A healthy pregnancy The Pregnancy Book, including the mothers and fathers, medical and health professionals, and .. Making the most of antenatal care. This is general health information and shouldn't replace the advice or care you get from your You can start taking care of your baby while you're pregnant. Much has changed in antenatal, perinatal and postpartum care in recent care and modern principles and practices of sound care in pregnancy, labour.

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Web annex 1: Priority questions and outcomes for the antenatal care (ANC) . quality care throughout the pregnancy, childbirth and the postnatal period. Eat more food during pregnancy. Eat more whole grains like bajra, jowar, whole wheat flour, sprouted grams and fermented foods like idli, dhokla, curd etc. Working Group of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Care in Pregnancy and quality care to women during pregnancy and after childbirth, besides dealing.

Counselling for Maternal and Newborn Health Care: A Handbook for Building Skills.

When are the best times during pregnancy to communicate and counsel women on the different topics? Consider which points are best for communication and which need more interaction or a counselling process. Consider where you can be the facilitator or where other resources or people can be used. Which information should be shared with her partner and other family members; consider the importance of different family members and their roles during pregnancy: the pregnant woman, her partner, her mother, her mother-in-law, other women, and elders.

Consider if there are women in the community with special needs who may require additional information or support for care during pregnancy i.

Pregnancy Resources

See Sessions 14 and 16 Our View Considering the local context, develop a list of key points on self-care during pregnancy and use it during your interactions with women to review key information. If no other material exists, give your list out to women and their families. You could also use it as a guide when discussing with groups in the community, women, or with family members.

It is as important to talk to families and partners as it is to talk to women about self-care during pregnancy because they play an essential role in support and care of the pregnant woman and are often the key decision-makers. They need to be aware of their role. It is also important to consider the beliefs and practices that exist in your community which might have an effect on self-care, or make it difficult for women or their families to better care for the woman in the home.

Planning for Pregnancy

Some women may need more counselling than others to help them follow the recommendations on self-care. Consider each woman and her needs individually, and how you can best support her. Communicating to groups Care in the home of women during pregnancy is perhaps the most suitable topic for group discussions.

This is because the topic does not have to be personalized as it is not about specific situations or individuals. As well as discussing general care issues with community groups, encourage them, particularly groups of women, to discuss these issues among themselves. By sharing their experiences women can support each other in identifying feasible solutions to problems they face.

It is also a source of comfort to hear that other women have been through similar experiences. Encourage women to share their experiences with one another Sometimes group discussions surrounding antenatal care are carried out in a very authoritarian manner with little or no participation from the group. A health worker stands in front of the group and tells them the things they should do, without considering the local context or finding out what women already know and do, or without letting the group discuss and ask questions.

With groups, your role is to be a facilitator using the core principles outlined in the counselling process refer to Session 2.

Infections and Pregnancy

To be a facilitator means to promote participation so that all the skills and knowledge of the group members are used. In other words, everyone should have the opportunity to participate and contribute to the discussion. The facilitator needs to show warmth and empathy to encourage group members to interact. You can also work with groups in other ways, for example, by breaking up into pairs or small groups to discuss issues before presenting back to the wider group.

Remember to have them consider the information you are presenting with the local practices, customs and traditions in mind. Together you should discuss how they differ, share points of view and work towards finding a solution that ensures the health of pregnant women.

Another approach might be having educational material or an image such as posters or flipcharts to serve as prompts and help initiate a discussion.

Although working in groups can be helpful, especially if time or resources are scarce, you must still be aware of individual needs.

It is possible to create a supportive environment for problem-solving within a group, but some women's problems will need your individual attention.

For example, you can help to relax the group by getting everyone to say something easy to begin with to get used to the idea of talking, like getting them to introduce themselves and say when their baby is due. Activity 2 90 minutes To help you prioritize aspects of self-care for counselling and communication with women and their families. This activity builds on Session 5 Activity 4 where you were observed facilitating a group.

This activity provides you with another opportunity to practise your group facilitation skills, but in addition, helps you to practise communicating to partners and families about their role in ensuring the pregnant woman has the care she needs in the home. Review the activity and notes in Session 5 and your own notes, as well as the material in this session before completing this activity. Plan in advance a group work session with partners and family members of pregnant women to discuss the needs of the woman during pregnancy.

Ask colleagues to watch and act as observers. Conduct the session.

Following the session, ask for feedback from the group participants using the following questions or it may preferable for one of your colleagues to get the feedback from the group, so that participants feel free to answer. Were you able to say what you felt? Were you given an opportunity to ask questions?

Were you able to share your knowledge with the group? Early obstetric ultrasound , comparing the size of an embryo or fetus to that of a reference group of pregnancies of known gestational age such as calculated from last menstrual periods , and using the mean gestational age of other embryos or fetuses of the same size. If the gestational age as calculated from an early ultrasound is contradictory to the one calculated directly from the last menstrual period, it is still the one from the early ultrasound that is used for the rest of the pregnancy.

Main article: Estimated date of delivery Due date estimation basically follows two steps: Determination of which time point is to be used as origin for gestational age , as described in section above. Adding the estimated gestational age at childbirth to the above time point. Childbirth on average occurs at a gestational age of days 40 weeks , which is therefore often used as a standard estimation for individual pregnancies. Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy when assuming a gestational age of days at childbirth.

The rule estimates the expected date of delivery EDD by adding a year, subtracting three months, and adding seven days to the origin of gestational age. Alternatively there are mobile apps , which essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap year , while pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year.


A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound , and 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period. Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg.

The fusion of female and male gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation.

Fertilization conception is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age.

Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is about a week to ten days after fertilization. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote , then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete.

Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the female and male cells unite.

Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation.

During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord.

When your baby arrives, you can find advice on all the essentials of baby care, including breastfeeding , bottle feeding , changing nappies , and washing your baby.

Connect with others who can offer practical and emotional support about any pregnancy and baby issues on the HealthUnlocked NCT forum.

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Rest when you can. Why it's recommended that women have the flu vaccine in pregnancy and whooping cough vaccine in pregnancy. These visits also provide time for you to ask questions and share your concerns. Neither app delivers comprehensive prenatal information, as evidenced by the absence of information about postpartum contraception.

Gestational age of 40 weeks. Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point. However, you also need to find a balance; sometimes people want to bring in other issues which are relevant for their situation. Remember to have them consider the information you are presenting with the local practices, customs and traditions in mind. Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization.