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General knowledge Book updated for CSS,PMS,PPSC,UPSC, IAS, Military, Navy, Railway and other Competitive Exams In Pakistan and India. Download General knowledge PDF here English to Urdu Sentences16 · General PDF Books8 · GK Solved MCQs8 · Important Essays Outlines1 · Important Idioms. General Knowledge About Pakistan PDF Free Download Book - Free Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%. KHAZANA -E - MALUMAT (General Knowledge) - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Qurani, Islami Pakistan General Knowledge Questions Quizz.

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Islam Quiz Questions with Answers. Browse our archives for questions that have been answered already. One report blames military activity as much as global warming. The conflict in Siachen stems from the confusion in the improperly demarcated territory on the map beyond the map coordinate known as NJ The Karachi Agreement and the Simla Agreement did not clearly mention who controlled the glacier, merely stating that from the NJ location the boundary would proceed "thence north to the glaciers.

Numerous governmental and private cartographers and atlas producers followed suit. This resulted in cartographically "awarding" the entire square kilometers square miles Siachen area to Pakistan. Indian government and military took note. Prior to neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area.

Fighting In the s and early s several mountaineering expeditions applied to Pakistan to climb high peaks in the Siachen area, and Pakistan granted them. This reinforced the Pakistani claim on the area, as these expeditions arrived on the glacier with a permit obtained from the Government of Pakistan.

Once having become aware of this in about , Colonel N. Kumar of the Indian Army mounted an Army expedition to Teram Kangri peaks in the Siachen area on the China border and just east of a line drawn due north from NJ as a counter-exercise. The first public mention of a possible conflict situation was an article by Joydeep Sircar in The Telegraph newspaper of Calcutta in , reprinted as "Oropolitics" in the Alpine Journal, London, in India launched Operation Meghdoot named after the divine cloud messenger in a Sanskrit play on 13 April when the Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force went into the glacier region.

Pakistan quickly responded with troop deployments and what followed was literally a race to the top. Within a few days, the Indians were in control over most of the area, as Pakistan was beaten to most of the Saltoro Ridge high ground by about a week. TIME states that the Indian advance captured nearly 1, sq.

Since then Pakistan has launched several attempts to displace the Indian forces, but with little success. The most well known was in , when an attempt was made by Pakistan to dislodge India from the area.

A special garrison with eight thousand troops was built at Khapalu. The immediate aim was to capture Bilafond La but after bitter fighting that included hand to hand combat, the Pakistanis were thrown back and the positions remained the same.

Further attempts to reclaim positions were launched by Pakistan in , , and even in early , just prior to the Lahore Summit. The attack by Pakistan SSG was significant as it resulted in 40 casualties for Pakistan troops without any changes in the positions.

Current situation The Indian Army controls all of the Siachen Glacier and the three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier, Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La, thus holding onto the tactical advantage of high ground.

The Pakistanis control the glacial valley just five kilometers southwest of Gyong La. The Pakistanis have been unable get up to the crest of the Saltoro Ridge, while the Indians cannot come down and abandon their strategic high posts. A ceasefire went into effect in Even before then, every year more soldiers were killed because of severe weather than enemy firing.

The two sides have lost an estimated 2, personnel primarily due to frostbite, avalanches and other complications. Both nations have manned outposts along the glacier, with some 3, troops each. India has built the world's highest helipad on this glacier at a place called Sonam, which is at 21, feet 6, m above the sea level, to serve the area. India also installed the world's highest telephone booth on the glacier.

Both sides have been wishing to disengage from the costly military outposts but after the Kargil War in where Pakistan sent infiltrators to occupy vacated Indian posts across the Line of Control, India has backed off from withdrawing in Siachen. India feels that Pakistan would resort to the same thing if Siachen Glacier is vacated without any official confirmation of its positions in the glacier.

During her tenure as Prime Minister of Pakistan, Ms Benazir Bhutto, visited the area west of Gyong La, making her the first premier from either side to get to the Siachen region.

On June 12, , Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit the area, calling for a peaceful resolution of the problem. In the previous year, the President of India, Abdul Kalam became the first head of state to visit the area.

