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Any particular piece of equipment will frequently contain multiple building blocks and perform multiple functions.
Network interfaces[ edit ] An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in. A network interface controller NIC is computer hardware that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information.
For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry. In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control MAC address—usually stored in the controller's permanent memory. The size of an Ethernet MAC address is six octets. The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers. These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce.
Repeaters and hubs[ edit ] A repeater is an electronic device that receives a network signal , cleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it. The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than meters.
With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart. A repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal.
This can cause a propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e. Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern switches. Bridges[ edit ] A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer layer 2 of the OSI model to form a single network. This breaks the network's collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain.
Network segmentation breaks down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks.
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Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers. The signal is retransmitted at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than meters. With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart.
A repeater with multiple ports is known as an Ethernet hub. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal.
This can cause a propagation delay that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e. Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern switches.
Bridges[ edit ] A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer layer 2 of the OSI model to form a single network. This breaks the network's collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain. Network segmentation breaks down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.
Switches[ edit ] A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams frames between ports based on the destination MAC address in each frame.
It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge. If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source. Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches. Routers[ edit ] A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram Internet protocol information from layer 3.
The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table or forwarding table. A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets.
A destination in a routing table can include a "null" interface, also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i.
Modems[ edit ] Modems MOdulator-DEModulator are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless.
To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission. For severalconnection to each other. Because of this, when discussing net-work devices, you need to understand the network protocol used on thenetwork and the context in which the term is used.
As you have learned, low-level protocols handle the physicalcommunication process. You can think, then, of high-level protocolshandling the logical communication process. To get a general idea of how they work, look at a relatively simpleexample. Each ofthese messages is routed through the computer to the network adapterwhere it is converted into an electronic signal as shown in Figure High- and low-level protocols exist at different layers of the OSI network model.
Figure details the interconnections between those layers. We will discuss the OSI model in more detail in Chapter 2. How have newer systems taken advantage of the merging of data communications and telecommunications? Compare the role of low-level and high-level protocols. Record all the information it provides. It traditionally connects LANs using the public switched telephone network, but more commonly connects through the Internet.
In addition to covering different sized geographic areas, they have varying installation and support costs associated with them. Devices used in LANs can be relatively inexpensive and easy to main- tain. Larger networks require more sophisticated networking equipment and additional support. The investment in a MAN or WAN is not only based on installation and equipment costs, but also on the costs of long-term support.
Networking FundamentalsVirtual private network and on-site administration. Most larger networks require at least one full- VPN time, on-site administrator plus additional support staff. In many cases, aA private communication single person handles all LAN-related issues.
In addition to these network types, working in something of a support- ing role, are backbone networks. These provide a high-bandwidth path for communicating between networks. There are also network technologies implemented as part of these networks and based on technologies devel- oped initially for the Internet. In fact, the Internet has led to the demise of many traditional backbone networks. Today, because of the easy access to the Internet and lower costs for high-bandwidth Internet access, companies can connect to remote or distant locations without spending lots of money.
The global reach of the Internet allows this kind of connectivity without the high cost of installation and support associated with private wide area networks. Security is provided through use of virtual private networks VPNs. Access Point AP 1. LANs save people time,wireless devices send and lower equipment costs by centralizing printers and other resources, andreceive transmissions.
Recently, LANs have been used as tools to improve collaboration between employees and for job training using audio and video. A LAN connects computers and other network devices so that the de- vices can communicate with each other to share resources. Devices on a wired LAN are connected using inexpensive cable. Many new local area networks are being installed using wireless technologies.
Wireless LANs allow users to connect to network resources without the need for cabling or wiring. More commonly, wireless networks use an access point AP , which acts as a central access point working similar to a hub or switch and can also connect a wireless network to a wired network.
Ontario, N. Army Depot Portland, Oreg. Sudbury, Mass. Sacramento City of Sacramento Sacramento, Calif. Golden, Colo. Evanston, lll. Houston, Tex. Miami, Fla. Comparing network types. Network Standards and ModelsReliable transport can request a retransmission if it detects that it missed a packet in sequence. Connectionless Connection-oriented transmission features include: Connectionless transmissions see Figure do not have the re- ceiver acknowledge receipt of a packet.
Instead, the sending device assumes that the packet arrived. This approach allows for much faster communica- tion but is less reliable than connection-oriented transmission.
