PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . Three Versions of Virtue Ethics: Virtue 1, Virtue 2, and Virtue 3 .. 8 . Moral Exemplars in Business and Professional Ethics. This is the book Business Ethics (v. ). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa (

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PDF e-book ISBN Business Ethics and Stakeholder Management in Business Ethics, the Changing Environment, and Stakeholder. Business Ethics: Introduction to the Ethics of Values . Many books that deal with business ethics indicate that it is important to study ethics because of huge. This is “Business Ethics and Social Responsibility”, chapter 2 from the book An Introduction to to view its posted .

It addresses most of the key topical areas of business ethics but avoids the listicle approach of other business ethics textbooks in which every topic under the sun is stitched together with little overarching context. It also includes things like a discussion of ethics and organized labor, which other books overlook. I would, however, like to see more dedicated attention to the ethical issues raised by technology, perhaps by engaging with a philosopher of technology. The index at the back and the detailed table of contents will make information easy to find.

Each chapter's glossary will be helpful to students who are new to the subject. I particularly like the profiles of the four philosophers in the appendix: so often, ethics is taught in a disembodied and ahistorical manner, which makes it harder for students to see the relevance of the ideas being taught. These supplementary contextual elements would make this a good textbook for an instructor whose primary training was not in philosophy. As an added advantage, the number of chapters does not exceed the number of weeks in a standard semester, and at 10 chapters plus an epilogue could also fit within a quarter system.

Accuracy rating: 5 As far as I can tell, the content is accurate and clear. It was reviewed by dozens of faculty from a wide variety of institutions. As many of the examples are set out in textboxes or as links to external resources, it would be a relatively simple matter for an instructor to substitute recent examples when necessary.

Once hired, employees have the right to the occasional cost of living increases, as well as raises based on merit. Promotions, however, are not a right, and there are often fewer openings than qualified applicants.

It may seem unfair if an employee who has been with a company longer is passed over for a promotion, but it is not unethical. It is only unethical if the employer did not give the employee proper consideration or used improper criteria for the promotion.

If an action is illegal it is breaking the law but if an action seems morally incorrect that is unethical. Potential employees have ethical obligations to employers, involving intellectual property protection and whistle-blowing.

Employers must consider workplace safety , which may involve modifying the workplace, or providing appropriate training or hazard disclosure.

This differentiates on the location and type of work that is taking place and can need to comply with the standards to protect employees and non-employees under workplace safety. Larger economic issues such as immigration , trade policy , globalization and trade unionism affect workplaces and have an ethical dimension, but are often beyond the purview of individual companies. The business' actions and decisions should be primarily ethical before it happens to become an ethical or even legal issue.

Fairness The three aspects that motivate people to be fair is; equality, optimization, and reciprocity.

Fairness is the quality of being just, equitable, and impartial. This misuse is from late arrivals, leaving early, long lunch breaks, inappropriate sick days etc.

This has been observed as a major form of misconduct in businesses today. One of the greatest ways employees participate in the misuse of company's time and resources is by using the company computer for personal use. Consumer Fraud There are many different types of fraud, namely; friendly fraud, return fraud, wardrobing, price arbitrage, returning stolen goods.

Fraud is a major unethical practice within businesses which should be paid special attention. Consumer fraud is when consumers attempt to deceive businesses for their very own benefit. Abusive Behavior A common ethical issue among employees. Abusive behavior consists of inflicting intimidating acts on other employees. Such acts include harassing, using profanity, threatening someone physically and insulting them, and being annoying. Since few goods and services can be produced and consumed with zero risks, determining the ethical course can be problematic.

In some case, consumers demand products that harm them, such as tobacco products. Production may have environmental impacts, including pollution , habitat destruction and urban sprawl. The downstream effects of technologies nuclear power , genetically modified food and mobile phones may not be well understood.

While the precautionary principle may prohibit introducing new technology whose consequences are not fully understood, that principle would have prohibited the newest technology introduced since the industrial revolution. Product testing protocols have been attacked for violating the rights of both humans and animals.

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These companies often advertise this and are growing in popularity among the younger generations. Main articles: Private property and Property rights The etymological root of property is the Latin 'proprius' [] which refers to 'nature', 'quality', 'one's own', 'special characteristic', 'proper', 'intrinsic', 'inherent', 'regular', 'normal', 'genuine', 'thorough, complete, perfect' etc. The word property is value loaded and associated with the personal qualities of propriety and respectability, also implies questions relating to ownership.

A 'proper' person owns and is true to herself or himself, and is thus genuine, perfect and pure. For instance, John Locke justified property rights saying that God had made "the earth, and all inferior creatures, [in] common to all men".