India based Jet Airways plans to open a chartered service to the glacier's nearest airlink, the Thoise airbase, mainly for military purposes. Pakistan's PIA flies tourists and trekkers daily to Skardu, which is the jumping off point for K2, the world's second highest point just 33 kilometers Vigne Glacier. In its upper reaches it is also known as theChandrabhaga.

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It flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves Doabs in Persian. The total length of the Chenab is approximately kilometres.

The Chenab has the same place in the consciousness of the people of the Punjab, as, say the Rhine holds for the Germans, or the Danube for the Austrians and the Hungarians. It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale of Heer Ranjha, the Punjabi national epic.

Mirani Dam is being built on Dasht river to provide drinking water to Gwadar city. It's source are the hills six miles south of the Sufed Koh, the source of the Kurram River, which it runs parallel too and finally joins. The Gambila is an important river for the inhabitants of the Dawar valley, as it serves to irragate a large area of land that it runs through. It is often identified with the Vedic Sarasvati River, but it is disputed if at all Rigvedic references to the Sarasvati River refer to this river.

It is a dried out river which flow during rainy season only and used to flush out flood waters of Punjab.

Estimated period at which the river dried up range, very roughly, from to BC, with a further margin of error at either end of the date-range. This may be precise in geological terms, but for the Indus Valley Civilization to BC it makes all the difference whether the river dried up in its early phase or its late phase. The identification with the Sarasvati River is based the descriptions in Vedic texts e.

This however, is disputed. The Victorian era scholar C. Oldham was the first to suggest that geological events had redirected the river, and to connect it to the lost Saraswati: It originates in the Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh and flows through Punjab and Haryana to Rajasthan; just southwest of Sirsa inHaryana and by the side of Tibi in Rajasthan, this seasonal river feeds two irrigation canals that extend into Rajasthan.

Near Sadulgarh Hanumangarh the Naiwala channel, a dried out channel of the Sutlej, joins the Ghaggar. Near Suratgarh the Ghaggar is then joined by the dried up Drishadvati river. The wide river bed of the Ghaggar river suggest that the river once flowed full of water, and that it formerly continued through the entire region, in the presently dry channel of the Hakra River, possibly emptying into the Rann of Kutch.

It supposedly dried up due to the capture of its tributaries by the Indus and Yamuna rivers, and the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing.

This is supposed to have happened at the latest in BCE, but perhaps much earlier. Puri and Verma have argued that the present-day Tons River was the ancient upperpart of the Sarasvati River, which would then had been fed with Himalayan glaciers. The terrain of this river contains pebbles of quartzite and metamorphic rocks, while the lower terraces in these valleys do not contain such rocks.

In India there are also various small or middle-sized rivers called Sarasvati or Saraswati. One of them flows from the west end of the Aravalli Range into the east end of the Rann of Kutch.

Many settlements of the Indus Valley Civilisation have been found along the Ghaggar and Hakra rivers. Indus Valley Civilization. Archaeologists have suggested that the drying up of this river may have been one of the causes for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. Along the course of the Ghaggar-Hakra river are many archaeological sites of the Indus Valley Civilization; but not further south than the middle of Bahawalpur district. It could be that the permanent Sarasvati ended there, and its water only reached the sea in very wet rainy seasons.

It may also have been affected by much of its water being taken for irrigation. Over sites of the Indus civilization have been discovered on the Hakra-Ghaggar river and its tributaries. In contrast to this, only 90 to 96 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries about 36 sites on the Indus river itself. Early Harappan sites are mostly situated on the middle Ghaggar-Hakra river bed, and some in the Indus Valley. Most of the Mature Harappan sites are located in the middle GhaggarHakra river valley, and some on the Indus and in the Kutch-Saurashtra.

However in the late Harappan period the number of late Harappan sites in the middle Hakra channel and in the Indus valley diminishes, while it expands in the upper Ghaggar-Sutlej channels and in Saurashtra. The abandonement of many sites on the Hakra-Ghaggar between the Harappan and the Late Harappan phase was probably due to the drying up of the Hakra-Ghaggar river.

Because most of the Indus Valley sites are actually located on the Hakra-Ghaggar river and its tributaries and not on the Indus river, some archaeologists have proposed to use the term "Indus Sarasvati Civilization" to refer to the Harappan culture. In a survey conducted by M. Mughal between and , over sites were mapped along miles of the Hakra river.

