HIND SWARAJ PDF

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Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule by M.K. Gandhi | kaz-news.info TO THE READER. I would like to say to the diligent reader of my writings and to others. Hind Swaraj has for long been hailed as Gandhi's diagnosis of modern civilization with both prognosis and prescription. The modern civilization which he. Gandhi Hind kaz-news.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Gandhi.


Hind Swaraj Pdf

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PDF | Gandhi's social and political thought is multidimensional. If its kernel is derived from India's civilizational resources, its actual evolution. LX DS G '^"^ JUN 1 1 APR 1 3 ^ u HIND SWARAJ ^ • OR INDIAN HOME RULE BY M. K. GANDHI. With the latest foreword of the. The Philosophy of Hind Swaraj. During his visit to London in , Gandhi began to think deeply about India's home rule. There he talked to. Indians of all.

When the South African writer W. Scully visited Johannesburg in , he was struck by the warren of slums housing Europeans of various nationalitiesIndians, Chinese, Ar- abs, Japanese, Kaffirs and miscellaneous Coloured people of various hues.

Gandhi was experiencing in Johannesburg what he never would have expe- rienced in India: the maelstrom of industrial production, overcrowding of labor, men and women who were physically separated from their families, and general perceptions of the decline of morality. Gandhis offhand remarks about immorality and hospitals as a site of dis- ease were intimately linked to the particular relation of migration, sexuality, and prostitution in Johannesburg during the late nineteenth century.

In the census, there was one whore for every 50 white inhabitants of the city or [. There was also the threatening presence of pimps, white slavers, and professional gangsters who controlled Johannesburgs prostitution business. The Cape Parliament passed the Contagious Diseases Act in , followed by a proclamation of scheduled areas that sequestered sex work, and required the registration and compulsory medical examination of prostitutes.

With the extension of the railways in , the move of prostitutes northwards from the coast to Johannesburg was acceler- ated. Gandhis seemingly eccentric observations about the railwaysthat they were propagating evil and germsmust be understood historically 43 This content downloaded from Even though syphilis was a disease associated with the white man and with towns, Africans as much as Indians were drawn into the discourse as vectors of the disease, and questions of sanitation, health, and racial dis- positions to dirt and disease circulated through legislations circumscribing residence, trade, and movement.

Environmental factors like overcrowding, the absence of sanitation, poverty, and dirty habits were all seen as important in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, despite Koch and Pasteurs discovery in the s that bacteria caused specific diseases. During the s, segregation was introduced in hotels, bars, and trains in the Cape and the process of removing Africans from the towns, as well as more general residential separation began. The petition referred to the dangers to which the whole community is exposed by the spread of leprosy, syphilis, and like loathsome diseases He also cited articles that had appeared in the government paper in Trans- vaal describing the Asiatics as uncleanly citizens, with whom syphilis and leprosy are common diseases.

Gandhis strategy was to disaggregate the threat through separation: the Indian merchant from the Indian laborer; the Indian from the African; the rich and middle classes from the poor and indigent; the clean from the dirty; and the civilized from the barbarian. Law Three of sought to put limits on Asian immigration, impose a registration fee for immigrants, and threatened to restrict trade to segregated bazaars.

These laws led Gandhi to protest against one of the requirementsthat Indians were to provide three photographs to secure passeson the grounds that this implied that all Indians were criminally inclined and that the use of photographs was both invasive and abusive. In addition, Lord Milner announced the formation of an Asiatic depart- ment with a plan to impose a program of identity registration for all Indians. In July , Gandhis petition sought to reassure whites that no harm would come from propertied Indians keeping the vote subject to the 50 pounds 44 This content downloaded from The first set qualifications for entry of immigrants: proficiency on a written English test and assets of at least 25 pounds.

The second gave the Natal government powers to deny trading licenses on grounds of poor hygiene. In , there was a test case at the Transvaal High Court to determine whether the law requiring Indians to live in restricted locations also meant that their businesses could only be in those locations. The Indians lost. In when Durban was threatened with the plague, Gandhi organized vol- unteers to get the Indian community to comply with health regulations.

The impulse towards this compliance arose as much from a sense of imperial citizenship and duty to follow government regulations as it did from the desire to remove the stain of disease and lack of hygiene which was at- tributed to the Indian laboring population and the lower mercantile class.