Blackstone conceptualized property as the "sole and despotic dominion which one man claims and exercises over the external things of the world, in total exclusion of the right of any other individual in the universe". During this time settlers began the centuries-long process of dispossessing the natives of America of millions of acres of land.

Property, which later gained meaning as ownership and appeared natural to Locke, Jefferson and to many of the 18th and 19th century intellectuals as land, labor or idea, and property right over slaves had the same theological and essentialized justification [] [] [] [] [] [] It was even held that the property in slaves was a sacred right.

Thus, the sheer scale of business and organisational activity and the obvious ethical dilemmas posed by working in this field have prompted the increased attention given to business ethics in programmes of study.

This may relate to the ethics of individuals working in an organisational context, to an ethical evaluation of the organisation itself or even to the business system as a whole. It should be noted that the latter are also the concerns of political, social and economic theory.

Moral conversation may seek to describe, explain, analyse or prescribe. However, philosophical ethics is a normative discipline, that is it aims to provide prescriptions for correct behaviour always depending on some assumptions and background theories, as we shall see. This does not mean that this book intends to tell the reader how to behave ethically in organisations!

It introduces the concepts, tools and techniques of ethics that an informed and responsible citizen may wish to use. Personal freedom and autonomy of action within accepted social constraints is an important idea in ethics.

A further point is that it is valuable to avoid, as far as possible, seeing ethics in isolation from other business and management disciplines. To see ethical analysis and strategic analysis, say, as separate approaches to a case study or real situation is far less useful than trying to use them together. While ethics may well challenge the assumptions underlying strategic analysis, and the politics of implementing strategic change may be difficult to reconcile with ethical constraints, there is a creative tension in using the two together.

This is particularly evident in the more overtly competitive aspects of business activity, such as marketing. The inter-twining of ethical and other organisational theories, at an introductory level, is one of the key features of this book. Like everything else in the ix Preface subject, this is not universally accepted but it is the simplest way to proceed in a basic introduction which focusses on practical analysis.

Each part contains an introduction which is mainly concerned with describing the purpose and content of the chapters it contains. The final chapter in each part ends with a selection of questions for discussion. While it is recommended that the parts and chapters be read and studied in the order presented, it is perfectly feasible to vary from this, using the index, summaries and signposting in the text to help navigation.

Part I is mainly concerned with introductions, basic definitions, models and frameworks. It also gives a flavour of the business vocabulary e. Part II gives a basic exposition of many of the principal ethical theories derived from philosophy. In all instances these are contextualised into an organisational setting. Reference is also made to scientific and political ideas which add a distinctive flavour to business ethics. Parts III and IV have similar objectives, basically to apply the previously mentioned theories into business contexts using a mixture of topics and cases.

However, in order to simplify a very complex set of issues, a distinction has been made as follows. Part III consists of six chapters which include a range of generally applicable topics while Part IV reflects the main ethical concerns in a range of business functions.

It should also be noted that Chapters 1 and 11 are distinctive in that while introducing some ethical ideas and arguments, they also include sections of practical advice. Chapter 11 gives advice on how to work with case studies and how to conduct ethical research.

Much of this advice is of value beyond studying business ethics. Chapters 1—10 Parts I and II contain an introduction to the language, concepts and models of business ethics.

Each of these chapters begins with a short statement of purpose and a concise set of learning objectives. Underlying all this is the overall objective of developing an integrated knowledge of business ethics and improving your skills in ethical evaluation. The learning objectives are followed by a brief introduction to the chapter in question. The intention in these introductions is to show the purpose of the material included in the chapter as well as to describe its contents.

The body of each chapter is made up of a mixture of topics, cases and exercises as appropriate. The topics may be descriptions of ethical theories or may relate to specific business and organisational problems. It should be noted that the text contains many other descriptions of ethics in business contexts besides those specifically called cases.

We say a little more about the cases later. The exercises usually also relate directly to real business situations and are intended to be used mainly in the context of group discussion. In addition to exercises which occur in the main body of text, separate sets of exercises are included at the ends of the separate parts. These exercises are intended to provide fresh challenges rather than routine checks on learning.

For this reason they introduce new problems and situations and should be regarded as a resource to be utilised to the full. Each chapter ends with a summary and some include a note on sources of reference. The summaries are not intended as simply repeating the chapter materials in a briefer format. They continue the debate and arguments in a way intended to draw together the key points which have occurred earlier.

At the end of the book all the references, along with some further materials, are gathered together in an Annotated bibliography. However, a considerable amount of time is spent on situating this discussion in business practice and in showing ways in which the application of the theories of ethics to organisational life differ from other applications. Business ethics provides some specific challenges in addition to the application of the ideas of ethics to everyday life.