Connectionless transmission features include: We introduce these a little later in the chapter, but a detailed discussion of these protocols is beyond the scope of this chapter. Figure Receiving system Send Sending system Connectionless transmission.
Section 2. Network layer The Network LayerThe layer that handlesrouting of packets from one The Network layer is responsible for the addressing and delivery of pack-computer to another. Routing ensures that the packetpackets of data that are is delivered to and through the appropriate router. Notice that the path thatmoved around the network.
A protocol is considered routable if it uses addresses that include a network part and a host part. Both are unique addresses. The Network layer relies on the logicalcomputer. When a packet arrives at the Network layer, the Network layer adds source and destination addresses through encapsulation. Routing can be handled in two basic ways.
However, the more com-the routing information is mon method is to have each router along the way direct the packet to theincluded in the packet being next router, or hop, in the path. In order to do so, it checks the next destina-routed.
A counter is decremented each time theHop packet crosses a router. When the counter reaches zero, the router assumesThe intervening routers in a that the packet is lost or stuck in a loop, and the packet is discarded. Routers can use various algorithms to determine the best path. Most often, the decision made on the shortest path is based on the number of hopsRouting table to the destination.
The routing protocolpath to send a packet to its used by the routers determines the way routing is managed. Alternate routesdestination. Brouters alsopath is chosen. Devices that a packet passes through on its way to the destination device are called intermediate systems.
Intermediate routers need to deal with the packet only up to the Network layer of the OSI model, as shown in Figure Data link layer Section 2. The physical conduit overwhich data travels within a The Data Link Layernetwork.
The Data Link layer manages the physical transmission circuit in theFrames Physical layer and transforms it into a circuit that is free of transmissionThe data packet combined errors as far as the upper layers are concerned by performing error detec-with its header and trailer tion, correction, and retransmission.
It also converts data packets intoinformation. The Data Link layer is made up of two sublayers, each providing services. Control MAC sublayer to the upper-layer protocols through connection- less and connection-oriented services. The IEEE It alsoSublayer is responsible for supports a connection-oriented service LLC type 2 that checks that a mes-the connection to the physical sage arrives correctly.
Because of the additional overhead for LLC type 2media and physical address. MAC address, to the packet. The frame then has all the addressing infor- mation necessary to travel from the source device to the destination device.
It is necessary because it is the addressConnection-oriented service used to locate the destination computer after the packet reaches the correcton the LLC sublayer. It is a unique hexadeci-network interface card mal address with six pairs of hexadecimal digits and is not duplicated any-attached to a computer.
The last six are a unique value assigned by the manufacturer. The NIC operates at this level and converts data into transmission sig- nals.
The signals generated depend on the network connection medium. These transmissions can be analog or digital, though both types transmit binary data. Token Rings are still used for certain applications such as factory automation, but they are rarely used in business networks. Wireless networking standards including The Physical layer also manages the way a device connects to the net-work media.
Hubs are dumb connection devices and only operateat the Physical layer. Routers, on the other hand, are more sophisticatedand implement functionality through the Network layer.
The communica-tion protocols operating at the network clients and servers implement allseven layers. Therouters have no idea what to do with them, so they do nothing. Framesare trapped on the network segment on which they are generated. Both of these do include Network layer functionality, and because of this, can support routing. Because of this limit, computers deployed in a routed network and running NetBEUI commonly also run one or more additional protocols.
This reliance on multiple protocols could get to be a problem, espe- cially on computers with limited resources. Each protocol that you load at the computer adds to the memory overhead. Performance suffers. Imagine two baseball teams, one from Japan, and one from Argentina. The protocols would be the actual rules of baseball. Neither team could speak to each other di- rectly as in an IBM PC and an Apple Macintosh computer , but by follow- ing the standards and protocols they would be able to play a great game of baseball.
By following the communication protocols in this chapter, all sorts of devices would be able to collaborate and work together. List and describe the seven OSI model layers. Apply Your Knowledge What is a practical application of Half-duplex communications and why would it be used? Understanding Other Network Models 55 Project 2.
Standards have been an important part of network design and development. They provide standard, accepted terms for describing network functions and network activity.
In short, they provide a standard language for discuss- ing networking. Complete Project 2. Comparing Network Models in the online Network Basics Project Manual to understand each of these models, how they are structured, and what occurs at each level. The U. Department of Defense. To link the two networks, a new method of connecting networks, called Internet Protocol, IP for short, was invented.
