friedrich Koenig created a steam press that by could produce over 1, impressions an hour, as well as doubled-sided printing.

In , the rotary press was invented by Richard Hoe, which meant millions of copies of a page could be printed in a single day. The subsequent development of rolls or webs of paper resulted in mass production. Line casting Machines such as the Linotype enabled type to be set at much higher speeds. This invention revolutionised newspaper publishing.

Photoengraving Photoengraving replaced the use of handmade printing plates with a photochemical process that engraved a metal plate using photographic techniques. An acid-resistant, photosensitive material is applied to a metal plate bearing the design to be printed. Exposure of the metal to acid dissolves the exposed metal, engraving the image on to it. A similar process is used to make intaglio — printing plates that have depressions for the ink to sit in. Intaglio A printing technique using an image from a recessed design, which is incised or etched into the surface of a plate.

Ink lies recessed below the surface of the plate, transfers to the stock under pressure and stands in relief on the stock. The items pictured here show how printing evolved over time: left to right a page printed in early Latin, incunabula, dated ; a letterpress alphabet that became common during the Industrial Revolution; and a newspaper printed by letterpress Columbian Centinel of Boston, published 06 May, Corbis above and right This Volume magazine was designed by Jog Design for the image library, Corbis.

It features typography reflecting the pixelated structure of digital type. The digital age has supplanted the industrial age and most publications are now designed and set electronically using pixels rather than picas.

Contagious right and below These spreads from Contagious magazine by Why Not Associates show how design boundaries are constantly challenged. The publication abides by conventions, but is also surprising and engaging. The layered graphic devices and convergence of type and image create a single, unified piece. In this example, the relationship between the designer and architect, Allford Hall Monaghan Morris, results in bold, engaging and optimistic graphics that clearly inform people of their location.

Built environment The physical world constructed around us that includes both the interior and exterior of buildings.

Technology Graphic design, like many other disciplines, is linked to technology at many different levels. Technology affects how designs are produced and it also influences developments in style, art and society as a whole, which in turn are reflected in the form a design takes.

Technology also offers designers a variety of media outlets for their projects. Graphic design and technology It would be easy to think of graphic design as a discipline that is solely influenced by artistic or academic concerns. However, it is also shaped by advances in technology, which bring new considerations and processes for a designer to utilise and manipulate.

Design principles are highly transportable and transferrable through different technological epochs, which are modified and refined along the way. Technology has democratised design by simplifying production processes and extending access to the tools used to generate designs. Digitisation has revolutionised design so that it can be mass reproduced utilising ever more diverse delivery systems, such as wireless hand-held devices and diverse online mechanisms, as information delivery migrates away from print media.

Technology not only affects the delivery mechanism, but also the design. Images and text can be subject to far greater manipulation and intervention at quicker speeds than in the past.

This poses the threat that design may become a form of urban noise where the message is lost and diluted among the plethora of other messages that bombard society. Advancements in technology open up new avenues of creativity by putting new tools into the hands of the designer or allowing designers to produce work more rapidly. This in turn provides more time for experimentation and can provoke profound changes in the design process.

This is evident in how the Apple Macintosh allowed designers to escape the limitations of the paste-up board. Newspapers have been pioneers in the application of new design technology, such as fourcolour printing and the use of the Internet.

Consumption culture readily adapts to the benefits of technology, this means that traditional media also face a threat from technological developments such as digital media. For example, newspaper print subscriptions may be falling, but online subscribers are increasing, allowing newspapers to provide other services to readers.

Technological development continues to provide designers with new tools and techniques for creation, but the need to harness the tools available to good effect remains constant. The design evokes a sense of fun and retains a simplicity that is reminiscent of illustrated advertising art from the early twentieth century. Although its creation was made possible by technology, the imagery is not technology-led.

Vault 49 could have produced a similar job by using a different method, such as hand illustration. This period also saw the introduction of dot matrix and digital typography.

The introduction of personal computers in the s broadened font development opportunities, allowing for characters to be drawn and amended quickly, while type shapes could be easily copied to form the basis of different letters.

The acceptance and use of digital type was assisted by the development of PostScript — the standard used for digital typesetting in the late s. Open Type Open Type — a scalable format for computer fonts developed by Microsoft and joined by Adobe in the s — is now the dominant standard for digital font production. It can support up to 65, glyphs in a font and has advanced typographic features.