These relate mainly to the competitive business environment and the complexity of organisational practices. Chapters 11—16 Part III are concerned with specific topics and issues in business practice and Chapters 17—22 Part IV are structured mainly round a functional view of business ethics. You may be surprised to find out just how much has been written on the ethics of business and organisational life in books and journals over the past few years.

This book explores a range of topics at an introductory level, with some topics developed to a greater extent. This is still, however, only a fraction of the material which could have been presented.

It should be noted that some further models and theories relating to specific business situations are introduced in these later chapters. One thing which will rapidly become obvious is that a large number of ethical ideas and principles are introduced and a large number of business situations explored. As any of the theories might be relevant to any of the situations, we have a potentially confusing task ahead of us in arriving at a clear view of ethics in business.

This is, however, a reflection of the reality of using business ethics as a practical discipline. We cannot avoid this degree of complexity but we can improve our skills in navigating through it! In an elementary text a case may be a simple exercise relating to an imagined or commonly occurring situation. At an advanced level of study, cases may be extremely lengthy descriptions of a particular organisation at a given point in time, based on a great amount of research.

In this latter context, case study analysis skills will have been taught prior to the use of such material.

An important issue, particularly in the context of business ethics, is the extent to which a case study is, or ever can be, a truly objective xiii Organisation of the book description of a situation. It is all too easy to write a case study which reflects a predetermined ethical position.

In Chapter 12 we briefly explore this difficulty through some alternative descriptions of a situation. In Chapter 11 we set out some explicit guidance in case analysis which is partly intended to expose hidden bias. The intention is that the key ethical dilemmas may readily be made clear in order to facilitate analysis. Exploring the ethical concerns underlying major case study descriptions is a task beyond the scope of this book, though one which you may feel ready to take on as a next stage in understanding business ethics.

Chapter contents In the introduction to each part of the book is included a brief description of the chapter contents for that part. Chapter 1 begins the study of business ethics in earnest by outlining some basic principles and ideas. We also make the point that the approach taken here as in most similar texts is based on a particular view of philosophical ethics and rational debate.

Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility: Books and eBooks

As noted above, this chapter also contains some practical advice on studying business ethics. Chapter 2 continues this theme with further models and ideas which underlie business ethics in totality. After reading the first two chapters you may wish to browse through later chapters to gain some first impressions of the actual issues which we will be addressing.

Chapter 3 focusses on two key themes. While the use of this word is now widespread in business studies there are a number of serious problems which must be 1 What is business ethics?

The second theme, which is of considerable current interest in business research and practice, is that of Corporate Social Responsibility. In Chapter 4 we introduce some ideas from descriptive business ethics which are indicative of a different approach to the mainly prescriptive theories of philosophical ethics we will meet in Part II.

Such descriptive theories provide links to other forms of organisational research, such as those based on organisational psychology and theories of social behaviour. The final chapter in each part of the book contains some questions for discussion relating to the part as a whole.

Introduction Our main work in introducing and exploring the discipline of business ethics begins in Chapter 2. The purpose of Chapter 1 is to clarify the purpose of business ethics as a discipline and to include some general notes and resources which set the scene and guide you through the complexity of this subject.

We begin by outlining the various approaches to ethics, in particular the difference between philosophical, normative, practical and descriptive ethics.

These terms may be applied in a variety of contexts e. This is an important point as many introductory books on business and management are largely descriptive and technique oriented. While this book must start with some ideas, it quickly leads on to techniques of ethical evaluation and description of contexts where dubious practice has been seen. Business ethics must not be 3 What is business ethics?

Ethical evaluation can make a positive contribution to organisational life and the well-being of stakeholders. We then move on to a section offering some practical advice, mainly relating to reading texts on ethics and writing. You may wish to read all the material in this chapter before moving on to Chapter 2. An alternative strategy might be to quickly familiarise yourself with this work and then continually return to it when the need arises.

What is ethics? Unfortunately, any such definition will almost certainly be restricted and misleading and it is safer if we assume a commonsense understanding of what is meant by these terms, and refine this understanding as we work through the book.

For simplicity we will use the terms interchangeably and assume that our use of them follows the tradition and arguments of Western philosophy see in p. The most obvious is that it will presume some knowledge of the general ideas, concepts and language which have been developed in the discipline of philosophy over the last years.

That is assuming, of course, that we are speaking within the tradition of Western philosophy developed in Europe and the USA, which puts great emphasis on analysis of fundamental concepts and logic. Even if one chooses a book by a philosopher who specialises in ethics you will become very aware 4 An introduction to business ethics that they are not only trying to communicate with non-philosophers but are writing within a community which uses words and ideas in very precise and particular ways.

It can often seem that one is eavesdropping on a very sophisticated conversation! Though such texts may well introduce everyday examples and dilemmas to illustrate typical problems, the focus will be on the nature of ethics as a way of using language, say, rather than practical advice on how to handle a particular situation.