The Internet model evolved from the work of thousands of people who developed pieces of the Internet. For documentation. From the comparison, a four-layer DoD model can be derived.
Protocol UDP provides the less reliable connectionless service. Internetwork layer. No one name is more right or wrong than the others. Internet Protocol IP Section 2.
Understanding Other Network Models 57The protocol used to assignunique addresses to devices Internet Protocol, is easiest. The Internet layer relies on the hierarchical addressing of IP to route data independently of the type of net- work media like the Network layer in the OSI model.
After the Internet layer routes the packets to the correct network,data inside a single network. Internet model 2. The two models have very much in common see Figure The Internet model collapses the top three OSI layers into one layer. The Application Layer The Application layer is the application software used by the network user and includes much of what the OSI model contains in the Application, Pre- sentation, and Session layers.
The Transport layer: The Data Link Layer The Data Link layer is responsible for moving a message from one com- puter to the next computer in the network path from the sender to the re- ceiver. Its role is to transfer a series of electrical, radio, or light signals through the circuit.
The physical layer in- cludes all the hardware devices such as computers, modems, and hubs and physical media cables, satellites, and radio frequency.
The Data Link. Consider the Internet model. The role of a routeris already clearly established. You know exactly what is expected of anetwork adapter. That problem immediately gives you a starting placefor your troubleshooting.
Now you can start askingother questions. Can other computers on this network communicatewith other networks? If not, the problem is likely related to the router. Take it down a level. This time you probably want tostart your search at the Physical or Data Link layer.
The network adaptermay have failed, or the computer may simply have become discon-nected from the cable. Not responsible for troubleshooting? Then an understanding of the Internet model can help you explain yourproblem in terms that make sense to you and the technician. Decisions about the Data Link layer often drive the decisionsabout the Physical layer. For this reason, some people group them togetherand call them the Hardware layers. You can see this in Figure The same is true of the Transport and Network layers.
They are soclosely coupled that sometimes these layers are called the Internetwork lay-ers. When you design a network, you often think about the network design. How are Internet layers organized into groups?
Apply Your Knowledge Why do you have both connection-oriented and con-nectionless transmissions at the transport layer? Can you think of an exampleof connectionless protocol use? Why is it used in this example? Project 2. You can view and manage thestatus of these networking components. Part of understanding these networkcomponents is knowing how they are related to each other.
Mapping Network Components in theonline Network Basics Project Manual to understand how networkcomponents are related to each other. The market place develops de facto standards. Measure your learning by comparing pre-test and post-test results.
True or false? What standards body developed the OSI model? Which of the following is used to develop and publish Internet standards? ANSI is a U. Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for routing? Which of the following terms is used to describe a connection where both ends are able to communicate simultaneously?
Assess Your Understanding 63 c Transport layer d Network layer8. What is the MAC address? The Internet network model consists of how many layers? What is the most commonly used network physical standard? Which of the following are associated most closely with the OSI model Application layer? Which protocol is most closely associated with the Internet model Internet layer?
Which Host-to-Host layer protocol provides connection-oriented service? You are setting up a home network at your house for two desktop computers and three laptop computers with wireless network interface cards. What equipment would you download, and why? How would you set up the home network and what protocols do you use in your home network? Which layers of the OSI model do you think are the most important for your home network and why? For each of the following, identify the layer primarily responsible for the requested action in both the OSI model and the Internet model.
The network is an Internet environment. Clients in Chicago need to access content in New York. The packets need to cross several hops to make it to the server. You need to order the correct cables for connecting client computers to the hubs.
The word processing application needs to be designed so that users can e-mail documents in progress. You can change the physical address by changing the ROM. For each description, identify the correct standards organization.
Accepts standards developed by other organizations and publishes them as U. Developed the OSI seven-layer model. Developed standards for Token Ring and Wi-Fi. Publishes Internet standards as RFCs. Your boss is having trouble with his network connection. Using your knowledge of ISO layers, determine how to begintroubleshooting the problem. For additional questions to help you assess your knowledge of access methods and network protocols, go to www.
Identify and describe the major protocols currently in use. Context makes all The most commonly used protocols can bethe difference. Protocols are no different. Most networks have several differ- layers.
The Data Link layer protocols are knownent protocols in use. You have protocols that as access protocols or access methods. A protocol, in simple terms, is a set of rules a computer uses to communicate.