In , representatives of the Indian population agreed to the issuing of registration certificates that would incorporate a thumbprint as a marker of identification. Moreover, legislation and public opinion also sought to collapse what were, to Gandhis mind, essential distinctions between free and indentured peoples effacing distinctions of class, civilization, and culture among Indians living in South Africa. As for unhygienic habits, Gandhi argued in a letter to the members of the Legislative Council and Assembly, In this respect they [indentured laborers] are not everything that could be desired [.

Parallel to this was his attempt to demonstrate that India was on par with the civilization of the English, stressing their common Aryan inheritance against that of the savage African. He resented the attempts to degrade the Indian to the position of the Kaffir [. Gandhis efforts were dedicated to induce you [the south African public] to believe that India is not Africa, and that it is a civilized country in the truest sense of the term civilization.

Hunter, he pointed out that the Indians and the British were descended from common Indo-Aryan stock and were not inferior to their Anglo-Saxon brethren.

He cited pell-mell a litany of scholars, philosophers, and Anglo-Indian officials like Hunter, Max Muel- ler, Schopenhauer, Bishop Heber and Thomas Munro to portray the distinct achievements of Indian civilization in fields as diverse as jurisprudence, algebra, philosophy, linguistics, and village organization.

Gandhi shared considerable terrain with liberals in India in his modesty of goals and mod- eration in aims and an active loyalism that underwrote the other two. Therefore, as Seth continues, an essential device in this art of persuasion was extensively to quote English and Anglo-Indian officials in support of any argument.

This second argument moved beyond the brothers under the skin idea to focus instead on a more legal contract of equality and obligation that bound the Empire together. Gandhi argued that India benefits hundreds of thousands of Europeans; India makes the British Empire; India gives an unrivalled prestige to England; India has often fought for England.

Is it fair that European subjects of that Empire in this Colony, who themselves derive a considerable benefit from Indian labour, should object to the free Indians earning an honest livelihood in it? To quote Seth again, loyalism was neither tactical, nor was it a purely contingent limit. It was also the very ground from which criticism became possible.

It was first created in a climate of differentiating Indians from Africans and claiming affinity with the Europeanwe are as good as you are, the argument went. In , in the context of the failure of Gandhis mission to England to stall the moves towards a racialized state based on individual registration, the argument about civilization became more aggressivewe are better than you, this version went.

As Breckenridge puts it sharply, Gandhis manifesto was famously the product of defeat, and the exaltation of Indian civilization arose from this conjuncture; whether or not it was a compensatory move remains an open question. While other civilizations have vanished, declined, or succumbed to westernization like Japan, India is still, somehow or other, sound at the foundation [. In the Gujarati text of HS, there is a shift in the citational strategy from the nineteenth-century reliance on British sources to show Indias achieve- ments.

Here the claim is more brazen and places British sources in a sub- ordinate role as witness rather than as mere evidence: As so many [British] writers have shown, [India] has nothing to learn from anybody else, and this is as it should be HS, Gandhi makes a series of statements that argue for an essential continuity of Indian forms and way of life even under British colonial rule: We have retained the same kind of cottages; our indigenous education remains the same; each followed his own occupation or trade.

Moreover, the absence of industry was the result of a conscious decision that Indians had taken that we should only do what we could with our hands and feet so that even though they knew how to invent machinery we did not do so knowing that if we succumbed [.

Urbanization was resisted because large cities were a snare and could lead to thieves and robbers, prostitution and vice. India had all the necessary civil institutions: this nation had courts, lawyers and 47 This content downloaded from Last but not the least, the com- mon people lived independently and followed their agricultural occupation. They enjoyed true Home Rule HS, And if this was not enough, he continues: Now you see what I consider to be real civilization.

Those who want to change conditions such as I have described are enemies of the country and are sinners HS, It is difficult to understand how HS has been considered a manifesto against Western mo- dernity.

It is, rather, a celebration of Indian civilization, born in the crucible of defeat, and therefore intent on glorifying India in much the same manner that the Hindu right wing would in later years.

Anthony Parel argues in his Introduction to the definitive edition of HS that a whole group of Indian radicals and revolutionaries, including the Hindu ideologue V.

Savarkar, are the invisible interlocutors of HS. In Parels view, HS is Gandhis mani- festo of passive resistance as both antidote and model. In addition. Even though syphilis was a disease associated with the white man and with towns. Africans as much as Indians were drawn into the discourse as vectors of the disease. During the s. These laws led Gandhi to protest against one of the requirements—that Indians were to provide three photographs to secure passes—on the grounds that this implied that all Indians were criminally inclined and that the use of photographs was both invasive and abusive.