Indeed, any business situation introduced will seem very simple, often no more than a caricature of the complexities of a real case, and can therefore be very misleading as a prescription for action. Therefore it is important to remember, if you read such a book, that these examples are often introduced either as motivation for the reader to engage with philosophical ideas or as intentional simplification designed to bring a philosophical issue into sharp focus.

When you have used this model and the others presented in this section for a while you might like to reflect on these points. These questions are very difficult to answer, if they can be given any final answer at all!

Business ethics

A debate on whether this is true would be meta-ethical in nature. You might like to think how you would set about analysing this view rather than just giving an unconsidered 5 What is business ethics?

This is a very difficult task to undertake with honesty and intellectual rigour. A key question in meta-ethics is related to the authority of moral claims. Yet beliefs differ and moral prohibitions are not constant over all belief systems.

Is it based on the accumulation of experience regarding what it takes to make a society work? If so we must ask whose experience counts, and how is it accumulated? The philosophy of science looks at issues of the validity of general statements built up in some way from particular observations. Does a society choose its own standards, for example through the processes of formulating laws? Laws often follow on from a sense of what people accept as right, as any government attempting to impose an unpopular law will soon discover.

So how does a society arrive at, and agree, standards of behaviour? Is it simply something which is intuitively obvious to us? Then how do criminals view this? Do they lack this intuition, or do they think that stealing is wrong, but so what? Is it always true or is it conditional on other factors? In particular in an organisational context are some forms of stealing just so trivial that they escape this prohibition e.

The idea that one should look at all behaviour in context is very appealing but does this make sense? Philosophical ethics quite naturally tends to search for fundamental principles which apply in all cases in order to provide some bedrock for further analysis. As you can see, philosophical ethics is fascinating but do not expect it to tell you how to carry out business negotiations in another country to choose a prosaic but useful problem area.

We have spent a little time illustrating some of its attraction above as it cannot be the main concern of this book and will not be dealt with at length below. Of course, the subject did not develop historically in this way; theories were developed in what seemed to be a common-sense fashion at the time and became part of prolonged discussion over long periods of time, argued about from different perspectives, with meta-ethics then being based on the revealed grounds for disagreement and concern.

Thus normative ethics covers a variety of theories which at one time or another were considered by key writers as the only sensible approach to ethics. The main theories which have survived overlap in some ways and are strongly differentiated in others. In very general terms, normative ethical theories attempt to prescribe the best way to live, including how to resolve the dilemmas which may arise when making difficult decisions. They try to show what general rules and guidelines we should follow, how we should distinguish between right and wrong and what virtues we should develop.

What they tend not to do is describe how people in practice act, how they develop moral codes or how this work relates to other disciplined approaches to understanding human affairs.

Historically the social sciences have paid considerable attention to issues of moral behaviour. The early economist Adam Smith wrote a book on morality. Concerns relating to the ethics of money are strongly and often distinctively reflected in economic theory.

Sociology, anthropology and similar disciplines have both described the behaviour of individuals using terms based both on their own discipline and on ethics, and have also described social institutions, such as religions. Practical ethics Whilst being closer to everyday situations, the theories of normative ethics are still expressed in ways which are not specific to context and may require considerable interpretation and development before they capture the particularities of such contexts.

In addition, such areas as biotechnology throw up new challenges in the use of standard theories. Therefore, one of the major developments in ethics as a totality over 7 What is business ethics?

Obviously, in this book we are focussing on business and organisational ethics. We are looking at questions of behaviour in the many and varied situations of organisational life.

International Business Ethics

General questions we might raise in an ethical debate e. Business ethics also overlaps with other areas of practical ethics, such as environmental ethics e. Descriptive ethics A quite different approach often found in texts on business ethics but frequently completely lacking in philosophical texts is descriptive ethics.

This approach looks at how individuals, groups and organisations approach ethical evaluation and decision-making in practice. It is an empirical methodology, often carried out as part of social science projects and using research methods commonly seen in sociology and psychology.

Its outputs are descriptions and explanations, sometimes borrowing a technical language from the social sciences but also sometimes couched in everyday business language.More recently, green credentials and sustainability have been added to that agenda. Why Ethics Still Matter Functional or professional ethics Just as we can differentiate by environmental context, it may also be useful to consider the ethical problems which tend to arise within specific functional areas of an organisation.

I suppose the most common definition of ethics is the attempt to build a systematic set of normative prescriptions about human behaviour, codes to govern everyday morals and morality.

The learning objectives are followed by a brief introduction to the chapter in question. At first sight it may seem to run counter to ideas of careful planning, outlining and structuring written work but is best seen as complementary to them.