Chapter 4: Network Layer. 4 1 I d i. 45 R. i l i h. ❒ 4. 1 Introduction. ❒ Virtual circuit and. d t t ks. ❒ Routing algorithms. ❍ Link state. ❍ Distance Vector. 2. 1. Introduction. 2. Router Architecture. 3. Network Layer Protocols in the Internet. 4. IPv4. 5. IP Addressing and Subnetting. Concerned with getting packets from source to destination. • The network layer must know the topology of the subnet and choose appropriate paths through it.

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Main Task of the network layer is to move packets from the source host to the destination host. • Lowest layer to deal with end-to-end issues! Transport. Session. three lowest layers focus on passing traffic through the network to an end system. The top four layers come into play in the end system to complete the process. Computer Networks. Prof. Hema A Murthy. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. Network Layer. • Deliver a packet from a source to a destination across a WAN.

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Log In Sign Up. Due to ease of deployment, MANET is very effective in situations where it is difficult to create infrastructure based network.

The Internet Layer Protocols - Networking

Nodes in a MANET are self configured and self governed without being controlled by any central administrator. Mobile Adhoc Network MANET has always been a rising technology which supports real time multimedia transmission service, a common trend in current communication technology that uses maximum real time applications with dynamic mobility of the mobile devices.

Offering Quality of Service is also an important parameter during communication in real time scenario. Many routing protocols for Mobile Adhoc Network Supporting Real Time Applications have been developed, basic intention being maximum utilization of resource in resource constraint environment, minimum power consumption using limited residual battery power of the highly movable mobile nodes.

This paper presents an intensive study and analysis of MANET based effective routing protocols and secondly, it provides report on comparative analysis of efficient real time supported protocols based on power consumption, delay analysis and packet delivery ratio.

Nodes frequently changes their position and location by forming a network without any base or any infrastructure. Careful considerations have to be made during designing the protocols for real time data transmission which are highly sensitive.

Computer Network Tutorials

Common challenges faced by real time data during transmission are energy utilization, scalability of the network, optimized use of bandwidth, resource reservation, reducing chance of link failure, security, take care of Qos, dynamically changing topology etc. Scheduling algorithms basically classifies DOI: In paper[11] five types of such scheduling algorithms are examined under real time traffic condition.

After simulation was done in OPNET, the results were compared and evaluated for the following parameters for the above five algorithms. Voice traffic receivedb.

In every case the performance of LLQ algorithm was found to be better with lower delay and higher throughput. In a dense MANET scenario, where the source is situated far away from the destination, proper data delivery for real-time video streaming is a difficult task.

In video traffic flows which is too heavy and need to be continuously flowed without interruption, so sending packets continuously without pause causes congestion of its own flow. In [3] the authors propose a method of periodically delaying the realtimedata transmission specifically video stream at source itself just to avoid more congestion at the next-hop relaying node level.

Table 1. How much data to send, at what rate, where it goes, etc. In its most basic sense, this layer is responsible for packet forwarding, including routing through different routers.

Network interface layer security

You might know that your Boston computer wants to connect to a server in California, but there are millions of different paths to take. Routers at this layer help do this efficiently. Layer 2 — Data Link The Data Link Layer provides node-to-node data transfer between two directly connected nodes , and also handles error correction from the physical layer. In the networking world, most switches operate at Layer 2.

Layer 1 - Physical At the bottom of our OSI bean dip we have the Physical Layer, which represents the electrical and physical representation of the system.

Layer 6 - Presentation

This can include everything from the cable type, radio frequency link as in an After that, you hear about the OSI model when vendors are making pitches about which layer s their products work with. Remembering the OSI Model 7 layers — 8 mnemonic tricks If you need to memorize the layers for a college or certification test, here are a few sentences to help remember them in order.

The first letter of each word is the same as a layer of the OSI model. He is now a freelance writer and editor from Worcester, Mass.Access provided by: Why should we study?

Date of Publication: There are just two types of parents in this world. Boring lectures! Download pdf. The content in the documents below comprises of the topics such as linear momentum, Constraints, newtonian mechanics, degrees of freedom, etc.

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