Gandhi expressed concern over the petitions that had been submitted by local whites who were seeking exclusion of all Asiatics due to their supposed peculiar vices. In July Environmental factors like overcrowding.

An Eminent Victorian within the growing climate of panic and regulation arising from a juxtaposi- tion of urbanization. The second gave the Natal government powers to deny trading licenses on grounds of poor hygiene.

As for unhygienic habits.

Gandhi argued in a letter to the members of the Legislative Council and Assembly. Two more bills were passed in In The Indians lost.

History of the Present property franchise. The impulse towards this compliance arose as much from a sense of imperial citizenship and duty to follow government regulations as it did from the desire to remove the stain of disease and lack of hygiene which was at- tributed to the Indian laboring population and the lower mercantile class.

Gandhi was keen to separate Indians from Africans as racialized objects of state attention. The first set qualifications for entry of immigrants: In when Durban was threatened with the plague. Parallel to this was his attempt to demonstrate that India was on par with the civilization of the English.

Gandhi organized vol- unteers to get the Indian community to comply with health regulations. He cited pell-mell a litany of scholars. India makes the British Empire. An Eminent Victorian customs. India has often fought for England.

Bishop Heber and Thomas Munro to portray the distinct achievements of Indian civilization in fields as diverse as jurisprudence. Is it fair that European subjects of that Empire in this Colony. Max Muel- ler.

Hind Swaraj Or Indian Rule

India gives an unrivalled prestige to England. As Breckenridge puts it sharply. In the Gujarati text of HS. History of the Present this understanding was the belief—and the hope—that India was the jewel in the crown. To quote Seth again. Gandhi makes a series of statements that argue for an essential continuity of Indian forms and way of life even under British colonial rule: While other civilizations have vanished.

Here the claim is more brazen and places British sources in a sub- ordinate role as witness rather than as mere evidence: It was first created in a climate of differentiating Indians from Africans and claiming affinity with the European—we are as good as you are. Phule wrote his polemical pamphlet Gulamgiri [Slavery] against the inequities of caste and Hindu brah- minical civilization.

An Eminent Victorian doctors. It is. Anthony Parel argues in his Introduction to the definitive edition of HS that a whole group of Indian radicals and revolutionaries. We must understand HS as coming at the end of a defining moment: With this strategy. Masses and Decline Making distinctions also meant creating an idea of distinction.

And if this was not enough. This is an India without inequality. There is a pro- found ambivalence in his attitude towards the masses. It is difficult to understand how HS has been considered a manifesto against Western mo- dernity. In this he shared 48 This content downloaded from While Gandhi attempted to combat the stereotypes of the sexualized. Dutt and Dadabhai Naoroji made the constant focus of their critique of British rule.

Gandhi resisted a cosmopolitanism of color and a politics of racial affinity for strategic reasons. The fear that Indians would reproduce in their politics the degenerative effects of their life as laborers in South Africa was a serious one for Gandhi.

Gandhi is severely critical in HS of the engagement of the masses of Indians in excessive and premature sexual activity. Even as HS begins with a description of the fervent atmosphere in India with the agitation for Home Rule in the early twentieth century and weighs the opposed paths of moderation and violence.

In the very opening pages of HS Gandhi sought to delegitimize the revolutionary politics of the Indian national movement. Such an indulgence except for perpetuating the race. The satyagrahi. In Austria. And here. A man who is unchaste loses stamina. And he continued: These statements accord with what was the current medical paradigm at the time of degenera- tion. As Gandhi instructed his impatient reader.

Patience with the present and its possibilities. Gandhi insists that it was the Congress Party that brought together the Indians and helped them become. An Eminent Victorian classes in their despair have grasped Nihilism as their weapon against the present insupportable state of things. So what. On every street corner in the large cities.

Did they recognize the fact that reason refuses to sanction the degradation of men with will and judgment into mere property. It is not sufficient. HS is firmly located within late nineteenth- century discussions on democracy. Their ideal was not the abolition of an unreasonable form of social life.

Index:Hind swaraj- MK Gandhi - in Hindi.pdf

This is the era of anarchy. They attacked the goad. Gandhi says. It expresses the growing Victorian liberal disenchantment with democracy and the intervention of the masses who came to be seen as degenerate and undisciplined.