Digitisation has reduced the cost of type to the extent that it has changed from being an expensive specialist tool to a commodity product, which now poses a stern challenge to type foundries. It is estimated that there are now over , digital fonts available — there may be a lot of choice but as a result, decision-making is made more difficult.

Subsequent improvements in technology have increased the speed and power of personal computers, reducing the time needed to create new fonts, many of which have been showcased in the typography magazine Fuse — launched in by Jon Wozencroft and Neville Brody. There is usually no harm in this as the substitution is quite universal. The distinction between typefaces and fonts is arguably more important now that the two seem to occupy the same space. A typeface is a combination of characters, letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation and other marks that share a similar design.

A font was traditionally something physical, such as lithographic film or metal type characters pictured above. Digital type foundries Digital technology has led to the development of digital type foundries, organisations and companies that use computer software to produce type in electronic format rather than the cast metal symbols that characterised printing from the Industrial Revolution until the s.

Digital type foundries, such as Emigre, FontFont and Jeremy Tankard, harness the benefits of digital technology to produce a wide range of fonts, exploring and developing the form of text characters. Digital production has seen an explosion of the number of typefaces available due to the relative ease, speed and low cost of producing and storing them compared to traditional type creation techniques.

The examples above show the effects of negative tracking and negative leading, both made possible by digital typography. The impact of digital typefaces In the digital age, fonts are no longer just physical objects. This means that a designer has more options available regarding font usage, which offer more opportunities for control and manipulation, for example, in terms of leading and spacing.

The image above shows a block of numerals in metal type, which were used for printing text before the advent of digitised type. As these are physical items, it was not possible to overlap type or have negative leading, something that is now taken for granted in the use of computer-generated type.

Tracking and leading Type spacing can be altered on both the horizontal and vertical planes by manipulating tracking and leading — two processes that have become more flexible with digital typefaces. Tracking works on the horizontal plane; it is the amount of space that exists between the letters of words, which can be adjusted to bring characters closer together or take them farther apart.

Tracking can be reduced to condense space between letters or removed completely with negative tracking. On the other hand, increased tracking adds space, which can prevent characters from touching each other.

More specific adjustments can be made in the space between two letters by kerning removal of space or letterspacing addition of space. Leading works on the vertical plane and refers to the space between the lines in a text block. The term originates from the strips of lead placed between the rows of metal type letters to keep constant space alignment — a function digital leading still serves.

However, digital type also allows for negative leading, resulting in overlapping or the absence of space between text lines. It is easy to read and is compatible with different operating systems. Glyph switching flipping Glyph switching or flipping is where a digital typeface contains multiple versions of characters, enabling a design to create an eclectic look within the limitations of a single character set.

Flipping is an example of technology presented in a certain way so as to appear non-technological by including random differences that add a touch of the accidental, such as the random printed marks produced by the wear patterns of letterpress characters.

Commands in the PostScript code refer to a random generator that makes the character outlines irregular. The use of glyph switching makes a design look as though it was not produced using current technology when technology is actually facilitating it. There is a certain irony in the fact that the designers of digital fonts are trying to achieve a non-uniform effect, while printers using traditional technology strive to overcome quirks and irregularities in their finish.

Fonts for screen Fonts are now designed specifically for use with digital applications such as the Internet. Fonts designed for screen use are created so that they can be used on a wide range of different systems while giving the same performance.

The existence of web-safe fonts means website producers can increase the likelihood that the content will be displayed as required. Microsoft produced a standard family of fonts for Web use.

With only a limited range of web-safe fonts available, it is probable that a company may not be able to use its font choices in all arenas.

This means the fonts for its offline communications may be different to those used for its online communications. Other limitations of web-safe fonts when used in print applications is that the serifs can be too fine — the fonts can be overly broad and they can fill in with ink when printed.

Typography Typography is the means by which a written idea is given a visual form.

It is one of the most influential elements that establishes the character and emotional attributes of a design; the visual form it takes dramatically affects the accessibility of an idea and how a reader reacts towards it. Variety and creativity Typefaces vary from clearly distinguishable letterforms that flow easily before the eye, to more elaborate and eye-catching forms and vernacular characters appropriated from the urban environment.

The different styles and forms of fonts enable them to communicate in ways that go beyond the words they spell out; different typefaces can be said to have different personalities, and it is these personalities that a designer often focuses on when selecting fonts for a particular job. Typography is a discipline that continues to evolve as computer technology makes the process of font creation quicker and easier, as well as more experimental.

In addition to appropriating elements from the vernacular, typography is also selfreferential — the origins of many of the fonts in current use can be traced to designs created during earlier historical epochs, from the earliest days of printing to Roman tomb inscriptions. Designers can harness this heritage to instil their designs with historical references. This section will look at many different examples of typographic design and how type is used to communicate.

It will also look at how fonts are classified into different families and systems that help to organise and better understand the many thousands that exist. Typography still proves to be one of the most crucial elements in design, especially if you want to make your message crystal clear. This e-book teaches you a lot of the basics, and a few of the advanced stuff as well. You get Volumes 1 and 2 of Interaction Design Best Practices, which discusses establishing emotional connections through your work, proper use of empty space, figuring out habitual human behavior when creating your design, and a lot more.

The third e-book is called Consistency in UI Design, something that can help you take your work a few notches higher. Branding is something that dictates how your design should be formed. And without a clear understanding of its concepts, you may end up creating design that are inconsistent with the brand. Thankfully, this e-book addresses a lot of your questions.

You have to at least know the basics, and this e-book is the perfect way to go through most of these basics in one go.

Digital Colour in Graphic Design

The title alone should tell you how useful this could be for you and your freelance practice. This is also applicable for designers who are currently working for an agency or the traditional employer, but are itching to break free.

It tells you how to market your business, how to license your work, how to effectively communicate with clients, and other things that could help establish you as a real professional. Visual hierarchy is important if you want your entire design to be as organized as possible.

This also affects the way your audience sees your design. This e-book tells you how to create this hierarchy properly.

Most of the e-books on this list tell you what to do and how to do it. But this e-book takes a different route. This makes it even more important than any other tutorial, as it allows you to understand the spirit of every design aspect and element. The Future of Product Design is a report that looks deep into why products are designed the way they are, and how this impacts the way things are going to be designed from hereon out. You see, every product ever made starts with a purpose or ideal. Flat design is something that has become more popular with this newfound love for simplicity.

Fantastic free ebooks for both beginners and creative pros.

This e-book discusses the best ways to use flat design and colors to make your work simple yet exceptionally appealing. From teaching you ow to think like a designer to helping you deal with fear and doubt, from pushing you to get out of your creative rut to giving you tips on how to market your business online, it has compiled a lot of the basic knowledge that would help any designer get up on their feet and start establishing a name for themselves. Note that logo making is not just about choosing a random image that looks nice, and pairing it up with the business name.

This e-book lets you do that. The PPP Handbook has proven to be such a treasure trove of design knowledge that this download is now on its 3 rd version! The 1 st version was just a simple handbook that gave details about pixels and the use of Photoshop. These basics, however, proved to be very useful to every designer that has come across it and downloaded it. Since then, it has evolved into the design bible that it is now. The Vignelli Canon gives you a wide spectrum of knowledge that will help you not only in terms of graphic design, but in product design, corporate design, and other aspects of the field as well.

How would this look like in print? Your designs may look great on your screen, but things may end up looking different the moment it goes through the printing process. This e-book gives you all the info you need on how to make all your designs print-worthy, especially if you made them using Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, Acrobat or InDesign. After all, proper knowledge of how all the tools work and how the elements go together will get you nowhere if your creative health is not as good as it should be.

But the real question here is this — are you using your creativity the right way?However large or small you transform a vector file, it remains perfectly sharp. The new brand identity was part of a refresh for the organisation. The emphasis in school is on learning.

Letterform Shapes Parts of a letterform. Through basic shape you can bring unity to a group of seemingly disparate objects. Chapter 11 discusses the process of getting a design successfully into print, with a step-by-step guide for electronic prepress.

The misery of choice has never been more apt than in graphic design today as there are more modes of communication, more products, more people to sell to and more fonts to choose from; but do any of these ultimately make us happier? It involves visualizing the completed job, although the actual finished product will not be done by hand.

Visual arts in general, and twodimensional disciplines in particular, share a common language. The Bauhaus trained artists in all areas.