Induction or the inductive effect of an atom or functional group is a function of that groups 1). electronegativity, 2). bonding order and charge and 3). position. In chemistry, the inductive effect is experimentally observed to have an effect of the transmission of unequal sharing of the bonding electron through a chain of. 1) Negative inductive effect (-1): The electron withdrawing nature of groups or 2 ) Positive inductive effect (+I): It refers to the electron releasing nature of the.
|Language:||English, German, French|
|Genre:||Children & Youth|
|ePub File Size:||26.58 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.44 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
Magnitude of the Effect. Origin of the Substituent Effect. When the Substituent is F. How C-F Polarity Affects Acidity. Inductive Effects for Other S Groups (B). Electronic factors that influence organic reactions include the inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation. These electronic. 2. Positive Inductive effect: (+I effect, Electron releasing effect). When an electro positive atom or group. (more electro positive than hydrogen)is attached to the.
The experimental distinction between the two effects has proved difficult, except for molecules of peculiar geometry, which may exhibit ' reversed field effects '.
Ordinarily the inductive effect and the field effect are influenced in the same direction by structural changes in the molecule and the distinction between them is not clear.
This situation has led many authors to include the field effect in the term ' inductive effect '. Thus the separation of values into inductive and resonance components does not imply the exclusive operation of a through-bonds route for the transmission of the non-conjugative part of the substituent effect.
To indicate the all-inclusive use of the term inductive, the phrase ' so-called inductive effect ' is sometimes used. Certain modern theoretical approaches suggest that the ' so-called inductive effect ' reflects a field effect rather than through-bonds transmission.
See also: Cite as: Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed.
Compiled by A. McNaught and A. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford Covalent bonds can be polarized depending on the relative electronegativity of the two atoms forming the bond.
For example, the water molecule H 2O has an electronegative oxygen atom that attracts a negative charge. The vector addition of the individual bond dipole moments results in a net dipole moment for the molecule. A polar bond is a covalent bond in which there is a separation of charge between one end and the other - in other words in which one end is slightly positive and the other slightly negative.
Examples include most covalent bonds.
The hydrogen-chlorine bond in HCl or the hydrogen-oxygen bonds in water are typical. Inductive effect[ edit ] If the electronegative atom is then joined to a chain of atoms, usually carbon , the positive charge is relayed to the other atoms in the chain.
This is the electron-withdrawing inductive effect, also known as the -I effect. However, some groups, such as the alkyl group , are less electron-withdrawing than hydrogen and are therefore considered as electron-releasing. In short, alkyl groups tend to give electrons, leading to induction effect.
However, such an effect has been questioned. Relative inductive effects[ edit ] Relative inductive effects have been experimentally measured[ how?
The strength of inductive effect is also dependent on the distance between the substituent group and the main group that react; the greater the distance, the weaker the effect.Certain modern theoretical approaches suggest that the 'so-called inductive effect' reflects a field effect rather than through-bonds transmission. Ordinarily the inductive effect and the field effect are influenced in the same direction by structural changes in the molecule and the distinction between them is not clear.
Fragmentation[ edit ] The inductive effect can be used to determine the stability of a molecule depending on the charge present on the atom and the groups bonded to the atom. This situation has led many authors to include the field effect in the term 'inductive effect'. Inductive effect.
This is credited to Dr.