The majority of these sites were dated to the fourth or third millennium BCE. Painted Grey Ware sites ca. The Ghaggar-Hakra and its ancient tributaries Satellite photography has shown that the Ghaggar-Hakra was indeed a large river that dried up probably between ca. The dried out Hakra river bed is between three and ten kilometers wide. Recent research indicates that the Sutlej and possibly also the Yamuna once flowed into the Saraswati river bed. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers have changed their courses over the time.

Paleobotanical information also documents the aridity that developed after the drying up of the river. Gadgil and Thapar and references therein. The disappearance of the river may have been caused by earthquakes which may have led to the redirection of its tributaries. It has also been suggested that the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing in what is now Pakistan may have also contributed to the drying up of the river.

General Knowledge About Pakistan PDF Book The Ghaggar-Hakra and the Sutlej There are no Harappan sites on the Sutlej in its present lower course, only in its upper course near the Siwaliks, and along the dried up channel of the ancient Sutlej, which indicates the Sutlej did flow into the Sarasvati at that period of time.

It has been shown by satellite imagery that at Ropar the Sutlej river suddenly flows away from the Ghaggar in a sharp turn. The beforehand narrow Ghaggar river bed itself is becoming suddenly wider at the conjunction where the Sutlej should have met the Ghaggar river.

And there is a major paleochannel between the point where the Sutlej takes a sharp turn and where the Ghaggar river bed widens. The Sutlej and the Beas and Ravi have frequently changed their courses. The Sutlej has also probably sometimes flown into the Beas, and the combined stream sometimes in the Ghaggar River.

The confluence of the Ghaggar and the Sutlej was downstream from the Kurukshetra region, where most Harappan sites are located. There are however Painted Gray Ware - BC sites on the Yamuna channel, showing that the river must have flown in the present channel during this period. The distribution of the Painted Gray Ware sites in the Ghaggar river valley indicates that during this period the Ghaggar river was already partly dried up.

Scholars like Raikes and Suraj Bhan , , , have shown that based on archaeological, geomorphic and sedimentological research the Yamuna may have flown into the Saraswati during Harappan times. There are several often dried out river beds paleochannels between the Sutlej and the Yamuna, some of them two to ten kilometres wide. They are not always visible on the ground because of excessive silting and encroachment by sand of the dried out river channels.

The Yamuna may have flown into the Sarasvati river through the Chautang or the Drishadvati channel, since many Harappan sites have been discovered on these dried out river beds.

It is located in the Northern Areas of Kashmir, Pakistan. The headwater springs of the Gomal's main leg come together close to the fort of Babakarkol in Katawaz, a district inhabited primarily by Kharoti and Suleiman Khel Pashtuns. The Gomal's chief tributary is the Zhob River. It forms the provincial boundary between Sindh and Balochistan, west of Karachi.

Hub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in on the Hub River in the arid plains north of Karachi. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in the Lasbella district of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi.

It is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water. The Mahseer Tor putitora , an indigenous riverine fish found in the Hub River, grows up to 2m in length and provides for excellent angling. It is in pakistan. The Hungol valley has fantastic scenery of towering cliffs, pinnacles and buttresses, the river winding between.

Some miles in length, the Hungol is Balochistan's longest river. Unlike most other streams in Balochistan which only flow during rare rains, the Hungol always has flowing water in it. The water is crystalclear, reflecting the incredible blue of the sky. It makes for picturepostcard scenery. Hungol river and valley are located in Hungol National Park.

It is formed by the confluence of the Kilik and Khunjerab nalas gorges which are fed by glaciers. The river cuts through the Karakoram range, flowing from north to south.

Indus River Indus is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent. Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through in Jammu and Kashmir and Northern Areas, flowing through the North in a southernly direction along the entire length of country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city Karachi.

The total length of the river is km miles.

The river has a total drainage area exceeding , square miles. The river's estimated annual flow stands at around cubic kilometres. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. It has 20 major tributaries.

The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. It also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan. The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh-Baltistan intoGilgit, just south of.

The Shyok, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacieral waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi.

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The Indus passes gigantic gorges 15,, feet near the Nanga Parbat massif It swiftly flows across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir.

The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of thePunjab and Sind, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta.

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September.