They accepted the institution of slavery without question. The tragedy of modern times. By no means. Nordau put it sharply: Their anger was not directed against the regula- tion of the world. There is an uncanny echo here of Nordau and his discussion of the slave revolt led by Spartacus. But the followers of Spartacus were neither radicals nor pessimists. He writes: Neither the people nor the state is steadfast: Parliament lacks the strength of its convic- tions because it is by its very constitution a capricious body with no sense of finality.

So is Parliament. To move from sleep to a state of being awake. Gandhi draws a fine distinction between discontent and unrest. Gandhi is unequivocal on this.

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Subject to the will of party leaders. The institution is hobbled at its foundation because it is peopled by the ambi- tious and vain. Here we see an interstitial phase—a moment where a state lacking conviction in itself comes into confrontation with a people who. Nordau and Lombroso dedicate their books to each other. Hind Swaraj resisted many of the impulses of Indian liberalism.

History of the Present citizens. Parlia- ment is little more than the rule of party leaders. Hind Swaraj is born of and located within the nineteenth-century crisis of liberal democracy and its resolutions that involve an intimate ani- mosity towards the masses. Indian liberals. In the end.

While Gandhi draws upon the burgeoning corpus of liberal thought in India. Gandhi shares considerable terrain with Indian liberals writing in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. His delineation of the satyagrahi—disciplined and disciplining—re- sponds to this need. The problem of violence. Located in the crucible of the experience of South Africa and the transition to a new impe- rialism undergirded by race.

Ajay Skaria. Hind Swaraj is less a manifesto. An Eminent Victorian affirmed through swadeshi. There is a struggle between an inheritance of the anxieties and the detritus of late-Victorian thought and a resurgent politics of the indigenous.

Satadru Sen. Isabel Hofmeyr. Gandhi was concerned with the recuperation of the internal moral economy of the individual.

Hind Swaraj represents an articulation of the limits of Victorian liberal- ism and its anxieties. Hind Swaraj is a text written by an eminent Victorian who. Prasenjit Duara and the two anonymous referees for close readings and critical comments.

I would like to thank Tom Trautmann. Notes 1. February Kathryn Tidrick. Partha Chatterjee. Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism from Nordau to Jabotinsky Jonathan Hyslop. Howard Spodek.. William Morris and Gandhism. But I would warn the reader against thinking that I am today aiming at the Swaraj described therein. I know that India is not ripe for it.

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It may seem an impertinence to say so. But such is my conviction.

I am individually working for the self-rule pictured therein. But today my corporate activity isundoubtedly devoted to the attainment of Parliamentary Swaraj, in accordance with the wishes of the people of India. It is being presented to the reader unabridged.

But whether India may be ripe for it or not, it is best for Indians to study the seminal book which contains the ultimate logical conclusion of the acceptance of the twin principles of Truth and Non-violence, and then decide whether these principles should be accepted or rejected.

Gandhi Hind Swaraj.pdf

On being told that the book had been out of print for some time and that a few copies of its Madras edition were available at eight annas a copy, Gandhiji said that it should be published immediately at a nominal price, so that it may be within easy reach of those who may wish to read it. The Navajivan Publishing House is therefore publishing it at practically the cost price. All rights reserved.

Developed and maintain by Bombay Sarvodaya Mandal Sitemap. Home Feedback Contact Us www.Gandhi advocated the sectors like the cosmetic industry. What indeed were the symptoms of civilization as disease? See Copley, Gay Writers, chapter 3 in particular, 87— Each action had to be judged by the costs Chapter VI,. With deference to the memory of the great teacher, I may say that his prediction has failed to come true.

He cited pell-mell a litany of scholars, philosophers, and Anglo-Indian officials like Hunter, Max Muel- ler, Schopenhauer, Bishop Heber and Thomas Munro to portray the distinct achievements of Indian civilization in fields as diverse as jurisprudence, algebra, philosophy, linguistics, and village organization.

The modern Gandhi was critical of doctors who economy favouring the elite compromised the encouraged indulgence through their preventive and minimum basic needs of the poor. How were the patients in the immense hospital ward of civilization, as Nordau puts it, to recover? Therefore, as Seth continues, an essential device in this art of persuasion was extensively to quote English and Anglo-Indian officials in support of any argument.