Get a feel for what aprotocol is. They have a basic, but common,Communications procedures problem. So, what do they needused at the Data Link layer in order to be able to communicate? They either need a common language,on all networks. Network protocolsCommunications proceduresused at the Network layer.
Figure Cto eta? Confused speakers. Section 3. Understanding the Role of Protocols 69 The preferred solution, if possible, is for both to speak a common lan- guage. Communication goes faster with less opportunity for confusion. With a translator, communication goes slower at least twice as long because of the time needed to translate the content.
Something also has a chance of being lost or confused in translation. The same is true of computers. For two computers to communicate, they must either have at least one language protocol in common or a trans- lator. If a translator is required, performance suffers because of the process- ing overhead needed to convert data from one protocol to another.
To understand why two protocols are needed, we need to look at their roles in network com-Protocol stack munication. To do so, we take a typical network computer and break it outThe group of protocols using the OSI model. Take a look at Figure Moving down through the OSI model, you can see that a data packet is wrapped up in layers like an onion. Layers are added as the data moves down through the protocol stack, the protocol software components run- ning on the computer.
The protocol stack consists of different protocols in the protocol suite. Each layer performs various functions, wrapping the message content with control information on its way down through the stack. In our example, at the Data Link layer, our message is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame and sent out on the network cable represented by the Physical layer. For the computers that are not the addressed recipient, the packet never makes it past the Data Link layer.
Decisions may need to be made at higher levels of the OSI model. As the packet moves up through the. If no match is found, an error is noted and the packet contents ignored. Digital transmission is the transmission of binary electrical or light pulses with only two possible states, a 1 or a 0.
Digital signals are usually sent over a wire of no more than a few thousand feet in length. To successfully send and receive a message, both the sender and receiver have to agree on: The voltage ranges used represent 1s and 0s.
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How information is represented as voltage levels or electrical current changes. Nonreturn to zero NRZ Section 3. How fast the sender can transmit data. The voltage is always positive or negative.
No other conditionsare recognized in this code. The voltage varies from a plus voltage to a minus voltage. Return to zero RZ Figure shows four types of digital signaling techniques. The second bipolar technique is called return to zero RZ , or double current signaling as it sometimes is called in Europe, because you are moving between a positive and negative voltage potential.
All of the computers on a network segment will use the same Data Link layer access protocol. If you have an Ethernet network, all computers use Ethernet. What about the Network layer and above? All current com- munication protocols support all current access methods, that is, either Ethernet, Token Ring, or wireless networking. The requirement is that all of the computers that need to communicate must have at least one protocol in common.
Other options are available, depending on your exact network needs and service resources. Manchester encoding Ethernet uses Manchester encoding, where a change from high to low is used to represent a 0, whereas the opposite a change from low to high A special type of unipolar is used to represent a 1. Manchester encoding is less susceptible to havingsignaling in which the signal errors go undetected, because if no transition is in midsignal the receiveris changed from high to low knows that an error must have occurred.
In general terms, what is the purpose of access and network protocols? What is Manchester encoding? Apply Your Knowledge Why are protocols necessary and how do they allow different devices with different operation systems to communicate?
Comparing Access Methods The standards include not only access methods used in PC networks, but also low-level protocols used for other types of data communications. No The number-governing protocols. Destination service The LLC protocol is responsible fordestination address is for a providing connection-oriented service. The LLC protocol uses an extendedsingle or group of computers.
The second byte indicates a source service access point SSAP. Source service accesspoint SSAP Only one device on the network can transmit at a time. So if a device senses a transmission already on the wire, it must wait. After the line is clear, any de- vice can send its message multiple access.
If two computers transmit at the same time, a collision occurs and both must retransmit collision detection. Then and Now The Most switches are of the store-and-forward type, and hosts do not send pack- ets directly to the intended receiving host. Instead machines send their packets to the switch, which will store them in its internal memory.
When each packet has been received in full and checked for validity, it will be forwarded to the destination port. In the event that two packets need to be sent through the same port the port the receiving host is connected to , they will be queued up and sent one after the other. An Logically, the data actually travels through the wires in the form of a ring. It is used, however, in some specialized manufacturing control systems.
The Although Token Ring can use a physical ring cabling, the most commonly used topology is physical star, logical ring.