There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch. History Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15, years ago has been discovered at Mardan. To date, over 1, cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries.

Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90 to 96 of the over known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus.

Some scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early IndoAryans flourished in Gandhara from to BCE, when Mohenjo Daro and Harappa had already been abandoned. However many modern researchers believe that the IVC was indeed an Aryan civilization. Sanskrit sindhu generically means "river, stream", probably from a root sidh "to go, move"; sindhu is attested times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning.

Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted. The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Indian hinterland and its frontier with Afghanistan and Iran. It has been crossed by the armies of Alexander the Great Greek forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Indian campaign. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the Persian empire and the Kushan empire.

It is a tributary of the Indus River. History A photograph from shows a passenger traversing the river precariously seated in a small suspended cradle. The Vitast is mentioned as one of the major river by the holy scriptures of the Indo-Aryansthe Rigveda.

Additional Information

It has been speculated that the Vitasta must have been one of the seven rivers sapta-sindhu mentioned so many times in the Rigveda. The name survives the a Kashmiri name for this river as Vyath.

The river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as were most mountains and streams; the poet Nonnus in the Dionysiaca section 26, line makes the Hydaspes a titan-descended god, the son of the sea-god Thaumas and the cloudgoddess Elektra.

He was the brother of Iris the goddess of the rainbow, and half-brother to the harpies, the snatching winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the river. According to Arrian Anabasis, 29 , he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named Bukephala or Bucephala to honour his famous horse Bukephalis which was buried in Jalalpur Sharif.

It is thought that ancient Bukephala was near the site of modern Jhelum City. They say that the name Phalia was the distortion of the word Bucephala.

Course The river Jhelum rises from north-eastern Jammu and Kashmir and is fed by glaciers, and then passes through the Srinagar district. At the city of Srinagar, the serpentine Jhelum, along with the lake Dal which lies in its course, presents a very picturesque site. The Kishenganga Neelum River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it near Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar River of the Kaghan valley. It also connects with. It is then joined by the Poonch river, and flows into the Mangla Dam reservoir in the district of Mirpur.

The Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs. It ends in a confluence with the Chenab at Trimmu in District Jhang.

Dams and Barrages. Mangla Dam, completed in , is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world, with a storage capacity of 5. It is the main river in the eastern part of Afghanistan. It flows km before joining the Indus River near Attock. The Kabul river itself is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows.

Its largest tributary is the Kunar, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacier in Chitral, Pakistan and once it flows south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan. The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence, mainly for the political and historical significance of the name.

This river is attested in the Rig Veda, the earliest scripture of Hinduism, under the name Kubh many of the rivers of Afghanistan are mantioned in the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit word later changed to Kbul. It drains much of the water of Pothohar.

It starts near a small village Bun in the foothills of Patriata and Murree. It provides water to Simlbee Dam, which is reservoir of water for Islamabad. Near Pharwala Fort it cuts through a high mountain range and that is a wonderful phenomenon of nature. The place is called Swan Cut. No stream can cut such a high mountain. It proves the Swaan was there before the formation of this range. And when the.

General Knowledge About Pakistan PDF Book mountain rose through millions of years, the stream continued its path by cutting the rising mountain. Ling stream, following a relatively long course though Lehtrar and Kahuta falls in the Swaan near Sihala. Islamabad Highway crosses this stream near Sihala where famous bridge Cock Pull is constructed over it.

Another famous, Lai stream joins this stream near Swaan Camp. After walking a tortuous path and creating a big curve, the stream reaches Kalabagh where it falls into the Indus river. This relatively small stream is more than kilometers long. Due to its mountainous course and shallow bed, it is hardly used for irrigation purposes.

For grinding wheat, you can find ancient types of flour mills near Chakian. Fishing is not possible in this stream as a profession. Rohu is the main species of fish in this stream. The general direction of the rivers is from Southwest to northeast. The Zhob River rises at Tsari Mehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of about kilometers.

The broad plain of the Zhob River is occupied by the alluvial formation. The Kundar River rises from the central and highest point of the TobaKakar range, a few kilometers northeast of the Sakir. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan territory for a considerable length.

A main source of the river is Lulusar lake, nearly 48km from Naran Valley. The Kunhar river trout is considered to be the best throughout the sub-continent Kurram River The Kurrum River flows in the Kurrum Valley, stretching across the Afghan-Pakistani border west to east crosses from the Paktia Province of Afghanistan into the Kohat border region of Pakistan at N E, about km west-to-south-west of the Khyber Pass. The district has an area of 3, km 1, sq miles ; pop.

It lies between the Miranzai Valley and the Afghan border, and is inhabited by the Turis, a tribe of Turki and Parthian origin who are supposed to have subjugated the Bangash Pathans about six hundred years ago.

It is highly irrigated, well peopled, and crowded with small fortified villages, orchards and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of the Safed Koh.

The beauty and climate of the valley attracted some of the Mogul emperors of Delhi, and the remains exist of a garden planted by Shah Jahan. The route crossed the Peiwar Pass 3, m 11, ft high, just over 20 km west of Parachinar, which was blocked by snow for several months of the year. Formerly the Kurram Valley was under the government of Kabul, and every five or six years a military expedition was sent to collect the revenue, the soldiers living meanwhile at free quarters on the people.

It was not until about that the Turis were brought directly under the control of Kabul, when a governor was appointed, who established himself in Kurram. The Turis, being Shiah Muslims, never liked the Afghan rule.

During the second Afghan War, when Sir Frederick Roberts advanced by way of the Kurram Valley and the Peiwar Kotal to Kabul, the Turis lent him every assistance in their power, and in consequence their independence was granted them in The administration of the Kurram Valley was finally undertaken by the British government, at the request of the Turis themselves, in Technically it ranked, not as a British district, but as an agency or administered area.

Two expeditions in the Kurram Valley also require mention: The Turis on the first annexation of the Kohat district by the British had given much trouble. They had repeatedly leagued with other tribes to harry the Miranzai valley, harbouring fugitives, encouraging resistance, and frequently attacking Bangash and Khattak villages in the Kohat district.

Accordingly, in a British force of 4, troops traversed their country, and the tribe entered into engagements for future good conduct. During the frontier risings of the inhabitants of the Kurram valley, chiefly the Massozai section of the Orakzais, were infected by the general excitement, and attacked the British camp at Sadda and other posts.

A force of 14, British troops traversed the country, and the tribesmen were severely punished. In Lord Curzon's reorganization of the frontier in , the British troops were withdrawn from the forts in the Kurram Valley, and were replaced by the Kurram militia, reorganized in two battalions, and chiefly drawn from the Turi tribe.

In recent years the Kurram Valley has once again assumed a very strategic position and has been an area of intense military activity between the Taliban and American and allied forces.

Lyari River passes through the city of Karachi from north east to the center and drains into the Arabian Sea. Lyari river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other isMalir River.

Malir River passes through the city of Karachi from northeast to the centre and drains into the Arabian Sea. Malir river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other isLyari River.

In a rainy season this river flow with lot of water. If the goverment becomes searious to this matter and construct a dam on this river, it will benefit the whole of Karachi a great deal. Its name is derived from the Persian for 'panj' meaning 'five' and 'kora' meaning 'river'. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea. A dam on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sind provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.

It is one of the five rivers which give Punjab its name. It originates in theHimalayas in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh following a north-westerly course. It turns to the south-west, near Dalhousie, and then cuts a gorge in the Dhaola Dhar range entering the Punjab plain near Madhopur.

It then flows along the Indo-Pak border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab river. The total length of the river is about km. It is also called 'The river of Lahore' since that great city is located on its eastern bank. On its western bank is located the famous tomb of Jahangir.

Rig Veda Part of the battle of the ten kings was fought on the Parushani river, which according to Yaska nirukta 9.

The river is tributary to Indus River and meets the Indus in Skardu valley. It is the easternmost afluent of the Punjab, and it receives the Beas River in the state of Punjab, India and continues into Pakistan to join the Chenab River to form the Panjnad River, which further down its course joins the Indus River at Mithankot.

At present, most of its water is diverted to irrigation canals and used up in India. The Bhakra-Nangal Dam is a huge multipurpose dam on the river. There is substantial evidence to indicate that prior to B.

It is believed that tectonic activity created elevation changes that redirected the Sutlej from southeast to southwest. Once flowing in its new westward direction, the river eventually joined the Beas river.