Under the They are able to transmit if they receive an empty token. The data they have to transmit is placed in the token and passed on to the next device in the network. The token travels around the entire network looking for the device it is addressed to until the destination device receives the token. The destination device takes its message out and replaces it with a response to the source device. After the source device gets the token back and takes out its own message, the next computer in the ring gets a chance to use the token to transmit.
This standard uses two parallel. Comparing Access Methods 75 cables in a bus-network topology. Each of the two cables in the bus transmits in a different direction so devices can send messages in either direction for bi-directional communication.
Multiplexing The broad-across a single physical band bus topology creates a full-duplex medium that supports multiplexing. Integrated Services The Wireless LANs The It uses the 2. The standard was not commonly used. Network Protocols The Upon the release of In October the The new stan- dard also adopts the multiple-input multiple-output MIMO technology, which offers communication through multiple antennas, thus handling a higher throughput of information. On the MAC layer, the Demand Priority Access Devices request permission to transmit, and the hub determinesnetwork access control to the order of the transmissions and provides access to the network.
Demandthe hub from the workstation; priority also allows for devices to be assigned a priority status so that theirthe hub is responsible for transmissions take precedence over other transmissions. This method allowsdetermining the priority for for higher bandwidth transmissions between devices.
The MAC and physical characteristics follow the standards, including connectionless and connection-oriented communications. Wireless Personal Area A group of manufacturers independently developed Bluetooth as asuch as cell phones, pagers, peripheral connection standard so that their devices could interoperate.
Bluetooth and Today, Bluetooth is gaining. Comparing Access Methods 77 popularity and can be found in devices such as PDAs, cell phones, head- sets, and standard computer peripherals such as printers. Here we put special emphasis on IEEE Tokenit possible to trace packets as Ring standards have remained relatively unchanged for more than a decade. You may still see some Token Ring installations, but those that you do see will most likely be partMedia Access Unit of a legacy network or a link to an IBM mainframe or minicomputer.
Figure is an example of a hybrid network that includes Token Ring.
Determining where the packet is possible, and given its current location, you know where it will be going next. It always follows the same path in the same order. Most MAUs are able to block a computer that is not responding or is corrupting packets.
Also, if a com- puter becomes temporarily disconnected from the ring, in most cases, when reconnected, it will pick up where it left off. Disadvantages of Token Ring are cost and performance. As Token Ring has fallen out of favor, the necessary hardware is harder to download and more expensive. Most hardware downloads are made to replace failing hardware,. Token Ring performance is severely limitedcompared to recent Ethernet versions. Token Ring networks operate at either4 Mbps or 16 Mbps with no revisions to these standards under consideration.
Figure shows a typical simple Ethernetnetwork. At a quick glance, it looks identical to the hybrid network inFigure Why is Ethernet so popular? The most common implementation is Mbps Ethernet, but 1 Gbps and faster versions are gaining in popular-ity as hardware prices continue to drop and equipment becomes morereadily available. Most hubs and switches are designed to compensate au-tomatically for different versions.
For example, the most common hubsprovide concurrent support for both 10 Mbps and Mbps Ethernet. Thehub detects the speed when the computer is connected and makes the nec-essary conversions so that the computers can communicate. The biggest advantages are in cost, availability, and performance.
Thehardware needed is relatively inexpensive, and most computers come with Mbps Ethernet integrated into the motherboard or already installed as. Backoff a network adapter. Hubs and switches can be downloadd from nearly anyA random amount of time store that sells consumer electronics. Standards are already available foreach system on a network 1 Gbps and faster Ethernet.
The biggest disadvantage with Ethernet is that performance can sufferListen before transmit as the network size increases. The more computers you have on a cable seg-method ment, the more likely collisions will occur.Itdiscusses protocols in the context of their role in network communications. Apple computers used theircomputers for establishing a own proprietary protocol, known as AppleTalk, on its networks. The protocols would be the actual rules of baseball. Patrick is a former regional instructor for the Cisco Networking Academy, an international program that prepares individuals for a career in networking.
Terrestrial microwaves are in the low gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. To successfully send and receive a message, both the sender and receiver have to agree on: It is necessary because it is the addressConnection-oriented service used to locate the destination computer after the packet reaches the correcton the LLC sublayer.
If a brouter is set to route data packets to the appropriate network for adissimilar networks and routed protocol such as IP, it is functioning as a router.