As a result, the mighty Sarasvati River began to dry up, causing the desertification of Cholistan and Sindh, as well as the abandonment of numerous ancient human settlements along its banks. Swat River irrigates vast area of Swat District and contributes to fishing industry of the region.

Saidu Group's of teaching hospitals also located at the banks of Swat River. Malamjaba ski resort is about 10 miles away from the river. Ayub Bridge is one of the attractions for visitors. The scenery attracts many tourists from all over Pakistan during the summer. It is said that Alexander the Great crossed the Swat River with part of his army and before turning south to subdue the locals at what are now Barikoot and Odegram.

Also, the banks of this river, which was earliest known asShrivastu, later Suvastu and currently the present name, is the place of origin of the Shrivastava sub-clan of the Indo-Aryan Kayastha clan Some 30 years ago, the water was fit for drinking even in Mingora km downstream from Kalam , but now it is not safe even in Kalam.

It is also sometimes referred to as the Gambila River. Zhob city is located on banks of Zhob river. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan. Haro River Haro is the name of a river and its valley in the Abbottabad District, northern Pakistan, identified with the Rigvedic Arjikiya.

Minor tributaries include rivulets of Jab, Hally' Desera and Najafpur. This human activity, called Soan Culture, discovered in the form of pebble tools scattered long the river. Stone tools and burnt bones dated 7, years were found near caves. Cave dwellers of middle Stone Age used quartz flakes tools. The oldest evidence of human life in South Asia was found in the Soan River valley. Along the river, in theRawalpindi Division hundreds of man made tools can be found.

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These tools have been dated to , to , years ago. On Adiyala and Khasala about 16 km 10 miles from Rawalpindi terrace on the bend of the river hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered.

At Chauntrahand axes and cleavers were found. Due to the peculiarity of the tools to the valley archaeologists named this human activity the Soan Culture. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found. In the Soan River Gorge many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface.

The 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Some of these fossils are in display at the Natural History Museum of Islamabad. Road conditions are spectacular at best, treacherous at worst. In August , a bridge below Hispar village was condemned, and the Hunza River washed the road away at the confluence, eliminating all vehicular access to the entire valley for some months.

It passes through the city from northwest to the center and merges with Lyari River before draining into the Arabian Sea. The delta covers an area of about 16, square miles 41, km , and is approximately miles across where it meets the sea. Unlike many other deltas, the Indus River Delta consists of clay and other infertile soils, and is very swampy.

The delta receives between 10 and 20 inches of rainfall in a normal year. Pakistan's fifth largest city, Hyderabad, lies about miles north of the mouths of the Indus. Towns are found throughout the delta, but there are no large cities on the delta south of Hyderabad. Karachi, Pakistan's largest city, lies west of the delta on the coast of the Arabian Sea.

Average temperatures for the delta region in July range from 70 - 85 F, and 50 - 70 F in January. Fish found in the delta include the Hilsa, Indus baril, Indus garua a catfish , the giant snakehead, golden mahaseer and the Rita catfish.

The Kunar river system is fed from melting glaciers and snow of the Hindu Kush mountains. The Lutkho River joins theMastuj River just north of the important regional centre of Chitral in Pakistan and is then called the Chitral River, before flowing south into the upper Kunar Valley in Afghanistan, where it is referred to as the Kunar River.

The combined rivers then flow eastwards into Pakistan, joining the Indus River at the city of Attock. Peche River Peche River is located in Afghanistan. Peche river system is fed from glaciers and snow. Shyok river a tributary of the Indus originates from the Rimo glacier, one of the tounges of Siachin glacier and and becomes very wide at the confluence with the Nubra river a tributary of Shyok, originating from Siachin Glacier.

The alignment of the Shyok river is very unusual, originating from the Rimo glacier it flows in a SE direction and at joining the Pangong range it takes a NW turn and flows parallel to its previous path. The Shyok flowing in a wide valley suddenly enters a narrow gorge after Chalunka and then joins the Indus at Skardu Pakistan.

The similarity in the courses of these two important rivers probably indicates a series of palaeo fault lines trending NW-SE in delimiting the upper courses of the rivers. The importance of the Indus and the Shyok rivers is in the deposition of a huge thickness of Quaternary sediments a treasure trove for geology researchers. This is the book recommened for all of you.

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